The original of this book is in
the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.


The design of this work is to give the two counties treated an impartial, faithful
chronicle of their past from the date of earliest settlement down to recent times. Its scope,
p f^-iginally planned and laid out, seemed more than ample, yet so very much that was
vr .dble for record and for preservation was gathered in the rich historic field wherein we
have delved tha notwithstanding arduous labor at condensation, it has far outgrown its
proposed dimensions. The author only regrets that his labors must now cease, as every
passing day is adding to the treasures developed by historical research. But here the super-
structure is reared upon which the future historians of these counties may build. We have
striven to gather the scattered threads of the past and to weave them into a complete fabric,
to which the "Art preservative of arts" shall give immortality.

Over one year of patient, painstaking, and conscientious labor has been devoted to the
above design by the author and his numerous staff of assistants, supplemented by the con-
tributions of many of the ablest citizens of these counties, equal to nearly ten years of
constant effort of one, person. The result is embodied in this vohime; but the obstacles and
vexations attendant upon its preparation will hardly be realized by those who peruse its
pages. Lord Macaulay has said that perfection in historical composition was not attainable
by fallible men. If there be no errors of fact or date in the legion of items herein con-
tained, we shall feel that the great English historian was at fault.

We have given many items of local history which may by some be thought trivial or
beneath the "dignity of history." But who is competent to judge of what may be valuable or
interesting to those who come after us ? Much valuable information has undoubtedly been lost
to the world by the fastidious views of many historical writers. Instead of polished sentences
or well-turned periods, truth in its simplicity has been our aim, to go, as far as practicable, back
to the original sources of information, and to verify by corroborative testimony whenever
possible, while correcting the errors of writers who have preceded us.

From colonial and other documents in the State archives, from county and township records,
family manuscripts, printed publications, and innumerable private sources, we have endeavored
to prepare a history which should be accurate, instructive, and an honor to the counties represented.
We will not here enumerate (as is customary with many authors) the volumes which have
been consulted in the preparation of this work, for several reasons : the list would fill several
pages, would be read by very few, and would be a needless repetition, as a large proportion of
them are given through the text in parenthetical references, foot-notes, etc.

We are under special obligation, however, to the Eeverends Geo. S. Mott, D.D., of Flem-
ington ; Edward Tanjore Corwin, D.D., of Millstone ; Abram Messier, D.D., Somerville ; P. A.



Studdiford, D.D., Lambertville ; John B. Thompson, Catskill, K Y. ; C. S. Conkling, Stockton ;
Aaron S. Lauing, PenniDgtou ; J. P. W. Blattenberger, Eeaville ; W. W. Blauvelt, D.D., Laming-
ton; John C. Rankin, D.D., Basking Eidge; N. McConaughy, Somerville, and numerous other
clergymen ; to Doctors John Blane, Henry Eace, Cornelius W. and George H. Larison, Geo.
E. Sullivan, Henry G. "Wagoner, etc. ; to John M. Hyde and Matt. H. Van Derveer, the present
county clerks, and the several township clerks, and public ofificials generally, of both counties ;
to the publishers of the Flemington Republican and Democrat; the Lambertville Beacon and
Record; the Clinton Democrat; the Somerville Gazette, Unionist, and Ilessengei; etc.; Hon.
Ashbel Welch and Martin Coryell, Esq., of Lambertville; Hon. John T. Bird, the late Hon.
Alexander Wurts, Charles Bartles, Esq., the late Col. J. C. Eafferty, J. B. Hopewell, E. Vos-
seller, Eunkle Eea, etc., of Flemington; Judge Foster, of Clinton; Judge Joseph Thompson,
of Eeadington ; Hon. F. S. Holcombe, of Delaware ; Wm. B. Prall, of East Amwell ; W*^.
Srope, of Frenchtown ; Lewis H. Taylor, Esq., of High Bridge ; A. V. D. Honeyman, Esq.,
Hon. Alvah A. Clark, Hugh Gaston, Esq., John C. Garretson, Esq., Ed. A. Veghte, J. S.
Haines, Henry P. Mason, and others, of Somerville ; the McDowell family, of Bedminster ; Hon.
Calvin Corle, of Branchburg; John F. Hageman, Esq., of Princeton; Jacob Weart, Esq., of
Jersey City ; Hon. D. F. Beatty, of Washington, Warren Co. ; Wm. Pierson, Jr., M.D., Orange,
JST. J. ; Judge James N. Eeading, Morris, 111. ; Ellis A. Apgar, A.M., State Superintendent of
Public Instruction ; Joseph H. Hough, Grand Secretary of the M. W. Grand Lodge of New-
Jersey, A. F. and A. M., and a multitude of others.

To the publishers also we would acknowledge indebtedness, not only for valuable assistance,
but especially for the elegant dress with which the historical body has been clothed and em-

The result of our labor, now ended, is submitted to the citizens of Hunterdon and Somerset
Counties, with the assurance that this volume of facts, traditions, reminiscences, and memoirs
will be by them prized and cherished as the faithful record of their past and honorable career,
and as such be handed down to future generations.


Philadelphia, Marcli 10, 1881.

E E R A T A.

The name of D. P. Kenyon is spelled Kinyon in some instances, in connection with the Savings Bank
etc., in Bridgewater township history, an error occasioned by following printed copy, furnished with MSS '
and supposed to be good authority. '

On page 779, 31st line, for "1737" read 1837.



Discovery and Occupation op New Netherlands.
Early Navigators Hendiick Hudson The " Half-Moon" Tlae United
New Netherland Company Colonization by the Dutch and Banes
Mey and De Vries Sir Edmund Ployden 9


Indian Occupation The Original People.

The Algonquin Nation The Delawares, or Lenni-Lenap6 The "Tur-
tle," " Turkey," and " Wolf' tribes Traditionfi as to the Origin of the
Delawares Mounds and Remains Indian Title to Lands in Hunter-
don and Somerset Indian Paths, etc 11


New Jersey under Dutch and English Rule.

Swedish Settlement Occupation by the Dutch Subjection to the Eng-
lish in 1664 Governore Carteret, Andros, etc. Grant to the Duke of
York, and transfer to Berkeley aod Carteret Edward Byllinge
Quaker Emigration and Settlement The two Jerseys consolidated
Governors, down to 1776 19


The Proprietary Government of East Jersey.

East Jersey under the Proprietors, 1680 to 1702 Eobert Barclay and
Thomas Eudyard Collision with the Province of New York Gov-
ernors Barclay, Dudley, Hamilton, etc. Opposition to Governor Basse
Opposition to the Proprietary Government The Crisis Surrender
to the Crown, in 1702 21


Hunterdon and Somerset Counties in the Revolution.

The Conflict Commences Governor Franklin's OppositionThe Com-
mittee of Correspondence and Inquiry Meetings in Hunterdon and
Somerset First Provincial Congress Township Meetings The Mili-
tia and "Minute-Men" The "Committee of Safety" Scarcity of
Arms and Ammunition The Hunterdon and Somerset Troops ordered
to March The Colony of New Jersey transformed into an Indepen-
dent Stat-e The Flying-Camp Retreat of the American Army The
Enemy's Advance through New Jersey Capture of Gen. Lee Crossing
the Delaware The Fights at Trenton and Aseanpink Battle of
Princeton WaBhington at Pluckamin Captain Leslie The Army
goes into Winter Quarters at Morristown 25


Hunterdon and Somerset Counties in the Revolution

The Marvelous Change produced by the Campaign of Trenton and
Princeton Gen. Howe's " Protections'* Atrocities of the British in
Somerset and Hunterdon Counties "Washington's Proclamation to the
People Skirmish at Weston, Somerset Co. Gen. Dickinson Defeats
the British., and Captures a Wagon Train Occupation of Middle-
brook by the American Forces in 1777 Letter of Gen. Heard from
Raritan "Washington Rock" Attempt to Entice Washington from
his Stronghold in the Hills The British Troops leave the State and
the American Army march through Somerset and Hunterdon to the
Delaware Washington's Letters from Coryell's Ferry Hunterdon
and Somerset Troops at Battle of Biandywine Valley Forge Col.
Frelinghuysen's Expedition to Staten Island A Female Tory Dispatch-

Carrier The Tories Penn and Chew under Surveillance in Hunterdon
County Extracts from Minutes of the Council of Safety, etc.
British evacuate Philadelphia and pass through New Jersey Wash-
ington's Army cross at Coryell's Battle of Monmouth, etc. Somerset
and Hunterdon Troops behave gallantly Cantonments at Middle-
brook Gen. Washington and Wife at Somerville Five Soldiers Hung
Gen. Knox's Headquarters at Pluckamin Grand Ball and Supper
Simcoe's Eaid in 1779 Burning of the Church, Court-house, etc.
Capt. Peter G. Yoorhees killed The Ladies of Hunterdon and Somer-
set Close of the War The Currency Patriotism under War Burdens
Processes against Forfeited Estates, etc 60


Hunterdon and Somerset Counties in the Revolution
( Continued).

Continental Troops, First Establishment Second Establishment The
Jersey Line Recruiting Officers and Muster- Masters Regiments
raised, and Their Officera Militia^The Quotas of the Two Counties
" Minute-Men" Roster of Field- and Staff-Officers Roster of Rev-
olutionary Soldiers from these Counties, who served in the State Mili-
tia and Continental Army 80

Slavery and Servitude in Hunterdon and Somerset.
The " Peculiar Institution" in the Seventeenth Century Servants in the
Colonial Days Indian Slaves Eedemptioners Laws concerning Slav-
ery The Quakers and the Institution Few Capital Crimes committed
by Negro Slaves Negroes hung for Murdering Whites in Hunterdon
and Somerset Counties Negro Rebellion in 1734 Abolition of Slavery
Manumission Rev. Dr. Finley and the " American Colonization
Society" 101


Internal Improvements.

I. i^oads. The Minisink Path The Old Burlington Path The " Upper
Road" and " Lower Road" The Old " York Road" The New Jersey
Turnpike Company New Germantown Turnpike Company, etc.
II. Stages and Stage-Lines. First Public Conveyance previous to 1702
Stage-Line between Trenton and New Brunswick " The Swift-Sure
Coach-Line" The Trenton and Flemington Mail-Coach Post-road
from New Brunswick to Flemington Express Lines, etc. III. TJie
Delaware and BarUan Ganal. Its Incipiency, Construction, and Com-
pletion Length, Cost, etc. IV. Baiiroads. The Central Railroad of
New Jersey South Branch Railroad High Bridge Railroad The
Delaware and Bound Brook Railroad The United New Jersey Rail-
road and Canal Company " The Belvidore Delaware Railroad" The
Easton and Amboy Railroad, etc 106


Hunterdon and Somerset Counties in the War of the

The Patriotism of the People of Hunterdon and Somerset The First
Volunteers, Three Months' Men Lambertville the First to Respond
to the Governor's Call for Troops Services in the Field of the
New Jersey Brigade Roster of the Companies from Hunterdon
County 116


Third Infantry Regiment (Three Tears).
The Governor calls for Three Regiments for Three Tears' Service The
First, Second, and Third Regiments take the Field Officers and Move-



ments of the Third Infantry At the Battle of Gaines' Mill Heavy
IjOBses Gen. Taylor Wounded Crampton's Gap Campaign of Chau-
cellorsville Battles of theWilderness Its Last Fight, at Cold Harbor
Regiment Mustered Out and Disbanded Sketch of Brig.-Gen. George
W. Taylor Roster of Officers and Men from Somerset County.... 119

Fifth and Sixth Inpanttit Regiments.
Hunterdon County furnishes a Company for each Regimeut Officers of
the Fifth and Sixth Infantry Leave " Camp 01den"~Forra a Part of
the Second New Jersey Brigade Assigned to duty as the Third Bri-
gade, in Hooker's Division Movements on tlie Potomac Battle of
Williamsburg Fair Oaks Losses in the Peninsula Campaign En-
gaged at Bristow Station, Chantilly, etc. Unflinching Bravery at
Gettysburg Superb Behavior at Spottsylvania Court-house Other
engagements Muster Out Rosters of Co. A, Fifth Infantry, and Co.
H, Sixth Infantry Regiments 124

Fifteenth Infantry Kegiment.
Three Companies from Hunterdon and Somerset Leave for Washington
Construct "Fort Kearney"- The Fifteenth at Fredericksburg
Michael Mulvey, Co. G, the first Man killed Battle of Chancellorsville
The " Wilderness" Capt. Yanderveer and Lieut. Hamilton wounded
Roster of Casualties in the vicinity of Spottsylvania Court-house
In the Charge at Ctdd Harbor With Sheridan's Army in the Shenan-
doah Talley Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek Engagements Maj. Boe-
man killed List of Battles of the Fifteenth Rosters of Officers and
Enlisted Men of the Companies from these Counties 132

Thirtieth and Thirty-first Infantry Brgjments.
Rendezvous at Flemington Both Regiments Mustered into Service
Sept. 17, 1862 Officers of Regiments, and of Hunterdon and Somerset
Companies Movements in "Virginia, with tlie Army of the Potomac
Promotion of Lieut.-Col. Chadek, Major Ten Eyck, Major Honey-
man, etc. The Two Regiments at the Battle of Chancellorsville The
Thirty-first Regiment, as Rear-Guard, hold the Enemy in Check
Other Movements and Services of these Commands Rosters of the
Companies from Hunterdon and Somerset Counties 142

Thirty-fifth Infantry, and Other Regiments.
Officers of the Thirty-fifth Regiment, and of Company A Movements of
the Regiment in Virginia and in the Southwest In the Georgia Cam-
paign, with Sherman Capt. Angel killed Battle of Decatur In Front
of Atlanta " March to the Sea" Close of its Campaigning, and Mus-
ter Out Roster of Co. A Hunterdon and Somerset Men in other Regi-
ments; Co. F, Ninth Infantry; Co. E, Eleventh Infantry; Co. B,
Thirty-eighth Infantry 149

Educational and Statistical.
The Early Dutch enjoin the Support of a Schoolmaster, in 1629 First
Schoolmaster and School-house in New Jersey The Scotch-Presby-
terians bring Schoolmasters with them The Quakers and Schools
Colonial Legislation The Colleges School-Fund created in 1817
Subsequent Legislation, etc. Free Schools Educational Statistics of
Hunterdon and Somerset Counties Statistics of Population, etc.. 153


Physical Seosrapht and GrEOLoar of HnNTERDON Coukty.
Mountains, Streams, and otUer Physical Features of the County Geo-
logical FormationB, etc 159


Land Titles and Settlbjient.

Title derived from the Crown Deeds from Indians Head-lands Irregu-
larity in Surveys Treaty with Indians, 1703 Dividends of Land

Proprietary Tracts Early Settlement The Quakers make iirst Settle-
ment, in 1676 Firet Church First Accurate Survey in Hunterdon,
1707 Tax-roll of 1722 Early Settlers in Various Portions of the
County Early Bridges First Road Early Mills During the Revo-
lution Growth, etc 182

Organization and Citil History.
Hunterdon set off from Burlington Changes in its Territory First Offi-
cers Townships Colonial Elections Poll-List of 173S First Deed on
Record Innkeeper's Prices in 1722 Early Taverns Licensed Ex-
tracts from " Records of the Proceedings of the Justices and Freehold-
ers, liegiijning 1739" Wolf and Panther Bounties First Meeting of
the Board at Flemington, etc 190

Courts and County Buildings.
Fii-st Courts First Judges, Magistrates, and Grand Jury Court-house
and Jail at Trenton First Record of the •' Cort of General Quarter
Sessions" Extracts from " Minutes of the Hunterdon County Court"
Notable Early Trials Orphans' Courts Trials for Murder The
County Buildings 196

The Bench and Bar of Hunterdon County.
Hunterdon County noted for the Ability of her Judges and the Brilliancy
of her Bar Early Colonial Judges Judges and Justices Samuel
Johnston, Samuel Tucker, Daniel Coxe, Isaac Smith, Moore Fumian,
Jasper Smith, John Mehelm, Jolin Dagworthy, Andrew Smith, Stacy
G. Potts, John Carr, John S. Stires, Joseph Reading, etc. Eminent
Jurists Early Lawyers Later Lawyers Biographical Notices of
George C. Maxwell, William Maxwell, Joseph Bonnell, Thomas Potts
Johnson, Samuel R. Stewart, Nathaniel Saxton, William H. Sloan,
Alexander Wurts, Garret D. Wall, Richard Howell, Samuel Lilly,
James N. Reading, Samuel Leake, George A, Allen, Richard S. Kuhl,
etc 202


The Medical Profession of Hunterdon Cousty.

Medicine and Doctors in the Early Days The Distiict Medical Society

of Hunterdon Connty Biographical Sketches of the Physicians of the

County, both dead and living History of Homoeopathy in Hunterdon,

etc 216

The Press of Hunterdon County.
First Newspaper in the State The First Paperin the County The Hun-
terdon Gazette, the Pioneer Paper in what is now Hunterdon The
Hunterdon Eepwijitcan- Clinton Newspapers The Lambertville Press
The Press of Frenchtown Other Papers 235

Authors of Hunterdon County.
Prefatory Remarks Sketches of Forty-seven Authors of the County,
arranged Alphabetically, with List of their Publications 238



Sketch of the Hunterdon County Bible Society Hunterdon County

Agricultural Society County Grange, Patrons of Husbandry The

Temperance Alliance Teachers' Institutes County Sunday-School

Association ^.g

Some of the Prominent Men of Hunterdon County.
Gen. Daniel Morgan-Gen. Philemon Dickinson-Gen. William Maxwell
-Col. Charles Stewart-Col. Philip Johnson-Col. Joab Houghton-
Ool. Mark Thompson-Col. Isaac Smith John Mehelm-John Hari>-
John Stevens- Robert Livingston Stevens Edwin A. Stevens Rev
Peter Studdiford-Rev. Casper Wack-Rev. John Vanderveer-Eev
George S. Mott, D.D.-Henry' D. Maxwell-Eli Bosenbui-y-Peter
Cramer Charles W. Godown James M. Ramsey 251



Civil List op Huntekdon County.

List of National, State, and County Officers 255


City of Lambertville 265

Karitan (including Flemington) '. 298

West Amwell 343

East Amwell 350

Delaware 370

Kingwood , .Ml

Boroiigh of Frenchtown 405

Alexandria 414

Holland 424

Franklin 430

Lebanon ., 445

Bethlehem 457

Tewlisbury 471

Readington 486

Union 508

High Bridge 625

Clinton 633

Borough of Clinton 644

The Physical Features of Somerset County.
Location Extent Boundariei^ Physical Features- (Jeological Forma-
tionsThe Red Sandstone, Red Shale, limestone. Trap, and other
Rocks Minerals and Mines, etc.. 651

Land Purchases and Settlements.
Indian Tribute to Jersey's Honorable Dealings First and Second In-
dian Purchases Early Settlements The Scotch Early Dutch Set-
tlers, their Ways and Customs, Style of Building, etc. List of Persons
who purchased Land in Somerset County north of the Raritan... 659


Erection, Organization, and Boundaries op Somerset


Original Counties- Somerset as a Township, and Formation as a County

Townships Formed Boundaries of County Defined Part of Essex

annexed to Somersets-Boundary between Somerset and Morris Coun-
ties Re-establishment of Line between Middlesex and Somerset Part
of Montgomery Township surrendered to Mercer, and Franklin to
Middlesex- Tewksbury Township annexed to Somerset, etc 663

Courts and County Buildings.
Early Courts Grand Jury of 1717- Precept to the Coroner, 1729 Early
Trials, etc. Orphans' Court Marriage Bonds Public Buildings
Court-House, Jail, etc 666


Early Roads and Bridges in Somerset County.

The first mention of "Ways" or Roads Deshler on Early Roads The

road "up Raritan" Other Highways-Extract from old " Road Book"

of Somerset County New Jersey Turnpike Company Early Bridges

Marriages in 1797 List of Bridges in 1805, etc 573

The Bench and Bar of Somerset County.
The Bar of Somerset County eminent for Genius, Learning, and Pa-
triotism Reminiscences Names of the Bar from 1769 to 1860 List
of the Present Bar Sketches of William Patereon, Peter D. Vroom,
Samuel L. Southard, William L. Dayton, John M. Mann, William
Griffith, the Frelinghuysens, Judges Kirkpatrick, Nevias, etc.; and
Hugh M. Gaston, Alvah A. Clark, John Schomp, and many others of
the Present Bar of the County 679


History of the Medical Profession of Soxirrset County.

The County Medical Society: its Origin, Officers, and Members Bio-
graphical Sketches of John Reeve, William M. McKissack, Peter I.
Stryker, Abraham Van Buren, the Van Derveera and Schencks, Wil-
liam H. Merrill, Peter Ten Eyck, H. G. Wagoner, Ohauncey M. Field,
etc 694


The Prkss of Sosierset County.
The Press of Somerville: The Messen{ier, The Unvjnist, and The Gazetie
Tlie Bound Brnok Chronicle The Press of the Past : The Somerset Whig,
The LUernry Gem, The Cornel, The Somerset News, The MiUatone Mirror,
The Bound Brook JrtfUS, Our Some, The Sower, Flowers^ Family Maga-
zine, etc 606


Books and Authors of Sosiebset County.
Introductory The Authors of Somerset County, Dead and Living,
arranged alphabetically, with Biographical Data and Lists of their
Publications 611


County Societies.
County Bible Society County Teachers' Institute County Sunday-
School Association County Temperance Association Agricultural
Societies 630


Men of Prominence.
Biographical Sketches of John Royce, Hendrick Fisher, Lord Stirling,
Capt. John and Gen. Peter I. Stryker, Alexander and James Linn ;
Revs. Wm. Jackson, John Cornell, Isaac V. Brown, Spence H. Cone ;
T. DeWitt Talmage, John F. Mesick, Elbert S. Porter, Morris C. Sut-
phin ; Theodore Strong, LL.D., Judge Berrien, Hon. Peter A. Voor-
hees, Judge Ralph Voorhees, Hon. Rynier H. Veghte, William H.
Qatzmer, Andrew Hageman, etc 636


Civil List, Somerset County.
National Officers: Delegates to Continental Congress, Senators and Rep-
resentatives, Presidential Electors, etc. State Officers: Members of
Council, Senate, and Assembly, Governors, State Treasurers, Secreta-
ries, Chancellors, Justices and Associate Justices, etc. County Officers :
Judges, Justices, Clerks, Surrogates, Sheriffs, Coroners, Collectors,
CommisBioners of Deeds, etc ' 642


Bridgewater (including Somerville) 648

Bedminster 699

Bernard "^34

Branchburg 756

Hillsborough 773

Franklin 802

Montgomery 834

Warren 851

North Plainfleld 869




SamuelJohnstott 203

Samuel Tucker » 203

Moore Furman 203

Jasper Smith 204

JohnMehelm 204

Stacy G. Potts 204

Samuel Lilly 205

David Van Fleet 205

Abram Y. Van Fleet 205

Bennet Van Syckel 205

George G. Maxwell 206

William Maxwell 206

Lucius H. Stockton 206

Thomas P. Jolinson 207

Charles Stewart 207

Nathaniel Saxton 207

William H. Sloan 207

Alexander Wurts 208

Garret D. Wall 208

Richard Howell 209

James N. Reading 209

Samuel Leake 210

Peter L Clark 211

John N. Voorhees 211

George A.Allen 211

John T. Bird 212

Jacob Weart 212

Edmund Pen-^' 212

Edward P. Conkling 213

Peter Vredenburgh 213

Nathaniel W. Voorhees 214

John C. Rafferty 214

Theo. J. Hoffman 215

John Rockhill " 218

John Manners 219

John Bowne 219

Oliver Barnet 220

Isaac Ogden 220

Henry H. Schenck, Jr 221

John .Honeyman 221

George P. Rex .' 221

JohnF. Schenck 222

James H. Studdiford 222

Edmund Porter 223

Nicholas J. E. de Belleviile 223

John Blane 224

Andrew B. Larison 230

John Lilly 230

George R. Sullivan 230

Henry Race 233

Ashbel Welch 289

P.O. Studdiford 291

Martin Coryell 292

Wm. McCready ; 293

Alexander H. Holcombe 294

Geo. H. Larison between 294^295

Richard McDowell 295

Cornelius Arnett 295

James C. Weeden 296

John Sproat 297

Charles Bartles 338

John 0. Hopewell 341

RunkleRea 341

Peter L Nevius 342

Caleb F. Fisher between 348,349

Jacob Reed " 348,349

Cornelius W. Larison 366

James S. Fisher 367

Abraham Ten Brooke Williamson 367

Nathan Stout 368

William B. Prall 369


Joseph Williamson 388

Andrew Larason 388

Benjamin Larison 389

Elisha Patterson Tomlinson 389

Isaac S. Cramer 390

Joshua Primmer 391

Wesley Bellis 403

John Kngler 403

Matthew Family 404

Asa MacPherson 442

Daniel Little 443

AeaCase 443

Hiram Deats 444

Daniel F. Beatty 454

Cornelius Stewart 455

Nathan Lance 456

William W. Swayze 457

Sylvester H. Smith 467

Howard Servie 467

Samuel Creveling, Sr 468

John C. Wene 468

Samuel Creveling, Jr between 468, 469

W. S. Ci-eveliug " 468,469

Martin H. Creveling " 468,469

David F. Wene 469

Joseph W. Willever 469

William Tinsman 470

W. R. Little between 470, 471

Moses Robins " 470, 471

N. Schuyler faciDg 480

Robert Craig 484

Samuel W. Salter 485

James N. Pidcock 504

B. A. Watson 504

John Kline 506

David M. Kline 506

Albert Shannon facing 507

Lambert B. Kline 607

Isaac Rowe * 507

Frederic A. Potts 519

William Egbert 599

Edward A. Rockhill 521

Charles Carhart 522

Joseph KiDg 523

Joseph B. Probasco 524

Nathaniel B. Boileau 524

Jacob Cregar 53^

David Neighbour 532

Robert Van Amburgh c^^q

Jonathan Dawea ^^^

John F. Grandin, M.D 5^2

Joseph Fritts ^^3

William Paterson coq

Richard Stockton p^gQ

Peter D. Vroom -n,

Samuel L. Southard ^.-jn

William L. Dayton ran

Andrew Kirkpatrick ^go

William Griffith ^„^


Thomas A. Hartwell ^q,

William Thomson __.


John M. Mann ^„.

Jacob Bergen

Jacob R. Hardenbergh ..^

George McDonald

Gen. Frederick Frelinghuyseu t^oc

JohnFrelinghuysen " ' ^np

Theodore Frelinghuysen ;-n»

Theodore Frelinghuysen, Jr egg

Frederick Frelinghuysen gg^

Theo. Frelinghuysen, Jr * ^^^



Dumont Frelinghuysen 687

Frederick T. FrelinghuyBen 687

James S. Nevius „. 689

Geo. H. Brown 689

Jas. S. Green 689

Jno. P.Stockton 690

Eobt. F, Stockton 690

Josepli Thompson 690

Alvah A. Clark 690

Jno. Schomp 591

Jno. P. nageman 591

Jno. V. Voorhees 592

Isaiah N. Dilts .' 692

Hugh M. Gaston 692

Jas. J. Bergen 692

John D. Bartine 592

A. V. D.Honeyman 593

Garrit S. Cannon 693

Abraham 0. Zabriskie 693

John Reeve 595

Wm. M. McKissack 695

Peter I. Stryker 605

Abraham Van Buren 596

Lawrence Van Derveer 596

Henry Van Derveer, of Somerrille 596

Henry Van Derveer, of Pluckaniin 696

Henry H. Van Derveer 697

Garret Van Doren 597

Ferdinanrt S. Schenck 598

Jacob T.B. Skillman 698

A. T. B. Van Doren 600

Wm. D. McKiesack 600

Wm. H.Merrill '. 601

Peter Ten Byck 601

Jno. V. Schenck 602

Henry G. Wagoner 604

Chauncey M. Field 604

Henry F. Van Derveer 605

Daniel Porter 607

Abraham Messier 670

E. S. Doughty facing 681

Joshua Doughty 681

Davenport Family 689

Jno. E. Emery 692

Aaron V. Ganetson 693

Sej'mour C. Truutnian ; 694

Jno. T. Van Deiveer 695

David Dunn 690

Abram J. Powelson 696

George McBiide 697

Williiim Hodge 098

George Lane 698

Henry P. Staats between G98, 699

D. P. Kenyon " 698, 699

JohnWhitenack " 698, 699

A. H. Brokaw " 698,699

William A. McDowell 726

A. W. McDowell 728

Peter J. Lanp 7i9

John G. Schomp 73o

Cornelius W. Schomp 7;i0

William Heath 731

Martin LaTourette "^32

John McDowell T32

Frederick H. Lane between 732, 733

William A. Van Dorn 733

Abraliiini Smith T33


Ephraim E. Stelle between 738, 739

0. E. Stelle " 738,739

Preeman Stelle " 738,739

James P. Goltra facing 740

Ferdinand Van Dorn 761

Oliver Dunster 762

David W. King 763

Peter Z. Smith 754

Joseph Annin 764

Thomas Holmes 754

Isaiah Smith 755

John H. Anderson 765

Edward Vail facing 766

Calvin Corle 766

Henry V. VoorheeB 767

A. Fleming between 768, 769

Tunis Van Camp " 768,769

James Ten Byck 769

Simon A. Nevius 770

Isaac Dumont 770

Ahram Van Nest 771

G. Voorhees Quick 772

Peter G. Schomp 772

Tunis D. Myers facing 773

James H. Van Cleef between 776, 777

P.N. Beekman " 776,777

Edward T. Corwiu 794

Abraham Van Nuys 796

Peter G. Quick 796

David K. Auten 797

Peter P. Quick 798

Jacob Dilts 798

John Van Doren '. 799

Isaac V. D. Hall 799

Peter W. Young 800

Frederick V. L. VoorheeB '. between 800, 801

ZacheusBergeu " 800, 801

Peter C. Van Arsdale " 800, 801

John Everett " 800,801

Abraham L. Hoagland " 800,801

Andrew Lane 801

Peter Q. Hoagland 801

Abraham V. D. Staats 802

Benjamin B. Hagemen facing 804

Charles B. Moore " 812

Peter Stoothoff " 814

Albert V. Garretson 825

Stephen Garritson 825

James S. Garretson 826

Jacob Wyckoff 826

Peter Wyckoff 827

Josiah Schanclt 828

Peter A. Voorhees 829

William H. Gulick 830

Cornelius Barcalow 831

Abraham J. Suydam 832

F. V. L. Nevius facing 833

John S. Nevius 833

John Van Zandt 848

James N. Van Zandt 849

Abram C. Wikoff '. 849

David 0. Voorhees 850

Peter Stryker Stout 860

Lawrence Van Derveer facing 860

Heury Duryee *' 851

Samuel Giddes " 866

Archibald Coddington " 800





Outline Map of Hunterdon and Somerset Counties between 8, 9

"Washington's Headquarters at Hocky Hill facing 79 Hunterdon County Court-House 202 Portrait of John N. Voorhees facing 211 E. P. Conkling "" 213 "

" John Blane 21i LAMBEETVILIiE. Kesidence of A. H. Holcombe facing 2G5 View of India-Bubber Works 282 "

Portrait of Ashbel Welch " 2S9

P. 0. Studdiford " 291

Martin Coryell 292

William McCready 293

A. H. Holcombe 294

" George H. Larison between 294, 295 R. McDowell facing 295 "

" C. Arnett 295 James C, Weeden facing 296 "

" John Sproat 297 BARITAnsr. View of Baptist Church, Flemington 319 Plan of Flemington in 1767 326 "" 1812 329 "

Portrait of C. Battles facing 338

John C. Hopewell 341

" Bunkle Rea 342 Peter I. Nevius facing 342 "

"WEST AMMTELL. Portrait of Cabel F. Fisher between 348, 349 Jacob Beed . EAST AM^WELL. Portrait of Cornelius W. Larison facing 366 James S. Fisher 3G7 A. T. AVilliamson 3G8 Nathan Stout 368 William B. Prall 369 DELAASTARE. Portrait of Joseph Williamson 388 Andrew Larason 388 "

" Benjamin Larison between 388, 389 Residence of Benjamin Larison 388, 389 "

Portrait of E. P. Tonilinson 389

" Isaac S. Cramer facing 390 Joshua Primmer . 391 "


Portrait of Wesley BelHs facing 403

" John Kugler 404 FRAKKLII^. Residence of John Willson facing 432 Portrait of Hiram Beats 441 "

Daniel Little 443

" Asa Mcpherson 443 Asa Case 444 "


Yiew of Old Mount Lebanon Methodist Church 450

" the Old Eight-Square School-House 453 Portrait of Daniel F. Beatty faring 454 Cornelius Stewart 456 "

'* Nathan Lance „ 456

" William W. Swayze facing 457 BETHLEHEM. ^^^^ Portrait of Sylvester H. Smith facing 4G7 Howard Servis 468 "

*' Samuel Creveliug, Sr between 468, 469

Samuel Creveling.Jr 468,469

W. S. Creveling 468,469

Martin H. Creveling 4GS, 469

" John C. Wene facing 469 David F. AVene 469 "

" William Tinsman 470 Joseph W. Willever between 470, 471 "

Residence of Joseph W. Willever " 470, 471

W. H. Drake " 470, 471

Portrait of W. R. Little " -170,471

Portraits of Moses Robins and Wife " 470, 471


Portraits of Nathan and Andrew Schuyler facing 480

Portrait of Robert Craig " 484

" Samuel W. Salter '* 485 BEADINGTON. Portrait of John Kline facing 503 J. N.Pidcock .'. "" 504 "

B. A.Watfion 505

Portraits of Isaac Rowe, David M. Kline, L. B. Kline " 506

Portrait of Albert Shannon " 507


Portrait of F. A, Potts facing 519

" William Egbert 520 Edward A. Rockhill... 521 '* Charles Carhart facing 622 Joseph King 523 "

" J. B. Probasco 524 HIGH BRIDGE. Portrait of Jacob Cregar 531 David Neighbour , facing 532 "


Portrait of Robert Van Amburgh facing 640

Jonathan Dawes 541

" John Grandiu 642 John F. Grandin 542 "

" Joseph FrittB 54.3 Map of Land Patents North Half of Somerset County fating 562 View of Somerset County Court-Houso '* 568 Portraitof Frederick T. Frelinghuysen «' 588 Josepli Thompson 590 Alvah A. Clark 59^^ JohnSchomp facing 691 601 W. H. Merrill Peter Ten Eyok.. CM. Field Daniel Porter ..facing ..facing BRIDGE'WATER. View of First Reformed Church Portraitof Abraham Messier '* Joshxia Doughty E. S. Doughty « "

" James S. Davenport JohnR.Emery ZZ^.ZZf^iue' "

" Aaron V. Qarretson « CTroutman ""ZZIZZIZIf^^g "

John Van Dorveer..
David Dunn..






Portrait of Abram J. Powelfion 697

" George MoBride 697 William Hodge 698 "

" Henry B. Staate between 698, 699 D. P. Kenyoo "" 698,699 "

' A.H. Brokaw 698,699

John Whitenack 698,699

" George Lane 699 BEDMIKTSTEK. Porti-aitof W. A. McDowell facing 726 A. W. McDowell "" 72S "

" Peter J. Lane 729 John G. Schomp 73U "

" C. W. Schomp facing 730 Wm. Heath - 731 "

" John McDowell 732 Martin La Tuuretle facing 732 "

" Fred. H. Lane between 732, 733 W. A. Van Dorn facing 733 "

" Abmham Smith 734 BEKNAKD. Portrait of Ephraim K. Stelle between 738, 739 O. K. Stelle 738,739 "

Freeman Stelle 738, 739

" Jas. P. Goltra facing 740 Ferdinand A'an Dorn 751 "

" Oliver Dunster facing 752 David W.King "" 763 "

Peter Z.Smith 754

" Job. Annin between 754, 755 Thos. Holmes "" 754,755 "

" John H. Andei-sun facing 756 *' Isaiah Smith 755 Edward Vail facing 766 "


Portrait of Calvin Corle facing 766

Henry V. A'oorhees 767

" A. Fleming between 768, 769 Tnnis Van Camp "" 768,769 "

" James Ten Eyck 769 Simon Nevius 770 "

" Isaac Dumont facing 770 A. Van Nest 771 "

G.V. Quick 772

" P. G. Schomp facing 772 Tunis D. Myers 773 "


Map of. Early Purchases, Somerset County facing 774

Residence of Frederick Davey « " 776

Portrait of Joseph H. Van Cleef. between 776, 777


Portrait of P. N. Beekman between 776, 777

Edward T. Corwln facing 794

Abraham Van Nuys 795

Peter 6. Quick facing 796

David K. Auten 797

Jacob Dilts 798

Peter P. Quick facing 798

John Van Doren " 799

Isaac V. D. Hall 800

Peter W.Toung facing 800

F. V. L. Voorhees between 800, 801

Zacheus Bergen " 800,801

Peter C. Van Arsdala " 800,801

John Everett " 800,801

A. L.Hoagland " 800,801

Peter Q Hoagland facing 801

Andrew Lane 801

A. V. D. Staatz 802


Portrait of Benjamin B. Hageman facing 804

Peter A. Voorhees 811

" Charles B. Moore 812 Peter Stoothoff. facing 814 "

Besidence of Stephen Garritson " 816

Portrait of Albert V. Garretson between 824, 825

Stephen Garritson 824,825

" James S. Garretson 826 Jacob Wyckoff. facing 826 "

" Peter Wyckoff. 828 Josiah Schanck 828 "

" 'William H. Gulick 830 *' Cornelius Barcalow facing 831 Abraham J. Suydam 882 "

" F.V. L. Nevius facing 833 Eesidenco of F. V. L. Nevius : 833 "

John S. Nevius 833


Residence of David C. Vooi-hees facing 837

Heni-y V. Hoagland 838

Portrait of John Van Zandt 848

Residence of James Van Zandt facing 848

Portraitof Abram G. Wikoff 849

" David 0. Voorhees 850 Peter Stryker Stout 850 "

" Lawrence Van Derveer facing 850 Henry Duryee "" 851 "

Portraitof Samuel Giddes facing 856


Portrait of Archibald Coddington facing 860



fi Z W J ER S tY.








Early Navigators Hendrick Hudson The " Half-Moon" The United
New Netherland Company Colonization by the Dutch and Danes
Mey and De Tries Sir Edmund Ployden.

It is unnecessary, and wtolly beyond the scope of
these local annals, to narrate the story, which is famil-
iar to every reader of history, of the voyages made
by the first and other early discoverers of the islands
and coasts of America ^the Northmen, Columbus,
Vespucci, and others down to the time when Henry
Hudson entered and explored the noble bay and river
which form a part of New Jersey's eastern boundary.

Of that enterprising navigator Hudson very little
is known, except that he was a native of England, a
friend of John Smith, the founder of Virginia ; that
in his youth he received a thorough maritime educa-
tion and in later years became a distinguished mariner
and discoverer. In 1607 the London Company in-
trusted him with the command of an expedition com-
missioned to discover a shorter passage to China.
During 1607 and 1608 Hudson made two voyages for
this company in search of the " Northwest Passage,''
after which, the company discontinuing further efibrts
in that direction, he turned his attention towards Hol-

The celebrated truce between the Dutch and Span-
iards had about this time been completed, and the
Dutch, a rising maritime power, became ambitious of
conquest in America. Hudson applied to the Dutch
East India Company. The directors of the Zealand
department opposed the Englishman's proposals, but
the Amsterdam Chamber encouraged the enterprise,
and furnished for this important voyage a yacht
or "Vlie-boat" called " de Halve-Maan,"" KaU-

Moon." This vessel belonged to the company. She
was of eighty tons' burden, and was equipped for the
voyage by a crew of twenty sailors, partly Dutch and
partly English. The command was intrusted to Hud-
son, and a Dutch " underschipper," or mate, was
second in command. The " Half-Moon" left Am-
sterdam on the 4th day of April, 1609, and on the
6th left the Texel. Hudson doubled the Cape of
Norway on the 5th of May, but found the sea so full
of ice that he was obliged to change his course.
Early in July, after cruising around farther north,
Hudson arrived on the banks of Newfoundland, where
he was becalmed long enough to catch more cod than
his " small store of salt could cure." He next went
west into the Penobscot, where he remained a week
cutting timber for a new foremast. He then shaped
his course to the southward and entered the Chesa-
peake Bay. He soon after anchored in Delaware
Bay. Leaving the Delaware, he proceeded along the
coast to the northward, following the eastern shore of
New Jersey, and finally anchored inside of Sandy
Hook, Sept. 3, 1609.

On the 5th of September (as appears from his jour-
nal) Hudson sent his boat ashore for the purpose of
sounding the waters lying to the south, in the vicinity
of what is now known as the " Horse-shoe." " Here the
boat's crew landed and penetrated some distance into
the woods, in the present limits of Monmouth County,"
of this State. " They were very well received by the
natives, who presented them very kindly with what
the journal calls ' green tobacco,' and also with ' dried
currants' (probably whortleberries), which were repre-
sented as having been found in great plenty and of
very excellent quality.

" On the 6th of September, Hudson sent a boat manned with five hands to explore what appeared to be the mouth of a river, at the distance of about four 10 HUNTBKDON AND SOMEKSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY. leagues from the ship. This was, no doubt, the strait between Long and Staten Islands, generally called 'the Narrows.' Here, the writer of the journal ob- serves, ' a good depth of water was found,' and within a large opening, and a narrow river to the west ; m which it is evident he refers to what is now called the Kills, or the channel between Bergen Neck and Staten Island. In exploring the bay and the adjacent waters the- boat's crew spent the whole day. On their way in returning to the ship, towards night, they were at- tacked by the natives in two canoes. A skirmish en- sued, in which John Colman was killed by an arrow, which struck him in the throat, and two more were wounded. The next day the remains of Colman were interred on a point of land not far from the ship, which from that circumstance received the name of Colman's Point, and which probably was the same that is now called Sandy Hook. "

Subsequently, Hudson sailed through the Narrows
and up the river which bears his name, exploring it
as far as Albany.* Eeturning, he came out of the
river October 4th, and without anchoring in the bay
proceeded directly to Europe. He says in his journal :

" The fourth waa faire weather, and the wind at north-north-west. We weighed and canae out of the Riuer into which we had runno ho farre. Within a while after, we came out also of The great mouth of the great Riuer that runneth up to the north west, borrowing vpou the north- ern side of the same, thinking to haue deepe water; for wee had sounded a great way with our boat at our first going in, and found seuen, six, and five fathomes. So we came out that way, but we were deceiued, for we had but eight foot and an halfe water ; and so to three, five, three, and two fathomes and an halfe. And then three, foure, flue, sixe, seven, eight, nine, and ten fathomes. And by twelue of the clocke we were cleere of all the inlet. Then we took in our boat, aild set our mayne sayle and sprit sayle, and our top sayles, and steered away east-south-east, and south-east by east, off into the mayne sea; and the land on the souther side of the bay or inlet did beare at noone west and by south foure leagues from vs. The fifth was faire weather, and the wind variable between the north "
and the east. Wee held on our course south-east by eaat. At noone I
observed and found our height to be 39 degrees 30 min., our compasse
varied sixe degrees to the west.

*' We continued our course toward England, without seeing any land by
the way, all the rest of this moneth of October. And on the seuenth
day of Nouember, sUlo nouv, being Saturday, by the grace of God, we
safely arrived in the Range of Dartmouth, in Devonshire, in the yeere

This discovery gave the Dutch at once an entrance
into the heart of the American continent, where the
best furs could be procured without interruption from
the French or English, both of which nations claimed
this territory. Nor were the Dutch 'slow in availing
themselves of this golden opportunity. " In 1610 it
appears that at least one ship was sent hither by the
East India Company for the purpose of trading in
furs, which it is well known continued for a number
of years to be the principal object of commercial at-
traction to this part of the New World. Five years
after Hudson's voyage a company of merchants, who
had procured from the States-General of Holland a

• He explored the river, according to his own account, a distance of
fifty-three leagues from its mouth.

patent for an exclusive trade on Hudson's Eiver, had
built forts and established trading-posts at New Am-
sterdam (New York), Albany, and the mouth of the
Eondout Kill. The latter was a small redoubt, on
the site of what is now a part of the city of Kingston,
N. Y. It was known as the ' Eonduit,' from whence
comes the name of Eondout."t The fort near Albany
was upon Castle Island, immediately below the pres-
ent city, and the one at New York was erected on
what is now the Battery.

On the 11th of October, 1614, the " United Com-
pany" of merchants, above referred to, received their
special grant. This conferred upon Gerrit Jacob
Witsen, former burgomaster of the city of Amster-
dam, and his twelve associates, ship-owners and mer-
chants of Amsterdam, the exclusive right to " visit
and navigate all the lands situate in America be-
tween New France and Virginia, the sea-coasts of
which lie between the fortieth and forty-fifth degrees
of latitude, which are now named New Netherlands,
and to navigate, or cause to be navigated, the same
for four voyages within the period of three years, to
commence from the 1st day of January, 1615, or
sooner." Having thus obtained the exclusive right to
trade in the new country, they assumed the name and
title of "The United New Netherland Company."
This company took possession of the Hudson Eiver,
then called by them " De Eiviere van den Vorst Mau-
ritius," and carried forward their enterprise with
commendable zeal. The Hollanders were a trading
people, and their bartering- or trading-posts were es-
tablished at points which were natural outlets for all
the trapping regions tributary to the Hudson. This
led in a short time to the settlement of those points.
Determined upon the settlement of a colony, the
States-General in 1621 granted the country to the
West India Company ; and in the year 1625, Peter
Minuet arrived at " Fort Amsterdam" as the first Gov-
ernor or director.!

The first emigrants under Minuet appear to have
been from the river Waal, in Guelderland, and, un-
der the name of " Waaloons,'' founded the first per-
manent settlement beyond the immediate protection
of the cannon of Fort Amsterdam. They settled at
Brooklyn, opposite New York, and were the first who
professionally pursued agriculture. §

f Broadhead's Hist, of New York, vol. i. p. 7.

JHist. and Antiq, of the Northern States (Barber), p. 60.

g At this period the English government seems to have been indiffer-
ent concerning the continued occupation of the Dutch. The only meas-
ure adopted to effect their removal was the issuing of a grant, June 21,
1634, to Sir Edmund Ployden for the land they occupied. It conferred
upon Sir Edmund the country between Cape May and Long Island
Sound, for forty leagues inland. This track was erected into a free
county-palatine by the name of New Albion^ and over it, with the title
of " Earl Palatine," Ployden was made governor, he having, as it is
stated, although the fact may well be doubted, " amply and copiously
peopled the same with five hundred persons." He, however, visited
the province, and resided therein seven years, exercising his office as
governor ; but, although he may have assumed, on paper, his rights as
lord of the soil by granting to various individuals large tracts of land,



Meanwhile, a number of Danes or Norwegians, who
accompanied the Dutch colonists to New Netherlands,
had effected a settlement at Bergen, so called from a
city of that name in Norway. This was about the
year 1618. In 1623 the West India Company dis-
patched a ship loaded with settlers, subsistence, and
articles of trade. The vessel was commanded by
Cornelius Jacobus Mey. He entered Delaware Bay,
and gave his own name to its northern cape, which it
still retains, Cape May. He explored the bay and
the river, and at length landed and built a fort upon
a stream called by thgjiatives Sassachm (now Timb er
Creek)^ which empties into the Delaware below Cam-
den. The fortification was called "Fort Nassau," and
its erection may be considered as the first attempt to
establish a settlement on the eastern shore of the

In the winter of 1630-31, David Pietersen De Vries,
in command of a vessel, arrived in the Delaware, but
found that Fort Nassau had fallen into the hands
of the Indians. He erected a fort, colonized his
new settlers, and returned to Holland. During his
absence a feud arose with one of the native tribes
which terminated in the massacre of all the colonists.
De Vries returned soon after with a new company,
and, while he mourned the loss of his former com-
panions, he narrowly escaped a similar fate. He was
saved by the kindness of an Indian woman, who in-
formed him that treachery was intended. But, " dis-
heartened by repeated disasters, the Dutch soon after
abandoned the country, and for some years not a single
European was left upon the shores of the Delaware." f



The Algonquin Nation The Delawares, or Lenni-Lcnap^- The "Tur-
tle," "Turkey," and " Wolf" tribes Traditions aa to the Origin of the
Delawares Mounds and Remains Indian Title to Lands in Hunter-
don and Somerset Indian Paths, etc.

When the iirst white explorers penetrated into the
valleys of the Delaware and Hudson Rivers they
found these, with all the country lying between them,
as well as the entire area now comprised in the States
of New York and Pennsylvania, peopled by aborig-
inal tribes of the Algonquin stock, and embraced in
two nations, or groups of nations, called by Eu-
ropeans the Iroquois and the Delawares, the former
having been so named by the French and the latter

it is doubted that his authority was ever established over the few in-

hahitania that then dwelt within the limits of his domain, excepting

those who may have come over with him. There was, however, some

emigration to " New Albion" as late as 16bO.WhiUhea<re Eaet Jersey

' under the Proprietary Govemmentt, pp. 8, 9. [The grant here referred to

is given at length in " Hazard^a Collection of State Paper8,"_^ ol>

\ " * Hist. CoilTSew Jer., 1844, p. 11.

' - 1 Barber's Hist. Coll. of N. J.

by the English. The language spoken by both these /^
people was the Algonquin, but differed materially in
dialect. The nation to which the whites gave the
name of Delawares was known in the Indian tongue
as theJvennjJjenap|,_orijimply_th£_|^^
Iroquois were in the same tongue called the Mengwe,
which name became corrupted by the more ignorant
white men into Mingoes, which last term was adopted
to some extent by the Delawares in its contemptuous
application to their Mengwe neighbors, between
whom and themselves feelings of detestation and
hatred existed to no small degree.

The Mengwe or Iroquois inhabited the territory ex-
tending from the shores of Lake Erie to those of
Champlain and the Hudson River, and from the head-
waters of the Delaware, Susquehanna, and Allegany
Rivers northward to Lake Ontario, and they even oc-
cupied a large scope of country north of the St. Law-
rence, thus holding not only the whole of the State of
New York, but a part of Canada, which vast territory
they figuratively styled their "long council-house,"
within which the place of kindling the grand council-
fire was Onondaga, not far from the present city of Syra-
cuse, and at that place, upon occasion, representatives
of all the Mengwe tribes met together in solemn de-
liberative council. These tribes consisted of the Mo-
hawks, Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, and Oneidas,
who collectively formed an offensive and defensive
confederation, which has usually been known in Eng-
lish annals as that of the Five Nations. J

The Mohawks occupied the country nearest the
Hudson River, and held the post of honor as the
guardians of the eastern entrance of the " long
house." The Senecas, who. were the most numerous,
energetic, and warlike of the five tribes, defended the
western portal of the "house," while the Cayugas
were the guardians of the southern border of the
Iroquois domain, the frontier of the Susquehanna
and Delaware valleys. The Oneida tribe was located
along the shores of Lake Ontario, and the Onondagas,
occupying a large territory in the central portion of
the present State of New York, kept watch and
ward over the council-place and fire of the banded

The league of the Iroquois nations had been formed
at a date which no Indian chronology could satis-
factorily establish for the purpose of mutual defense
against the LenapS and other tribes contiguous to
them ; and by means of this confederation, which
they kept up in good faith and in perfect mutual ac-
cord, they were not only enabled successfully to repel
all encroachments upon their own territory, but after
a time to invade that of other nations, and to carry
the terror of their arms southward to the Cape Fear

J At a later period soon after the commencement of the eighteenth
century the Tuecaroras, having been almost entirely subjugated and
driven away from their hunting-grounds in the Carolinas, migrated
northward and were received into the Iroquois confederacy, which
from that time became known as the Six Nations.



and Tennessee Elvers, westward beyond Lake Michi-
gan, and eastward to the shores of the Connecticut.

The Delawares the Indian people with which this
history has principally to deal occupied a domain
extending along the sea-shore from the Chesapeake to
the country bordering Long Island Sound. Back from
the coast it reached beyond the Susquehanna valley
to the foot of the Allegheny Mountains, and on the
north it joined the southern frontier of their domi-
neering neighbors, the hated and dreaded Mengwe or
Iroquois. This domain, of course, included not only
the counties of Somerset and Hunterdon, but all of
"the State of New Jersey. The principal tribes composing the Lenni LenapS or Delaware nation were those of the Unamis or Turtle, the Unalachtgo or Turkey, and the Minsi or Wolf. The latter, which was by far the most powerful and Tvarlike of all these tribes, occupied the most northerly portion of the country of the LenapS and kept guard along the Iroquois border, from whence their domain extended southward to the Musconetcong* Mountains, about the northern boundary of the present county of Hunterdon. The Unamis and Unalachtgo branches of the LenapS or Delaware nation (comprising the tribes of Assanpinks, Matas, Shackamaxons, Chiche- quaas, Raritans, Nanticokes, Tuteloes, and many others) inhabited the country between that of the Minsi and the sea-coast, embracing the present coun- ties of Hunterdon and Somerset and all that part of the State of New Jersey south of their northern boundaries. The tribes who occupied and roamed over these counties, then, were those of the Turtle and Turkey branches of the Lenni LenapS nations, but the possessions and boundaries of each cannot be clearly defined. The Indian name of the Delaware nation, Lenni Lenapg, signifies, in their tongue, the original peo- "
ple," a title which they had adopted under the
claim that they were descended from the most ancient
of all Indian ancestry. This claim was admitted by
the Wyandots, Miamis, and more than twenty other
aboriginal nations, who accorded to the Lenapg the
title oi grandfathers, or a people whose ancestry ante-
dated their own. The Eev. John Heckewelder, in his

* " The Wolf, commonly called the Minsi, which we have corrupted into
Monseys, had chosen to Uve back of the other two tribes, and formed a
kind of bulwark for their protection, watching the motions of the Meng-
we and being at hand to afford aid in case of a ruptureVith them. The
Minsi were considered the most warlike and active branch of the Lenapi.
They extended their settlements from the Minisink, a place named after
them, where they had their council-seat and fire, quite up to the Hudson
on the east, and to the west and south far beyond the Susquehanna.
Their northern boundaries were supposed originally to be the heads of
the great rivers Susquehanna and Delaware, and their southern that
ridge of hills known in New Jersey by the name of Muskanecum, and
in Pennsylvania by those of Lehigh, Conewago, etc. Within this
boundary were their principal settlements ; and even as late as the year
1Y42 they had a town with a peach-orchard on the tract of land where
Nazareth, in Pennsylvania, has since been built, another on the Lehigh
and others beyond the Blue Eidge, besides many family settlements here
and there scattered." ifistory. Manners, and Omtomt of the Indian Na-
tions who once inliabUed Pennsyhania," by Bev. John Heckewelder.

" History of the Manners and Customs of the Indian Nations, says of the Delaware nation, "

" They will not admit that the whites are superior beings. They say that the hair of their heads, their features, and the various colors of their eyes evince that they are not, like themselves, Lenni Lenape, an original people, a race of men that has existed unchanged fro'm the be- ginning of time ; but that they are a mixed race, and therefore a trouble- some one, Wherever they may be, the Great Spirit, knowing the wick- edness of their disposition, found it necessary to give them a Great Book, and taught them how to read it that they might know and ob- serve what He wished them to do and what to abstain from. But they the Indians have no need of any such book to let them know the will of their Maker : they find it engraved on their own hearts; they hav& had sufQcient discernment given to them to distinguish good from evil, and by following that guide they are sure not to err. "

Concerning the origin of the LenapS, numerous
and essentially differing traditions were current among
the various tribes. One of these traditions is men-
tioned by Loskiel in his " History of the Mission of
the United Brethren among the North American In-
dians," as follows :

" Among the Delawares, those of the Minsi or Wolf tribe say that in the beginning they dwelt in the earth under a lake, and were fortu- nately extricated from this unpleasant abode by the discovery which one of their men made of a hole, through which he ascended to the surface; on which, as he was walking, he found a deer, which he carried back with him into his subterraneous habitation ; that the deer was eaten, and he and his companions found the meat so good that they unani- mously determined to leave their dark abode and remove to a place where they could enjoy the light of heaven and have such excellent game in abundance. The two other tribes, the Unamis or Tortoise, and the Unalachtgos "
or Turkey.f have much similar notions, but reject the story of the lake,
which seems peculiar to the Minsi tribe."

There was another leading tradition current among
the nations of the Lenapg, which was to the effect
that, ages before, their ancestors had lived in a far-off
country to the west, beyond great rivers and moun-
tains, and that, in the belief that there existed, away
towards the rising sun, a red man's paradise, a land
of deer and beaver and salmon, they had left their
western home and traveled eastward for many moons,
until they stood on the western shore of the Namisi
Sipu (Mississippi), and there they met a numerous
nation, migrating like themselves. They were a stran-
ger tribe, of whose very existence the Lenape had
been ignorant. They were none other than the Meng-
we; and this was the first meeting of those two peo-
ples, who afterwards became rivals and enemies, and
continued such for centuries. Both were now trav-
elers and bound on the same errand. But they found
a lion in their path, for beyond the great river lay the
domain of a nation called Allegewi, who were not
only strong in numbers and brave, but more skilled
than themselves in the art of war, who had reared
great defenses of earth inclosing their villages and
strongholds. In the true spirit of military strategy
they permitted a part of the emigrants to cross the
river, and then, having divided their antagonists fell
upon them with great fury to annihilate them. But
when the Lenap6 saw this they at once formed an al-

t The tribes to which belonged the bands which inhabited the counties
of Somerset and Hunterdon.



liance, offensive and defensive, with the Mengwe.
The main body cro.ssed the river and attacked the Al-
legewi with such desperate energy that they defeated
and afterwards drove them into the interior, where
they fought from stronghold to stronghold, till finally,
after a long and bloody war, the Allegewi were not
only humiliated, but exterminated, and their country
was occupied by the victors. After this both nations
ranged eastward, the Mengwe taking the northern
and the LenapS still keeping the more southern route,
until, after long journeyings, the former reached the
Mohicanittuck (Hudson Eiver) and the latter rested
upon the banks of the LenapS Wihittuck, the beau-
tiful river now known as the Delaware, and here
they found that Indian elysium of which they had
dreamed before they left their old homes in the land
of the setting sun.

These, and other similar Indian traditions may or
may not have some degree of foundation in fact.
There are to-day many enthusiastic searchers through
the realms of aboriginal lore who accept them as au-
thentic, and who believe that the combined LenapS
and Mengwe did destroy a great and comparatively
civilized people, and that the unfortunate Allegewi
who were thus extinguished were none others than
the mysterious Mound-Builders of the Mississippi
valley. This, however, is but one of the many profit-
less conjectures which have been indulged in with
reference to that unknown people, and is in no way
pertinent to this history. All Indian tribes were fond
of narrating the long journeys and great deeds of
their forefathers, and of tracing their ancestry back
for centuries, some of them claiming descent from the
great Manitou himself. Missionaries and travelers
among them who were, or professed to be, familiar
with their language and customs have spoken with
apparent sincerity of Indian chronology running back
to a period before the Christian era, and some of the
old enthusiasts claimed that these aborigines were
descendants of the lost tribes of Israel.* But all the
traditions of the Indians were so clouded and involved
in improbability and so interwoven with superstition,
and the speculations of antiquarian writers have almost
uniformly been so baseless and chimerical, that the

* In a email, quaint, and now very rare volume entitled " An Historical
Description of the Province and Country of West New Jersey in America
Never made Publick till now, by Gabriel Thomas, London, 1698," and
dedicated " To the Bight Honourable Sir John Moor, Sir Thomas Lane,
Knights and Aldermen of the City of London, and to the rest of the
Worthy Members of the West Jersey Proprietors, is found the following,
in reference to the aborigines of this region ; " The first Inhabitants of
this Countrey were the Indians, being supposed to be part of the Ten dis-
persed Tribes of In-aelj for indeed they are very like the Jewa in their
Persons, and something in their Practices and Worship ; for they (aa the
Pensilvania Indians) observe the Neio Moons with great devotion and
Reverence : And their first Fruits they ofi'er, with their Com and Hunt-
ing-Game they get in the whole year, to a False Deity or Sham God
whom they must please, else (as they fancy) many misfortunes will be-
fall them, and great injuries will be done them. When they bury their
Dead, they put into the Ground with them some House Utensils and
Borne Money (aa tokens of their Love and Affection), with other Things,
expecting they shall have Occasion for them in the other World."

whole subject of Indian origin may be dismissed as-

The Indians, from the earliest times, considered-
themselves in a manner connected with certain ani-
mals, as is evident from various customs preserved
among them, and from the fact that, both collectively
and individually, they assumed the names of such
animals. Loskiel says,

"It might indeed be supposed that those animals* names which they have given to their several tribes were mere badges of distinction, or ' ooate-of-arms,' as Pyrlaeus calls them ; but if we pay attention to the. reasons which they give for those denominations, the idea of a supposed family connection is easily discernible. The Torlmae or, as they are commonly called, the ffurifc tribe, among the LenapJ, claim a supe- riority and ascendancy over the others, because their relation, the great Tortoiee, a fabled monster, the Atlas of their mythology, bears, according to their traditions, this great island on his back,! ^'-nd also because he is amphibious and can live both on land and in the water, which neither of the heads of the other tribes can do. The merits of the Turkey, which gives its name to the second tribe, are that he is stationary and always, remains with or about them. As to the Wolf, after which the third tribe is named, he is a rambler by nature, running from one place to another in quest of his prey ; yet they consider him as their benefactor, as it was by his means that the Indians got out of the interior of the earth. It waa he, they believe, who by the appointment of the Great Spirit killed the deer which the Mousey found who first discovered the way to the surface of the earth, and which allured them to come out of their damp and dark residence. For that reason the wolf is to be honored and his, name to he preserved forever among them. These animals' names, it is true, they all use as national badges, in "
order to distinguish their tribes from each other at home and abroad. In
this point of view Mr. Pyrlaeus was right in considering them as ' coats-
of-arms.' The TwrUe warrior draws, either with a coal or with paint,
here and there on the trees along the war-path, the whole animal, car- '
ryjng a^n with the muzzle projecting forward ; and if fie leaves"a mark-
et the place where he has made a stroke on his enemy, it will be the \
\ picture of a Tortoise. Tho se of the TurJcet/ tribe pa int ojily one foot of a y
[turkey, and the Wolf tribe so metimes a w olf at lar ge-githonefoot and /
fleg. raised jy>-to serve^as a hand, in which the animal also carries a gua /
with the muzzle forward. They, however, do not generally use the word.'
''wolf when speaking of their tribe, but call themselves P'duk-sit, whicli
means round foot, that animal having a round foot, like a dog."

It does not appear that the Indians inhabiting the
interior portions of New Jersey were very numerous.
In an old publication entitled "A Description of New
Albion," and dated a.d. 1648, it is found stated that
the native people in this section were governed by
about twenty kings ; but the insignificance of the
power of those " kings" may be inferred by the accom-
panying statement that there were " twelve hundred!
[Indians] under the two Earitan kings on the north
side, next to Hudson's Eiver, and those came down-
to the ocean about little Egg-bay and Sandy Barne-
gatte ; and about the South Cape two small kings of
forty men apiece, and a third, reduced to fourteen
men, at Eoymont." From which it appears evident
that the so-called " kings" were no more than ordi-
nary chiefs, and that some of these scarcely had a
following. Whitehead, in his "East Jersey under
the Proprietary Governments,'' concludes, from the
above-quoted statement, "that there were probably

f And they believed that sometimes the grandfather tortoise became
weary and shook himself or changed his position, and that this was the
cause of earthquakes.



not more than two thousand [Indians] within the
province while it was under the domination of the
Dutch." And in a publication* hearing date fifty
years later (1698) the statement is made that "the
Dutch and Swedes inform us that they [the Indians]
are greatly decreased in numbers to what they were
when they came first into this country. And the In-
dians themselves say that two of them die to every one
Christian that comes in here."

There is found, however, in the ancient workf be-
fore extracted from, an extravagant account of the
(imaginary) state of "the Raritan king,"t whose seat
is represented to have been at a place called by the ,
English Mount Ployden, "twenty miles from Sandhay
Sea, and ninety from the ocean, next to Amara hill,
the retired paradise of the children of the Ethiopian
emperor, a wonder, for it is a square rock, two miles'
compass, one hundred and fifty feet high ; a wall-like
precipice, a strait entrance, easily made invincible,
where he keeps two hundred for his guards, and under
is a flat valley, all plain to plant and sow." But there
is no place known answering the above description,
though the Rev. G. C. Schenck, in a paper read be-
fore the New Jersey Historical Society, suggests that
what is known as the Round Valley (north of Round
Mountain, in the township of Clinton, in Hunterdon
County) corresponds in general with Plantagenet's
topographical description^ of the kingly seat. To con-
cede this, however, requires a considerable stretch of
imagination ; and it is hard to resist the conviction
that it was in the author's imagination, and there
alone, that the impregnable " mount," the " retired
paradise of the children of the Ethiopian emperor,"
and the royal guard of two hundred men had their

Before the European explorers had penetrated to
the territories of the LenapS the power and prowess
of the Iroquois had reduced the former nation to the
condition of vassals. The attitude of the Iroquois,
however, was not wholly that of conquerors over the
Delawares, for they mingled, to some extent, the
character of protectors with that of masters. It has
been said of them that " the humiliation of tributary
nations was to them [the Iroquois] tempered with a
paternal regard for their interests in all negotiations

* Gabriel Thomas' " Historical Description of the ProTince and Coun-
try of West Ne-w Jersey in America/'

f Plantagenet's Description of New Albion.

X " The Indians of New Jersey were divided among about twenty petty
kings, of whom the king of the Earitans was the greatest." Riker^ p. 37.

g " The seat of the Earitan kings was upon an inland mountain (prob-
ably the Neshanic Mountain, which answers approximately to the de-
scription)." Rev. E. T. Corwin^B SiBtorical Viscourse, 1866, p. 9.

The Bev. Abraham Messier, D.D., in his " Centennial History of Som-
erset County," says : " If we were inclined to favor such romance, we
should claim that no place so well answers the description [of the "seat
of the Baritan king"] as the bluff in the gorge of Chimney Rock, north
of the little bridge, on the west and east sides of which the two rivulets
flow and meet a few yards southward in the main gorge. But we are
not disposed to practice on the credulity of our readers, as the Indian^
evidently did on Beauchamp Plantagenet, Esq."

with the whites, and care was taken that no tres-
passes should be committed on their rights, and that
they should be justly dealt with." This means,
simply, that the Mengwe would, so far as lay in their
power, see that none others than themselves should
be permitted to despoil the LenapS. They exacted
from them an annual tribute, an acknowledgment of
their state of vassalage, and on this condition they
were permitted to occupy their former hunting-
grounds. Bands of the Five Nations, however, were
interspersed among the Delawares|| probably more
as a sort of police, and for the purpose of keeping a
watchful eye upon them, than for any other purpose.
The Delawares regarded their conquerors with feel-
ings of inextinguishable hatred (though these were
held in abeyance by fear), and they also pretended to
a feeling of superiority on account of their more an-
cient lineage and their further removal from original
barbarism, which latter claim was perhaps well
grounded. On the part of the Iroquois, they main-
tained a feeling of haughty superiority towards their
vassals, whom they spoke of as no longer men and
warriors, but as women. There is no recorded instance
in which unmeasured insult and stinging contempt
were more wantonly and publicly heaped on a cowed
and humiliated people than on the occasion of a
treaty held in Philadelphia in 1742, when Connossa-
tego, an old Iroquois chief, having been requested by
the Governor to attend (really for the purpose of
forcing the Delawares to yield up the rich lands of
the Minisink), arose in the council, where whites and
Delawares and Iroquois were convened, and in the
name of all the deputies of his confederacy said to
the Governor that the Delawares had been an unruly
people and were altogether in the wrong, and that
they should be removed from their lands ; and then,
turning superciliously towards the abashed Delawares,
said to them, " You deserve to be taken by the hair
of your heads and shaken until you recover your
senses and become sober. We have seen a deed,
signed by nine of your chiefs over fifty years ago, for
this very land. But how came you to take it upon
yourselves to sell lands at all? We conquered you;
we made women of you ! You know you are women
and can no more sell lands than women. Nor is it fit
that you should have power to sell lands, since you
would abuse it. You have had clothes, meat, and
drink, by the goods paid you for it, and now you
want it again, like children, as you are. What makes
you sell lands in the dark ? Did you ever tell us
you had sold this land ? Did we ever receive any
part, even to the value of a pipe-shank, from you for
it ? This is acting in the dark, -very difierentlj' from
the conduct which our Six Nations observe in the

I The same policy was pursued by the Five Nations towards the Sha-
wanese, who had been expelled from the far Southwest by stronger
tribes, and a portion of whom, traveling eastward as far as the country
adjoining the Delawares, had been permitted to erect their lodges there,
but were, like the Leuap6, held in a state of subjection by the Iroquois.-



sales of land. But we find you are none of our
Wood ; you act a dishonest part in this as in other
matters. Your ears are ever open to slanderous reports
about your brethren. For all these reasons we charge
you to remove instantly 1 We do not give you liberty to
think about it. You are woTnen 1 Take the advice of
a wise man, and remove instantly 1 You may return
to the other side of the river, where you came from,
but we do not know whether, considering how you
have demeaned yourselves, you will be permitted to
live there, or whether you have not already swallowed
that land down your throats, as well as the land on
this side. You may go either to Wyoming or Shamo-
kin, and then we shall have you under our eye and
can see how you behave. Don't deliberate, but go,
and take this belt of wampum." He then forbade
them ever again to interfere in any matters between
white man and Indian, or ever, under any pretext, to
pretend to sell lands ; and as they (the Iroquois), he
said, had some business of importance to transact with
the Englishmen, he commanded them to immediately
leave the council, like children and women, as they
were. /

Heckewelder, however, attempts to rescue the good
name of the humbled Delawares by giving some of
their explanations, intended to show that the epithet
women, as applied to them by the Iroquois, was
originally a term of distinction rather than reproach,
and "that the making women of the Delawares was
not an act of compulsion, but the result of their own
free will and consent." He gives the story, as it was
narrated by the Delawares, substantially in this way :
The Delawares were always too powerful for the
Iroquois, so that the latter were at length convinced
that if wars between them should continue, their own
extirpation would become inevitable. They accord-
ingly sent a message to the Delawares, representing
that if continual wars were to be carried on between
the nations, this would eventually work the ruin of
the whole Indian race ; that in order to prevent this
it was necessary that one nation should lay down
their arms and be called the woman, or mediator, with
power to command the peace between the other na-
tions who might be disposed to persist in hostilities
against each other, and finally recommending that
the part of the woman should be assumed by the
Delawares, as the most powerful of all the nations.

The Delawares, upon receiving this message, and
not perceiving the treacherous intentions of the Iro-
quois, consented to the proposition. The Iroquois
then appointed a council and feast, and invited the
Delawares to it, when, in pursuance of the authority
given, they made a solemn speech, containing three
capital points. The first was that the Delawares be
(and they were) declared women, in the following
words :

"We dress you in a woman's long habit, reaching down to your feet, and adorn you with ear-rings, "
meaning that they should no more take up arms.

The second point was thus expressed : " We hang a
calabash filled with oil and medicine upon your arm.
With the oil you shall cleanse the ears of other na-
tions, that they may attend to good and not to bad
words ; and with the medicine you shall heal those
who are walking in foolish ways, that they may return
to their senses and incline their hearts to peace." The
third point, by which the Delawares were exhorted to
make agriculture their future employment and means
of subsistence, was thus worded : " We deliver into
your hands a plant of Indian corn and a hoe." Each
of these points was confirmed by delivering a belt of
wampum, and these belts were carefully laid away,
and their meaning frequently repeated.

"The Iroquois, on the contrary, assert that they conquered the Delawares, and .that the latter were forced to adopt the defenseless state and appellation of a woman to avoid total ruin. Whether these difier- ent' accounts be true or false, certain it is that the Delaware nation has ever since been looked to for the preservation of peace and intrusted with the charge of the great belt of peace and chain of friendship, which they must take care to preserve inviolate. Ac- cording to the figurative explanation of the Indians, the middle of the chain of friendship is placed upon the shoulder of the Delawares, the rest of the Indian nations holding one end and the Europeans the other.* "

It is evident that the clumsy and transparent tale
of the Delawares in reference to their investiture as
women was implicitly believed by Heckewelder and
other Indian missionaries, who apparently did not
realize that which no reader can fail to perceive,
that if their championship and explanation were to
have any influence at all on the world's estimate of
their Indian friends, it could hardly be a favorable
one, for it would only tend to show that they had suf-
fered themselves to be most ridiculously imposed upon
by the Iroquois, and that they were willing to ac-
knowledge themselves a nation of imbeciles rather
than admit a defeat which in itself brought no dis-
grace on them, and was no impeachment of their
courage or warlike skill.

Gen. William Henry Harrison, afterwards Presi-
dent of the United States, in his " Notes on the
Aborigines," said, in reference to the old missionary's
account of the Delawares' humiliation,

" But even if Mr. Heckewelder had succeeded in making his readers helieve that the DelawareB, when they submitted to the degradation pro- posed to them by their enemies, were influenced, Dot by fear, but by the benevolent desire to put a stop to the calamities of war, he has estab- lished for them the reputation of being the most egregious dupes and fools that the world has ever seen. This is not often the case with Indian sachems. They are rarely cowards, but still more rarely are they defici-, ent in sagacity or discernment to detect any attempt to impose on them. I sincerely wish that I could unite with the worthy German in removing the stigma upon the Delawares. "

It was not a lack of bravery or military enterprise

* Notes on the Indians, by David Zeisberger.



on the part of the Delawares which caused their over-
throw; it was a mightier agent than courage or
energy : it was the gunpowder and lead of the Iro-
quois, which they had procured from the trading
Dutch on the Hudson almost immediately after the
discovery of that river, which had wrought the down-
fall of the LenapS. For them the conflict was a
hopeless one, waged against immeasurahle odds, re-
sistance to the irresistible. Under a reversal of con-
ditions the Delawares must have been the victors and
the Iroquois the vanquished, and no loss of honor
could attach to a defeat under such circumstances. It
is a pity that the tribes of the LenapS should vainly
have expended so much labor and ingenuity upon a
tale which, for their own sake, had better never have
been told, and in which even the sincere indorsement
of Heckewelder and other missionaries has wholly
failed to produce a general belief.

When the old Iroquois chief Connossatego, at the
treaty council in Philadelphia, before referred to,
commanded the Delawares instantly to leave the
council-house, where their presence would no longer
be tolerated, and to prepare to vacate their hunting-
grounds on the Delaware and its tributaries, the out-
raged' and insulted red men were completely crest-
fallen and crushed, but they had no alternative and
must obey. They at once left the presence of the
Iroquois, returned to the homes which were now to
be their homes no longer, and soon afterwards mi-
grated to the country bordering the Susquehanna,
and beyond that river.

This forced exodus of the Delawares, however, was
chiefly from the Minisink and other sections of coun-
try to the north and northwest of the counties of
Somerset and Hunterdon, and had very little efiect
on the Indian population of the territory now com-
prised in these counties ; for, however great may have
been the state, and however numerous the subjects, of
the traditionary " Karitan king" in earlier years, there
were at the time in question (a.d. 1742) but very few
Indians living within the territory of these counties,
and those few were embraced in small roving bands,
few, if any, of which had permanent villages or
places of habitation. " The Indians living on the
Raritan," says the Kev. Dr. Messier,* " were only a
remnant of the large and numerous tribe once located
there. It is said they left and went to live at Metu-
chen because the freshets in the river spoiled the corn
which they were in the habit of burying in pits on
the lowlands. Another inducement was the fish,
oysters, and clams so easily obtained on the shores
of Raritan Bay. The immense heaps of shells found
in several localities on its shores attest the rich har-
vest which they gathered out of its waters. A few
huts were found on the south side of the river, oppo-

* Centennial History of Somerset County, by Abraham Messier, D.D.,
pp. 33, 34.

site the village of Raritan, and they had a 'burial-
place' on the second river-bank, at the gate of R. H.
Garretson.f We may imagine, then, how the lonely
river flowed on for centuries between its willow-
fringed banks from summer to winter, while the rich
grass on its meadows wasted because there were no
animals except a few deer who fed upon it, and how
the wild fruits afforded feasts for the squirrel and the
forest bird or perished untouched because there was
no living creature to enjoy the bountiful repast. It
might almost without romance be called a 'retired
paradise,' but without its ' Ethiopian emperor" to rule
over it. . . . Its primitive inhabitants, even, had de-
serted' it almost entirely and gone towards the sea-
shore, attracted by the abundant food, and only the
beasts claimed it as their home."

The following, having reference to the Indian bands
which were formerly located in Hunterdon County,
is from a series of papers entitled " Traditions of our
Ancestors," published in the Hunterdon Bepuhlican
about ten years since :

" There are extant many proofs of Indian tribes dwelling in the vicin- ity of Kound Valley and Cokesbury. William Alpaugh, now (1870) somewhat advanced in years, living in the east end of the valley, says that when he was a boy he frequently spoke of [with ?] an aged man who had lived in that section before the Indians had quitted it. He often went, in company with other boys, to fish in the streams near by, and, while they used hooks, the Indiana shot them with spears and arrows. When they came to divide the fish the Indians were always very precise about it, taking care that each one should have his exact share. Mr. Al- paugh says that he has seen, near Cokesbury, numerous Indian graves ranged in rows and surrounded by stones piled upright around each mound. , . . On the farm where Abraham Hunt now lives, near Cokes- bury, there were standing, fifty years ago, near a stream, a mimber of huts built of sticks, and from four to six feet high, very dilapidated ; and tradition does not give the time when they did not stand there. Tliia fact is some evidence that the tribes of this section made their home here. The arrow spear-heads found in the Hound Valley were once very "
numerous, and some fine specimens are still occasionally picked up.
Mr. Alpaugh says that in passing over the mountain southeast of the
valley he discovered, several years ago, a pile of stones in the forest ar-
ranged in such a manner aa left no doubt in his mind that they had
been placed there, when the trees were small saphngs, to mark an
Indian burial-place. These were the cuetomai-y monuments in this
section. . . .

" There is a tradition among the descendants of James Alexander that while he was surveying over the moat rugged part of Kushetunk Moun- tain he found a large heap of stones piled together with some regularity, which, being removed, revealed a rudely-arched vault containing the remains of seven warriors, with their arms, ornaments, and utensils around them. There were beads of bone and copper, wrist- and arm- bands of the same metal, and a number of pipes, besides leather leggins and other articles of Indian dress. The general appearance was that they were all warriors of the same tribe, and to each one was affixed the symbolic characters showing the order in which they had succeeded each other. There was nothing in common in these relics with those of the then existing tribe to show that they were the same people. The trees seemed to have grown there since this vault was built, and the proba- hiUty is that it was the resting-place of seven generations of kings who had roamed up and down here long before the white people came. . . . f There was also an Indian burial-ground at the mouth of One-Mile Eun, above Raritan Landing. In an ancient survey a line striking the river at that place is described as *' commencing at the bank of the Rar- itan, in an Indian burying-ground. "

There was an Indian settlement on the east bank of the Millstone, at
the mouth of Six-Mile Bun. Many hatchets, pestles, and other imple-
ments were found there in early years.



Mr. Alexander and Ms party carefully replaced the stones, fearing lest
the Indians, discovering his invasion of this ancient sepulchre, would be
incensed against him. The spot may yet be rediscovered upon that
wild and mgged, unfrequented summit. There is no reason why there
should not be found there mounds more sunken, but still containing
bones of thousands of the race that has passed away, like those of Vir-
ginia and the West."

Of the latter portion of this extract it seems hardly
necessary to remark that the " probability" referred
to by this writer that the seven skeletons represented
seven generations of kings is not a very strong
one, and that the same doubt may be felt as to the
likelihood of the existence here of sepulchres con-
taining the " bones of thousands of the race that has
passed away," even if we admit the authenticity of
the very doubtful tradition concerning Mr. Alexan-
der's discovery and subsequent re-covering of the
mysterious arched vault.

The Indian occupation of Hunterdon County and
the country to the northward of it is mentioned by
the Eev. George S. Mott, D.D., in a very excellent
and common-sense account, found in the " First Cen-
tury of Hunterdon County," as follows :

" They [the Minis! or Wolf tribe, living to the northward of the Turtle and Turkey tribes, which inhabited this lower portion of the State] were a very warlike race, as their name indicated. Their southern boundary in this direction was that range of hills which stretches along the upper line of Hunterdon and the branches of the Raritan. Thus the coast- tribes and the mountaineers came together in this county. Many fami- lies of these chose to live by themselves, fixing their abode in villages and taking a name from their location. Each of these had a chief, who, however, was in a measure subordinate to a head-chief.* A family was situated on the Neshanic, called the Neshanic Indians. There waa an- other settlement a mile from Flemington, on a brook called the Minisi. One was near the Branch at Three Bridges. There they had a burying- ground ; another, one and a half miles southwest from Kingos, along a creek on Jacob Thatcher's farm. Traces of their village can yet be seen there. Yet another waa near Mount Airy Station, on tlie Alexsocken. There waa quite a large settlement of them at Eocktown. Indeed, the Amwell valley waa populated with them. As already stated, in 1703 the proprietors purchased of Heinhammoo a large tract of land in Hunter- don lying west of the South Branch, and they also bought the title to all other lands of the Indians who were supposed to have any right to them. These seem to have been contented, and lived in their villages on the most friendly terms with the whites. But the game diminished as the country waa settled, so that the Indians were constrained to resort to trade in order to procure the necessaries of life. They made wooden ladles, bowls, trays, etc., which they exchanged for butter, milk, chick- ens, and meat. They soon acquired a fondness for intoxicating liquors, and when under their influence would quarrel and fight in a tenible manner. This became so great an evil that the Legislature in 1767 laid a penalty upon peiaons selling strong drink to the Indians, so as to in- toxicate them, and declaring all Indian sales and pawns for drink void. The defeat of Gen. Braddock in the summer of 1765 produced great "
consternation throughout all the colonics and led to disastrous conse-
quences. A hatred of the whites had for years been growing in the
hearts of the Indians, who saw themselves becoming more and more
helpless under the steadily-increasing encroachments of the settlers.
The wrongs which were inflicted upon them by designing men aggra^
vated their dislike, so that it was an easy matter for the French, and the
Indians already leagued with them in hostilities, to persuade those tribes
which had remained nominally at peace with the inhabitants to join
them in a general uprising and onslaught upon the settlers. The Shaw-
nees and Delawares were drawn into this defection also ; bands of Indians
joined them, many going from the Pines to the Bine Bidge under this
impulse. Numbers who had roamed around the country, much like the
tramps of to-day, went off to join the Indian troops and never returned.

* Heckewelder's Indian Nations ; Memoirs of Historical Society of
Pennsylvania, voL xii. pp. 48-52.

The people of this section and to the north were greatly alarmed at this
state of things. The first inroads of the savages were down the Susque-
hanna, through Berks and Northampton Counties, across the Delaware
into New Jersey. Some of the scalping-parties penetrated within thirty
miles of Philadelphia. A letter from Easton, dated Dec. 25, 1766, states
that the * country all above this town for fifty miles is mostly evacuated
and mined. The people have mostly fled into the Jerseys. . . . The
enemy made but few prisoners, murdering almost all that fell in^ their
hands, of all ages and both sexes.' The inhabitants of New Jersey,
roused by these sufferings of their neighbors and fearing for their own
towns, prepared to resist the foe. Governor Belcher dispatched troops
promptly from all parts of the province to the defense of the western fron-
tier. Col. John Anderson, of Sussex County, collected four hundred men
and secured the upper part of the State. During the winter of 1765 and
1756 marauding-parties of French and Indians hung around this western
border. To guard against their incureions a chain of forts and block-
houses was erected along the mountain and at favorable points on the
east bank of the Delaware. Although the inroads of the savages were
infrequent, and consisted of small bands, yet the fear which all felt that
their midnight slumber might be broken by the war-whoop was sufficient
to keep them in a constant terror. Many left their bomes.f A loud call
was made upon the Assembly for increased means of defense. This was
done, and the force waa placed under the command of Col. De Hart.f

"As an additional measure of protection a treaty was made with Teedyuscung, whereby the Delawares and Shawnees on the Susque- hanna were reconciled. The Legislature appointed a committee, who met the Indians of this State at Crosswicks in the winter of 1756. Their grievances were heard patiently and then reported to the Legislature, which passed acts in 1757 to relieve them. One of these grievances was that the Indians had not been paid for certain tracts of land which had been taken from them. The only portion of Hunterdon which came within these claims was a tract of twenty-five hundred acres, claimed by Teedyuscung himself, * beginning at Ringos, and extending along the Brunswick road to Neshannock Creek, thence up the same to George Hatten'a, thence in a straight course to Petit's place, and so on to a hill called Paatquacktung, thence in a straight line to the place of the begin- ning, which tract was reserved at the sale,' i.e., between Ringos and Copper Hill. The Legislature gave the commissioners power to appro- priate sixteen hundred pounds to purchase a general relase of all these claims, one-half of which was to be devoted to paying the Indians re- siding to the south of the Raritan. This offer was accepted, and a treaty concluded Oct. 26, 1758, and thus ended all difficulties with the Indians in New Jersey .§ This pacification was greatly aided and quickened by an association founded in Philadelphia in 1765, called ' The Friendly Association, for regaining and preserving peace with the Indians by pa- cific measures.' Another cause which contributed to this happy result waa that Teedyuscung, who was king of the Delawares and a chief of very wide infiuence, was a Christian. He became such in 1749, and waa baptized by the name of Gideon. | Also we may suppose that the in- fluence of John Reading, from 1767 to June, 1768, the acting Governor while most of these negotiations wore in progress, would be exerted in behalf of liberal measures towards the Indians, inaamuch as his early experience as surveyor in Hunterdon County when it was yet a wilder- ness and his subsequent residence in this frontier region would well qualify him to know their wrongs and their needs, while the piety which adorned his life would lead him to that charity which overlooks ignorance. "

There were traditions among the descendants of the
Minisink people that the tribe from which that place
derives its name made frequent expeditions down the
river and came back with white men's scalps hanging
at their belts. They stole down on the Pennsylvania
side, and crossed over to this State a little below the
Hopewell hills ; then, returning on this side of the
river, they would lie in ambush along the yet wild
and rugged shores and pick off any unfortunate trav-

f Tradition says that people hid themselves in the openings of the
mines at Union.
I Gordon's " New Jersey," pp. 122 and 124.
g Smith's " New Jersey," chap, xxiii.
jl From MSS. of Dr. Studdiford.



eler who might be passing along the river-path. An
old Indian sachem used to relate that the steep hills
along the Delaware had been the scene of more than
one ambush and murder.

It was only the Indians from the upper country,
however, who committed these acts of violence and
bloodshed. Those whose domain embraced what are
now the counties of Hunterdon and Somerset were
uniformly peaceable and friendly in their intercourse
with the settlers, by whom they were treated with
justice and consideration. Their numbers in this
region steadily decreased as the years passed, but it
was the natural decadence of their race, and not the
steel of the white man, that swept them away. But
a very small remnant of the tribe was left here at the
opening of the Revolution, and of these a few served
in the army under Washington. In a very few years
after the close of the war they had entirely disap-

The right of the Delawares to the ownership of the
lands south of the Baritan was recognized by the
English, and large purchases were made from them
from time to time as the needs of the settlers required,
so that most of their lands had been sold prior to the
treaty of 1758, at which the whole of their remaining
titles were extinguished, except that there was re-
served to them the right to fish in all the rivers and
bays south of the Earitan, and to hunt on all unin-
closed lands. A tract of three thousand acres of land
was also purchased at Edge Pillock, in Burlington
County, and on this the few remaining Delawares of
New Jersey (about sixty in number) were collected
and settled. They remained there until the year
1802, when they removed to New Stockbridge, near
Oneida Lake, in the State of New York, where they
joined their " grandsons," the Stockbridge tribe.
Several years afterwards they again removed, and
settled on a large tract of land on Fox River, Wis.,
which tract had been purchased for their use from
the Menominee Indians. There, in conjunction with
the Stockbridges, they engaged in agricultural pur-
suits, and formed a settlement which was named
Statesburg. There, in the year 1832, there remained
about forty of the Delawares, among whom was still
kept alive the tradition that they were the owners
of fishing and hunting privileges in New Jersey.
They resolved to lay their claims before the Leg-
islature of this State, and request that a moderate
sum (two thousand dollars) might be paid them for its
relinquishment. The person selected to act for them
in presenting the matter before the Legislature was
one of their own nation, whom they called Shawus-
kukhkung (meaning "wilted grass"), but who was
known among the white people as Bartholomew S.
Calvin. He was born in 1756. and was educated at
Princeton College, at the expense of the Scotch mis-
sionary society. At the breaking out of the Revolu-
tion he left his studies to join the patriot army under

Washington, and he served with credit during the
Revolutionary struggle. At the time when his red
countrymen placed this business in his hands he was
seventy-six years of age, yet he proceeded in the
matter with all the energy of youth, and laid before
the Legislature a petition in his favor signed by a
large number of respectable citizens of New Jersey,
together with a memorial, written by his own hand,
as follows :

" My Brethren : I am old and weak and poor, and therefore a fit repreeentative of my people. Tou are young and strong and rich, and therefore fit repreeentatives of your people. But let mo beg you for a moment to lay aside the recollections of yovir strength and of our weak- ness, that your minds may be prepared to examine with candor the sub- ject of our claims. Our tradition informs us and I believe it corresponds with your "
records that the right of fisliing in all the rivers and bays south of the
Karitan, and of hunting in all uninclosed lands, was never relinquished,
but, on the contrary, was expressly reserved in our last treaty, held at
Crosswicks in 1768. Having myself been one of the parties to the sale,
I believe, in 1801,-1 know that these rights were not sold or parted

"We now offer to sell these privileges to the State of New Jersey. They were once of great value to us, and we apprehend that neither time nor distance nor the non-use of our rights has at all affected them, but that the courts here would consider our claims valid were we to exercise them ourselves or delegate them to others. It is not, however, our wish thus to excite litigation. We consider the State Legislature the proper purchaser, and throw ourselves upon its benevolence and magnanimity, trusting that feelings of justice and liberality will induce you to give us what you deem a compensation. And, as we have ever looked up to the leading characters of the United States (and to the leading characters of this State in particular) as our fathers, protectors, and friends, we now look xip to you as such, and humbly beg that you will look upon us with that eye of pity, as we have reason to think our poor untutored fore- fathers looked upon yours when they first arrived upon our then exten- sive but uncultivated dominions, and sold them their lands, in many instances for trifles, in comparison, as 'light as air.' From your humble petitioner, "

"Bartholomew S. Calvin, Tn hehnlf of himself and his red brethren."" "

In the Legislature the subject was referred .to a
committee, which, after patient hearing, reported
favorably ; whereupon the Legislature granted to the
Delawares the sum of two thousand dollars, the full
amount asked for, in consideration of this relinquish-
ment of their last rights and claims in the State of
New Jersey. Upon this result Mr. Calvin addressed
to the Legislature a letter of thanks, which was read
before the two houses in joint session, and was received
with repeated rounds of most enthusiastic applause.
The letter was as follows :

" Trenton, March 12, 1832. Bartholomew S. Calvin takes this method to return his thanks tb both "
houses of the State Legislature, and especially to their committees, for
their very respectful attention to and candid examination of the Indian
claims which he was delegated to present.

"The final act of official intercourse between the State of New Jersey and the Delaware Indians, who once owned nearly the whole of its terri- tory, has now been consummated, and in a manner which must redound to the honor of this growing State, and, in all probability, to the prolon- gation of the existence of a wasted yet grateful people. Upon this parting occasion I feel it to be an incumbent duty to bear the feeble tribute of my praise to the high-toned justice which, in this instance, and, so far as I am acquainted, in all former times, has actuated the councils of this commonwealth in dealing with the aboriginal inhabitants. Not a drop of our blood have you spilled in battle ; not an acre of our "
laud have you taken but by our consent. These facts speak for them-
selves and need no comment. They place the character of New Jersey



In bold relief and bright example to those States within whose territorial
limits our brethren still remain. Nothing save benisons can fall upon
her from the lips of a Lenni Lenap^.

" There may be some who would despise an Indian benediction ; but when I return to my people, and make known to them the result of my mission, the ear of the great SoTereign of the universe, which is still open to our cry, will he penetrated with our invocation of blessings upon the generous sons of New Jersey. "

WMle this Indian claim was under consideration
the cause of the Delawar^s was voluntarily supported
hy a distinguished son of Somerset County, the Hon.
Samuel L. Southard, who, at the close of a most pow-
erful and eloquent appeal, made before the committee,
in favor of the petitioners, said, " It is a proud fact
in the history of New Jersey that every foot of her
soil has been obtained from the Indians by fair and
voluntary purchase and transfer, a fact that no other
State of the Union, not even the land which bears the
name of Penn, can boast of."

"Many years previous to the settlement of the Earitan by the whites, says the late Hon. Ralph "
Voorhees, " the Indians had a path running through
the State, extending from the Falls of the Delaware,
at Trenton, to the first fording-place across the Eari-
tan, near New Brunswick. From thence it ran to
Elizabethtown. It is described in many of the old
deeds as ' the Indian Path.' Its course was along the
highest grounds, and it . . . struck ravines as nearly
opposite to each other as possible, by which it was
made to avoid steep hills.* They thus easily carried
to market their furs and other salable articles."!

Other Indian paths were one from Lambertville,
through Mt. Airy, Eingos, and Eeaville, to Newark,
which later became the " Old York Eoad," and an-
other, which " came in from the north through the
valley at Clarksville, the gateway for all the tribes
who threaded their way down the great valley of the
Wallkill, or crossed over from Pennsylvania at the
forks of the Delaware."^ This Indian highway led
down to the wigwams on the Assanpink, crossing the
east and west path at Eingos. §



Swedish Settlement Occupation by the Dutch Subjection to the Eng-
lish in 1664 Governors Carteret, Andres, etc. Grant to the Duke of
York, and transfer to Berkeley and Carteret Edward Byllinge
Quaker Emigration and Settlement The two Jerseys consolidated
Governors, down to 1776.

In the year 1637 two Swedish ships arrived in the
Delaware, bringing a number of settlers. They were

* This accounts for the many bends and crooks in the road afterwards
laid out upon it, and which subsequently became the dividing-line be-
tween the counties of Somerset and Middlesex.

f B. Vorhees, in " Our Home. "

J The First Century of Hunterdon County, p. 10.

l A store was kept at Bingos, to which in the early day the Indians
resorted from a conquerable distance.

soon followed by other companies, and, in 1642, John
Printz, a military officer, was sent over as Governor
of the colony. He established himself upon the
island now known as Tinicum, which was given to
him in fee by the Queen of Sweden. Here he erected
a fort, planted an orchard, and built a church and
several dwellings, including a fine house for himself,
which was called "Printz Hall." At the same time
with the Governor came also John Campanius Holm,||
a clergyman, and the fixture historian of the colony ;
and in the same company was Lindstrom, an engi-
neer, who afterwards published a map of the Dela-
ware and its adjacent parts.1[

In the government of New Sweden, as that portion
of the State was then called, Printz was followed by
his son, John Papegoia, who soon returned to Europe
and left the government to John Claudius Rising.
In 1655 the Dutch sailed from Manhattan with seven
ships and six hundred men, under the command of
Governor Peter Stuyvesant, and fell unawares on the
Swedish settlements. Fort after fort fell into their
hands, the officers and principal people were made
prisoners and carried to New Amsterdam, while the
Dutch retained possession of the country.**

\ The latter name, Holm, " wai added because of Stockholm being the
place of his residence." Clay^s AnnaU of the Swedes.

f We find Plantagenet (Plantagenet's "New Albion"), in 1648, com-
plaining of the settlements of the Swedes and Dutch within New Albion,
and of the adherence of the English settlers to them rather than to the
authority of the earl-palatine. Plantagenet published a pamphlet in
1648, entitled "A Description of the Province of New Albion, and a Di-
rection for Adventurers with small stock to get two for one, and good
land freely : And for Gentlemen, and all Servants, Labourers, and Arti-
ficers, to live Plentifully," etc. It is dedicated " To the right honourable
and mighty Lord Edmund^ by Divine Providence, Lord Proprietor, Earl-
Palatine, Governour, and Captain-General] of the Province of New Albion ;
and to the Right Honourable the Lord Vicount Monson of CtwUemain,
the Lord Sherard Baron of Leirim : and to all others the Vicounte, Barons,
Baronets, Knights, Gentlemen, Merchants, Adventurers and Planters, of
the hopeful Company of Nevj Albion; in all, 44 undertakers and sub-
scribers, bound by Indenture to bring and settle 3000 able trained men
in our said severall Plantations in the said Province." The author of the
pamphlet was " Beauchamp Plantagenet, of Belvil, in New Albion,
Esquire, one of Company," whose manor of Belvil, containing ten thou-
sand a^res, he had obtained under the province seal. Whiteliead^a East
Jere&j under the Proprietors,

** *' The next who came there were the DiUch ; which was between Forty
and Fifty Tears agoe, though they made but little Improvement, only
built Two or Three Houses, upon an Island (called since by the English)
Stacies Island; and it remained bo, till about the year 1676, in which
King Charles the Second or the Duke of York (his Brother) gave the
Countrey to Edward BiUing, in whose time, one Major Penwick went
thither, with some others, and built a pretty Town, and caUed it Scdmn ;
and in a few Years after a Ship from London^ and another from SvXl
sailed thither with more People, who went higher up into the Countrey,
and built there a Town, and called it Burlington, which is now the chief-
est Town in that Countrey, though Salam is the ancientest. . . . The late
Governor Cox, who bought that Country of Edward Billing, encouraged
and promoted that Town [Burlington] chiefiy, in setting his Agetiis and
Deputy-Governors there (the same Favours are continued by the Neuj- Weai-
Jersey Society, who now manage Matters there) which brings their Assem-
blieB and chief Courts to be kept there ; and, by that means it is become
a very famous Town, having a great many stately Brick Houses in it.
The Countrey inhabited by the Christians is divided into four parts or
counties, tho' the Tenth part of it is not yet peopled." In another con-
nection the author names the four divisions as " ' Burlington, Glocester,
Salam, and Cape-May' counties."
This extract is from a quaint old volume bearing the lengthy title of



The subjection of the Dutch in the New Nether-
lands to English rule in 1664 is a matter of history so
familiar to every intelligent American reader that it
is not necessary to dwell upon it. Immediately after
the surrender of New Amsterdam (New York) by
Governor Stuyvesant, Charles, King of England,
granted the territory to his brother, the Duke of
York, who in turn conveyed that portion of it now
known as New Jersey to Lord Berkeley and Sir George
Carteret. This latter conveyance is said to be the
first instrument in which the bounds of New Jersey
are regularly defined. Berkeley and Carteret formed
a constitution for the colony, and appointed Philip
Carteret, a son of Sir George, as its governor. He
came in 1665, fixed the seat of government at Eliza-
bethtown, purchased land of the Indians, and ofiered
so favorable terms to the settlers in New England as
inducements to emigrate to Jersey that many came
hither and located, principally at Elizabethtown and

In 1673 the Dutch retook New York, hut by the
treaty of the following year the territory of both
that province and New Jersey reverted to the Eng-
lish, who continued in undisturbed possession until
the war which secured the independence of the United
States of America. Doubts having arisen as to the
validity of the title of the Duke of York, a new patent
was issued in 1674, and Edmund Andros was sent over
as Governor. Philip Carteret, who had returned to
England in 1672, returned in 1675, and was welcomed
by the people, who had been uneasy and disaffected
under the arbitrary rule of Andros.

Lord Berkeley, dissatisfied with the pecuniary out-
look of his colonization scheme, disposed of his in-
terest to John Fenwi eke, in trust for Edward Byllinge,
both members of the Society of Friends. He received
the sum of one thousand pounds for the tract of land
then called "New West Jersey,'' embracing about
one-half of the State as now constituted. The division

*' An Historical and Geographical Account of the Province and Country
of PenBilvania and of West-New-Jersey iu America. The Kichne68 of
the Soil, the SweetneBs of the Situation, the Wholesomness of the Air,
the Navigable Hivers, and others, the prodigious Encrease of Corn, the
flourighing Condition of the City of Philadelphia, with the stately Build-
ings, and other Improvements there. The strange Creatures, as Birds,
Beasts, Fishes, and Fowls, with the several sorts of Minerals, Purging
Waters, and Stones, lately discovered. The Natives, Ahorogines, their Lan-
guage, Religion, Laws, and OMtoms ; The first Planters, the Dutch, Sweeds,
and English, with the number of its Inhabitants ; As also a Touch upon
George EeiOCs New Beligion, in his second Change since he left the
QnAKEES. With a Map of both Countries. By Gabriel Thomas, who
resided there about Fifteen Tears. London, Printed for, and Sold by A.
Baldwin, at the Oxon Arms in Warwick-Lane, 1698." It is dedicated to,
Friend William Penu, and in his preface Mr. Thomas says, ". . . Tho'
this Country haa made little Noise in Btory, or taken up but small room
in Maps, yet thus much with great Justice may be said of it, that not-
withstanding the Difficulties and Inconveniences the First English Colo-
nies met with before they were well settled there, yet the mighty Im-
provements, Additions, and Advantages that have been made lately there,
are well worth Communicating to the Publick, and I am sensible they
will be well received."

* East Jersey Eecords ; Whitehead's East Jersey under the Proprietary

between East and West Jersey was made by Carteret
and the trustees of Byllinge, July 1, 1676. The line
of partition was agreed on " from the east side of
Little Egg Harbor, straight north, through the coun-
try, to the utmost branch of Delaware Eiver." This
line was extended from Little Egg Harbor as far as
the South Branch of the Raritan, at a point just east
of the old York road. It was run by Keith, the sur-
veyor-general of East Jersey, but was deemed by the
West Jersey proprietors to be too far west, thereby
encroaching on their lands, and they objected to its
continuance. On the 5th of September, 1668, Gov-
ernors Coxe and Barclay, representing the respective
interests, entered into an agreement, to terminate the
dispute. It was that this line, so far as run, should
be the bound, and that in its extension it should take
the following course : From the point where it touched
the South Branch, " along the back of the adjoining
plantations, until it touches the north branch of the
Earitan, at the falls of the Allamitung,t thence run-
ning up that stream northward to its rise near Succa-
sunny." From that point a short straight line was to
be run to touch the nearest part of the Passaic Eiver.
Such a line would pass about five miles north of
Morristown. The line was to be continued by the
course of the Passaic as far as the Paquanick, and up
that branch to forty-one degrees north latitude, and
from that point in " a straight line due east to the
partition-point on Hudson Eiver between East Jersey
and New York.'' This line gave to the northern part
of West Jersey the present counties of Warren and
Sussex, and portions of Morris, Passaic, and Bergen.
The Coxe-Barclay agreement was not carried into ef-
fect, although the division-line constituted the eastern
boundary of Hunterdon County until Morris County
was Erected, in 1738.

Edward Byllinge became so embarrassed in his
financial ventures that in 1676 he was compelled to
assign his interests to William Penn, Gawen Lowrie,
and Nicholas Lucas, all Quakers, "to be used for
the benefit of his creditors." Prior to this, however,
he had sold a number of shares, and the trustees
sold many shares to different purchasers, who there-
by became proprietaries in common with them.
Fenwicke soon after made a similar assignment.
As these trustees were Quakers, the purchasers
were mostly members of that body. Two companies
were formed, one in Yorkshire, the other in London,
both intent on colonization in America, and in the
same year some four hundred persons came over, most
of them persons of considerable means. Daniel Coxe
was connected with the London Company, and one
of the largest shareholders ; subsequently he became
the owner of extensive tracts of land in old Hunter-
don County.

At that time persecution in England was driving
the Quakers to America as to a haven of religious tol-

t Now the Lamington Falls.



eration and social equality. Emigration commenced
in the spring of 1677, and on the 16th of June in that
year the ship " Kent" arrived from London with two
hundred and thirty passengers. This was the second
ship " to the Western parts." Next arrived the " "Wil-
ling Mind," John Newcomb commander, with sixty
or seventy more. Several settlements were started,
and West Jersey became, as early as the year 1680,
quite populous. Burlington was founded, and be-
came the principal town. There the land-office for
the whole province of West Jersey was located, and
there all deeds were recorded.

In 1681, Samuel Jennings, having received a com-
mission from Byllinge as deputy-governor, came to
West Jersey, called an assembly, and with them
agreed upon a constitution and form of government.
From this time on assemblies were held each year,
courts were established in several places, and "jus-
tice was administered in due course of law." Jen-
nings' successors in the executive department were
Thomas Olive, John Skeine, William Welsh, Dan-
iel Coxe, and Andrew Hamilton. The last-named
continued as Governor until the proprietary charter
was surrendered to the Crown.

In the years 1701 and 1702 there occurred many dis-
sensions and disturbances in both the east and west
provinces, but the proprietors, finally wearied of con-
tending with one another, and with the people, drew
up an instrument whereby they surrendered their
right df government to the crown,* which was ac-
cepted by Queen Anne, April 17, 1702. This was the
end oi proprietary government in New Jersey ; thence-
forward, until 1776, it was under royal rule.

The queen consolidated both Jerseys into one prov-
ince, and commissioned Lord Cornbury as Governor
of both New York and New Jersey. In this capacity
he acted from 1703 until 1708, when, giving heed to

* See Smith's " New Jersey," pp. 560-573, and " Grants and Conces-
sions," pp. 508-609, for some of the documents connected with the ne-
gotiations, and many others are in the New Jersey Colonial Documents.
The proprietaries who signed away the sovereignty of East Jersey were
Peter Sonmans, Joseph Ormston, Charles Omiston, Edward Antill,
George Willocks, Francis Hancock, Sir Thomas Lane, Paul Dominique,
Robert Mitchell, Joseph Brooksbank, Edward Richier, Michael Watts,
Clement Plumstead, Robert Burnet, Miles Forster, John Johnston, Mich-
ael Hawdon, John Barclay, David Lyell, Thomas Warne, Thomas Gor-
don, Thomas Barker, TJunnas Cooler, Gilbert Mollison, Richard Hasel, and
William Dockwra. Three of these those in italics were of the
twenty-four who nineteen years previous had received the grant from
the Duke of York. And it was said in 1759 that sixty-four years after
the grant to the twenty-four (1746) there was not a male descendant of
the whole number enjoying " a foot of land in East Jersey" excepting the
right of the Penns and two or three small plantations occupied by the
Hartshornes and Warnes, a reflection which should " abate our ardor
in the pursuit of lands and wealth, and make us think ourselves, at best,
but tenants in common to the blessings which the earth produces and
co-heirs of the gifts of nature." "A Pocket CommetUary of the first setUing
of New Jersey by the Europeans : and an account or fair detail of the origi-
nal Indian East Jersey grants, and other rights of the like tenor in East New
Jersey. Digested in order. New York, printed by Samuel Parker, 1759."
This little work, containing many interesting remarks respecting men
and things in New Jer8ey,is in the Philadelphia Library, the only copy
ever seen or heard of by the writer. East Jersey under the Proprietors,
WiUiamA. Whitehead, p. 220.

the grievous complaints made against him by the peo-
ple, the queen revoked his commission. He was suc-
ceeded by John, Lord Lovelace, but his death (which
occurred May 5, 1709) threw the government into the
hands of Lieutenant-Governor Ingoldsby. Governor
Hunter's administration commenced in 1710 ; in 1720
he resigned in favor of William Burnet. Afterwards
officiated John Montgomery, 1727 to 1731 ; William
Cosby, 1731 to 1736; John Anderson, also in 1736;
John Hamilton, 1736 to 1738. In the summer of the
last-named year a commission arrived to Lewis Mor-
ris as Governor of New Jersey, separate from New
York ; he served until his death, in 1746. He was
followed successively by President Hamilton, 1746;
John Reading, 1746 ; Jonathan Belcher, 1747 ; John
Reading, 1757; Francis Bernard, 1758; Thomas
Boone, 1760; Josiah Hardy, 1761; and William
Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin, in 1763, the
last royal Governor, he being deposed, arrested, and
sent a prisoner to Connecticut in 1776.



Eafit Jersey under the Proprietois, 1680 to 1702 Robert Barclay and
Thomas Rudyard Collision with the Province of New York Gov-
ernors Barclay, Dudley, Hamilton, etc. Opposition to Governor Basse
Opposition to the Proprietary Government The Crisis Surrender
to the Crown, in 1702.

In the preceding chapter have been given in outline
the events occurring in the province under Governors
Carteret and the tyrannical Andros up to the time of
the division of New Jersey into an east and a west
division. We then traced more particularly the for-
tunes of the latter. In this chapter it is intended
briefly to portray the varying events in the history of
East Jersey under the proprietary government.

On the 16th of October, 1680, the Duke of York
relinquished all his pretensions to East Jersey in favor
of the grandson and heir of Sir George Carteret,t
soon after which Andros returned to England. Sir
George died in 1680, and by his will, dated Dec. 5,
1678, left his widow, Lady Elizabeth, executrix of his
estate and guardian of his grandson and heir, George,
a son of Sir Philip, and devised to Edward, Earl of
Sandwich, John, Earl of Bath, Hon. Bernard Gren-
ville, brother to the Earl of Bath, Sir Thomas Crewe,
Knight, Sir Robert Atkyns, Knight of the Bath, and
Edward Atkyns, one of the barons of the Exchequer,
and their heirs, among other lands, all his property in
East Jersey, in trust for the benefit of his creditors.
These trustees, failing to find a purchaser by private
application, offered it at public sale to the highest
bidder, William Penn with eleven associates, most of
whom were Quakers, and some already interested in

f Bill in Chancery, p. 8.



[the duke of YOEK JAMES II.]






[gov. p. caeteeet]



[edavaed byllinge, peopeietoe.]










West Jersey, becoming the purchasers for three thou-
sand four hundred pounds* Their deeds of lease
and release were dated the 1st and 2d of February,
1681-82, and subsequently each of them sold one-half
of his respective right to a new associate, making in
all twenty-four proprietaries.f In the following year
the Duke of York confirmed this sale by issuing a new
grant to the proprietors, their names there appearing in
the following order : James, Earl of Perth, John Drum-
mond, Robert Barclay, David Barclay, Bobert Gor-
don, Arent Sonmans, William Penn, Robert West,
Thomas Rudyard, Samuel Oroom, Thomas Hart, Rich-
ard Mew, Ambrose Rigg, John Heywood, Hugh Harts-
home, Clement Plumstead, Thomas Cooper, Gawen
Lawrie, Edward Byllinge, James Brain, William Gib-
son, Thomas Barker, Robert Turner, and Thomas
Warne, those. in italics being eleven of the twelve
original purchasers; Thomas Wilcox, the twelfth,
having parted with his interest, Feb. 27, 1682, to
David Barclay.^

There was a strange mingling of professions, re-
ligions, and characters in these proprietaries, among
them being, as an English writer observes, "high-
prerogative men (especially those from Scotland),
dissenters, papists, and Quakers."^ The first twelve
purchasers, however, were mostly, if not all, Quakers,
and, as some of their associates were of the same re-
ligious faith, they had a controlling influence in the
body, which fact may explain why Robert Barclay, of
Urie, a Quaker and a personal friend of William
Penn, was selected to be Governor of the province.
It was a worthy choice, as he was a man of learning,
of religious zeal, and of exemplary character. || Such
was the esteem and confidence in which he was held
by his fellow-proprietaries that they subsequently
commissioned him as Governor for life ; nor was he
required to visit the province in person, but was
allowed to exercise his authority by deputy. For
this office he selected Thomas Rudyard, an eminent
lawyer of London and one of the proprietaries.

Soon after his arrival Rudyard selected as his coun-
selors Col. Lewis Morris, Capt. John Berry, Capt.
John Palmer, Capt. William Sandford, Lawrence
Andress, and Benjamin Price, before whom he was
sworn into oflEice (Dec. 20, 1682) as deputy-governor.
The previous " Concessions " were confirmed, and the
Assembly called by Rudyard, which held three ses-
sions during the year 1683 at Elizabethtown, " passed
several acts of importance tending to the well-being

* Grahame, ii., p. 289 ; New Jersey Laws, 1834-35, p. ITS. Copies of the
lease and release to tlie twelve are in the Secretary of State's office, Tren-
ton, presented by descendants of Clement Plumstead, one of the grantees.

f EaBt Jersey under the Proprietors, pp. 100-103.

X Ibid., p. 118. Gordon gives, as the additional twelve, thirteen names,
among them Sir George Mackenzie, Robert Burnet, Peter Sonmans,
Thomas C<)x, and William Dockwra, who were all subsequent pur-
chasers. Robert Turner he calls Gawen Turner, and Thomas Warne,
Thomas Naime^ possibly clerical or typographical errors.

g Wynne's British Empire, i., p. 206.

I See Allibone's " Dictionary of Authors" for a full sketch of his life
and writings.

of the province." Among these were acts remodeling
the criminal and penal codes, etc., and "An Act di-
viding the province into four counties, and appointing
a high-sherifi' for each." The county of Bergen in-
cluded all the settlements between the Hudson and
Hackensack Rivers, and extended to the northern
bounds of the province; Essex, all the country north
of the dividing-line between Woodbridge and Eliza-
bethtown and west of the Hackensack ; Middlesex, all
from the Woodbridge line on- the north to Cheese-
quake Harbor on the southeast, and back southwest
and northwest to the province bounds ; and Mon-
mouth comprised the residue. A point of variance
between the deputy-governor and Groom, the sur-
veyor-general, led to Barclay's supersedure by Gawen
Lawrie, a London merchant and a proprietary, who
was already deeply interested in West Jersey.

Although most of the proprietaries resided in Great
Britain, still emigration and transfers of proprietary
rights soon brought to East Jersey many persons who
were directly interested in the soil, resident prop-
erty-holders, who Aug. 1, 1684, established a " Board
of Proprietors," composed of " all the proprietaries
that might be from time to time in the province," and
was designed " to act with the deputy-governor in the
temporary approval of laws passed by the Assembly,
the settlement of all disputes with the planters," etc.
This board continued to have prominent control
within the province " of those concerns which were
connected with the proprietary titles to the govern-
ment and soil."1[ Great pains was taken by the pro-
prietary government to avoid a collision with the
province of New York, whose Governor, Dongan, re-
frained from any open act of hostility until 1685,
when William Dyre was appointed collector of the

The Duke of York was now (1685), by the death of
Charles II., raised to the throne as James II., and,
notwithstanding he had thrice conveyed and con-
firmed to others all the rights, powers, and privileges
he had in New Jersey, he resolved to extend his royal
prerogative over it in order to increase his revenues.
The proprietaries in England were not silent under
this arbitrary action of the sovereign. In a petition
to the king in council they specified some of the en-
croachments of Dongan, in relation to the seizure of
vessels trading to New Jersey, as calculated to " over-
throw one of the most hopeful colonies in America."
In a remonstrance subsequently presented to the king
they reminded him that they had not received the
province as a gratuity, but had expended for it twelve
thousand pounds ; that under his own confirmation of
their title and assurance of protection they had sent
thither several hundreds of people from Scotland, but
as yet had received no returns ; and that, notwithstand-
ing all these guarantees, their rights had been violated
by the Governor of New York. They signified their

^ East Jersey under the Proprietors, p. 141.



willingness to submit to an imposition of the same
customs that were levied in New York, and among
other prayers requested that a customs officer might
be appointed at Perth Amboy.* The last request was
the only one granted, as it promised additional rev-
enue and did not conflict with the designs he then
had in view.

On the 6th of April, 1686, the Assembly met for
the first time at the new seat of government, Perth
Amboy. Lawrie was succeeded by Lord Neill Camp-
bell, in the same year. His council was composed of
Gawen Lawrie, Maj. John Berry, of Bergen, Isaac
Kingsland, of New Barbadoes, Capt. Andrew Hamil-
ton, of Amboy, Eichard Townley, of Elizabethtown,
Samuel Winder, of Cheesequakes, David Mudie and
John Johnston, of Amboy, and Thomas Codrington,
of Earitan. In 1687, Lord Campbell returned to
Scotland, leaving Andrew Hamilton as his substitute.
Under the operations of the writ of quo warranto, is-
sued in 1686 against the proprietors by the order of
King James, the king's pliant tool, Andros, commis-
sioned as Governor over all New England, proceeded
to extend his sway not only over that country, but
over New Jersey, and, finding the king immovable in
this determination, " the proprietaries of East Jersey
considered it advisable to abandon the hopeless con-
test for their previously-conceded privileges, and by
facilitating the king's design obtain his guarantee to
respect their right to the soil. They consequently
made a formal surrender of their patent on this con-
dition in April, 1688." The quo warranto process was
stayed so far as aifected East Jersey ; and, as the pro-
prietaries of West Jersey also entered into the ar-
rangement, a new commission was directed to Andros,
annexing both provinces to his government, together
with New York, Governor Dongan being thus su-
perseded, with Francis Nicholson as his lieutenant.
This made but little if any change in the government
of East Jersey, as Andros wisely continued all their
oificers in their places.

In August, 1689, Hamilton left for Europe, and the
people of East Jersey were left to the guardianship of
their county and town oificers from that time until
1692. " These, however, possessed ample powers to
meet all common emergencies, and without any pres-
sure from abroad, or attempted exercise of any dis-
puted prerogative within the province by the agents
of the proprietaries, the authority of these local mag-
istrates appears to have been respected and the peace
of the community preserved."! Bancroft asserts that
during this period East Jersey had no government
whatever ; but this is disputed by Whitehead and
others, whose opinions are supported by a reference to
the various charters and local regulations.

After the death of Governor Barclay, in 1690, the
proprietaries appointed John Latham, and, in 1691,

* East Jersey under the Proprietariee, pp. 141-146.
t Ibid., p. 184.

Col. Joseph Dudley, as Governor, but the people
scrupled to obey both, although the reason is not
given. Perth Amboy, the new capital, had grown to
be an important village, and from thence the new set-
tlers spread westward, entering upon the unbroken
interior and establishing themselves on the banks of
the Earitan, soon becoming sufficiently numerous to
call for the erection of a new county ; hence Som-
erset was set off' from Middlesex in 1688, with a some-
what larger territory than it has at present.

In September, 1692, Andrew Hamilton, who had
been appointed Governor, arrived in Jersey, "and
was received in a manner that removed every impedi-
ment to the re-establishment of the proprietary gov-
ernment."! He appointed John Barclay receiver-
and surveyor-general, and Thomas Gordon resident
secretary. On the 14th of the month he selected as
his council Capt. Isaac Kingsland, 'Capt. Andrew
Bowne, John Inians, of Earitan Eiver, David Mudie,|
James Dundas, John Eoyce, of Eoycefield, Samuel
Dennis, John Bishop, and Lewis Morris. September
28th a General Assembly convened at Perth Amboy,
at which the laws passed subsequent to 1682 were,
with a few exceptions, re-enacted and others amended.
An act was also passed authorizing a special tax of
four hundred pounds to lighten the burden of New
York in the war between England and France, the
frontier settlements being much exposed to expedi-
tions from Canada. This action must have been
prompted by a sense of duty, as East Jersey had no
danger to apprehend from the French, and certainly
at this time had no unusual regard for the interests
of New York. In 1696 similar projects for the relief
of New York found little favor. ||

From 1692 to 1696 a more quiet condition of affairs
prevailed than had existed for years, but dissensions
were not yet at an end. Considerable agitation pre-
vailed concerning the payment of quit-rents, but no
adjustment of the matter was arrived at. The first
judicial decision respecting land-titles was obtained
in 1695, the judgment being in favor of the party
claiming under the proprietary grants. This was ren-
dered of non-effect by the reversal of the king in
council on account of a technical informality in the

In 1697 the proprietaries in England appointed
Jeremiah Basse to succeed Governor Hamilton, and
much dissatisfaction was felt and expressed in both
Jerseys when it was found he had not received the
royal approbation, but only the support of the pro-
prietors. For that reason he postponed calling the
Assembly together, but rather sought to make friends
from among the opponents of that body. It was not
until Feb. 21, 1699, that he convened the Assembly.
Basse's first court was held in May, 1698, the record
of which bears this entry :

X Ibid., p. 188.

g Ricliai-d Hartshorne Biicceeded Mudie in 1695.

II 'Wliitehead ; East Jersey under tlie Proprietaries, p. 191.



" Lewis Morris, Esq., came in open Court and demanded by what au- thoritie they kept Court. The Court declared by y« Kings Authoritie. He deuied it & being aslsed, Who was disaatasiied besides himself, he said "
One and all. The court commanding ye said Morris to be taken in cns-
todj', (X\ Kichard Townley, Andrew Hanipton, both of Elizabethtown,
& three or four more, cried one and all, and y said Lewis Morris said he
would fain see who durst lay hold on him and when a Constable by
order of ye Court laid hold ou him, he, in y face of y Court, resisted."*

Soon after (1699) followed the passage of a bill by
the Assembly excluding from that body "any pro-
prietor or representative of one.'' This was the out-
come of the opposition of George Willocksf to a bill
before the Assembly, which was passed, and a writ
issued by the Governor for the election of a member
of Assembly in his stead. Thus were the proprietary
interests endangered. The unjust action and harass-
ing proceedings of New York in relation to the trade
of the province formed another source of trouble.
Governor Bellamont, of New York, tried to obstruct
the foreign trade of East Jersey, and even forbade the
printing in New York of proclamations which Gov-
ernor Basse was anxious to distribute, making known
the establishment of the ports of Perth Amboy and
Burlington. Bellamont also published a proclama-
tion, based upon an order he had obtained from the
and West Jersey to the privilege of ports. Governor
Basse resisted with much spirit. He put a cargo on
board the ship " Hester," lying at Perth Amboy, and
it was about to sail, when Bellamont sent down an
armed force, seized the vessel and brought her to the
city ; and, as Basse refused to have her cleared from
New York, she was condemned in the Court of Ad-
miralty. These diflBculties continued until 1700,
when Basse's claim for damages came before the
Court of King's Bench, resulting in an award to
Basse and the thorough establishment of the right of
East Jersey to the privileges of a port.

If Governor Basse met with opposition from the
people at first, he found it greatly increased as months
passed. Indeed, there were serious apprehensions of
an insurrection under the leadership of Willocks and
Morris. Nor were matters improved by the action of
the citizens of Perth Amboy in returning Lewis Morris
to the seat in the Assembly declared vacant by the
dismissal of Willocks. Although both were cited to
appear before the court at its October term, which
citation they refused to obey, and although both the
Council and Assembly became involved in this vex-
atious issue, it does not appear that they were tried,
for every month brought greater anarchy, until Basse's
government was openly defied. Aug. 19, 1699, Gover-
nor Hamilton was reinstated, notwithstanding Basse's
efforts to prevent it; but he did not arrive in the
province until December, prior to which time Basse
had sailed for England. Hamilton's course being one

of pacification,^ his authority was at first generally
submitted to ; but this was not to last long, for there
was still a numerous party who held a deep-rooted
aversion to the proprietary government, no matter by
whom represented. The majority of the Assembly
were of this class, and when Hamilton dissolved the
Assembly, May 31st, the day after it first convened,
" the validity of his commission was for the first time openly called in question. Tumultuous and seditious meetings were subsequently held, the justices ap- pointed by him were assaulted while sitting in open court by bodies of armed men, the sheriff's were at- tacked and wounded when in the discharge of their duties, and every exertion made to seduce those peace- ably disposed from their allegiance to the government ; so that this period became known in after-years as 'the Kevolution.' J Of this critical time Whitehead "

" A crisis had evidently arrived in the affairs of the proyince which the proprietors were not prepared to encounter successfully. As a body they had become so numerous, so scattered, some in England, some in Scotland, and some in America, and so divided in interests, that unan- imity in council could scarcely be expected ; aud yet the inhabitants were pui-suing such a system of measures as required the utmost wisdom to project, with equal firmness and union to administer, such remedies as could alone lead to the re-establishment of peace and regularity : without these necessary qualities to control their opponents, but one result could be anticipated.!] "

Full soon came the end. The surrender of the
government by the proprietaries was perfected on
paper April 15, 1702, and, on the 25th of July, Queen
Anne selected Edward Hyde, Lord Viscount Corn-
bury, as Governor of the to-be-united provinces.

* East Jersey Eecords. For this contempt the court fined him fifty
pounds, and ordered him " to be committed to prison till paid." Jfe»
Jersey Colonial DocumejUs.

-f He was agent for the proprietors to collect quit-rents aud arrearages,
and also a member of Assembly.



The Conflict Commences Governor Franklin's Opposition The Com-
mittee of Correspondence aud Inquiry Meetings in Hunterdon and
Somerset First Provincial Congress Township Meetings The Mili-
tia and "Minute-Men" The "Committee of Safety" Scarcity of
Arms and Ammunition The Hunterdon and Somerset Troops ordered
to March The Colony, of New Jersey transformed into an Indepen-
dent State The Flying-Camp Retreat of the American Army The
Enemy's Advance through New Jersey Capture of Gen. Lee Crossing
the Delaware-^The Fights at Trenton and Assanpink Battle of
Princeton Washington at Pluckamin Captain Leslie The Army
goes into Winter Quarters at Morristown.


The stories of the part taken by the counties of
Hunterdon and Somerset in the war of the Eevolu-
tion and of what the people of these counties did
and suff"ered and sacrificed in the great struggle for
national independence, do not necessarily, nor in-
deed properly, include a detailed account of all the
long and bloody conflict between the colonies and the
mother-country, but only of such of its military and

t He wisely restored Morris to the Council.

3 Bill in Chancery ; East Jersey under the Proprietaries.

11 East Jei-sey under the Proprietaries, p. 213.



civil eyents as occurred witkin or in the near vicinity
of the territory of the two counties, and of such parts
of the Revolutionary drama as, being enacted else-
where, were yet participated in by men of Hunterdon
and Somerset as prominent actors.

The causes which drove the American colonies into
the conflict which finally resulted in their separation
from Great Britain have been too frequently enumer-
ated and too fully set forth in general history to need
a recital here. These causes first began to operate
between the years 1760 and 1765, when measures
were proposed in the British Parliament looking to
the taxation of the American subjects of the English
king to raise a revenue for the support of the home
government. The general feeling of discontent
awakened among the colonists by the inauguration
of these measures was intensified by the subsequent
passage of the odious "Stamp Act," the imposition
of a duty on tea, and other similar schemes of taxa-
tion ; so that, when intelligence was received of the
passage of the " Boston Port Bill," on the 31st of
March, 1774, there arose an almost universal murmur
of indignant remonstrance against a policy which was
stigmatized as unendurable tyranny. The measure
last named had been directed especially against the
chief port of New England, but all the other colonies
were in sympathy with that of Massachusetts Bay
and made her cause their own, as well they might,
for it was clear to the understanding of all intelligent
persons that if such acts of oppression were submitted
to in Boston, they would ere long be enforced in all
the colonies, from New Hampshire to Georgia,

This conviction produced among the people a feel-
ing, not of indignation alone, but of alarm at the
dangerous invasion of their rights ; and, although as
yet there had been awakened no general sentiment of
disloyalty to King George, there were not a few among
the more clear-sighted of the colonists who even then
foresaw that they might, and probably would, be
finally driven to the dread alternative of armed resist-
ance. " Nothing could have been devised* by the
wit of man more effective for the speedy education
and enlightenment of the people of the colonies than
these obnoxious measures. The colony fif New Jer-
sey broke out in a simultaneous blaze of indignation
from Sussex to Cape May, and immediate measures
were taken to organize the various counties into a
combination of the friends of liberty which should
secure promptitude and unity of action throughout
the province."

It was not the passage of the Port Bill, however
which first led the friends of liberty in this province
to combine for mutual safety, for it is found that more
than seven weeks before the passage of that act and
three monthsf before the announcement had reached

* The language of Mr. Charles D. Deshler in a paper read by him before
the New Bmnswick Historical Club at its fifth anniversary, Dec. IG 18Y6

J ?n,^ "71,°' *'" """'"^^ °^ ''"' ^°''* ^"^ ^''^ '^'"'" '"> i" Boston on
the loth of May.

the shores of America, a general " Committee of Cor-
respondence and Inquiry" had been constituted here,
having for its object consultation with the most prom-
inent men in the New Jersey counties, and corre-
spondence with similar committees in other colonies.
The particulars of the formation of this committee, its
composition, and the duties with which it was charged
are shown by the following extract from the Minutes
of the House of Assembly of New Jersey, dated New
Brunswick, Tuesday, February 8, 1774, viz. :

" The House resumed the consideration of the several Letters and Resolutions of the other Houses of Assembly on the subject-matter of the common Eights and Liberties of the Colonies ; and the House re- solved itself into a Committee of the whole House upon Matters afore- said ; and after some time spent therein, Mr. Speaker resumed the Chair, and Mr. Crane, Chairman of the Committee (by order of the House), reported the Kesolutiona of the Committee, ae follows, viz. : 1. BeBolved, That it is the opinion of this Committee that the House "
should heartily accept of the InvitationJ to a mutual Correspondence and
Intercourse with our Sister-Colonies ; to which the House agreed Nemitie

" 2. Resolved^ That it is the opinion of this committee that a Standing Committee of Correspondence and Inquiry be appointed, to consist of the following persons, to wit: James Kinsey, Stephen Crane, Hendrick Fisher.g Samuel Tucker,|| John Wetherill, Bobert Friend Price, John Hinchman, John Mehelmjl and Edward Taylor, Esquires, or any five of them, whose business it shall be to obtain the most early and authentick intelligence of all Acts and Resolutions of the Parliament of Great Britain, or the Proceedings of Administration that may have any Rela- tion to, or may affect the Liberties and Privileges .of His Majesty's Sub- jects in the British Colonies in America, and to keep up and maintain a Correspondence and Communication with our Sister-Colonies respecting these important considerations ; and that they do occasionally lay their Proceedings before the House ; to which the House agreed Nemine Con- tradicente, 3. Eesolved, That it is the opinion of this Committee that the said "
Committee of Correspondence do write Letters to the several Speakers
of the Assemblies on the Continent of America, inclosing these Resolu-
tions, and requesting them to lay the same before their respective As-
semblies; and that they do return the Thanks of the House to the Bur-
gesses of Virginia for their early Attention to the Liberties of America;
to which the House agreed Nemine Contradieeniey

The Governor, William Franklin (son of Dr. Ben-
jamin Franklin, but, unlike his father, a man of
strong royalist proclivities), was opposed to the for-
mation of such a committee, and in a letter written
by him to the Earl of Dartmouth, on the 31st of May,
1774, expressed his opinion as follows :

"The Virginia Assembly some time ago appointed a Committee of Correspondence, to correspond with all the other Assemblies on the. Con- tinent, which example has been followed by every other House of Rep- resentatives. I was in hopes that the Assembly of this Province would not have gone into the measure ; for though they met on the loth of No- vember, yet they avoided taking the matter into consideration, though frequently urged by some of the members, until the Sth of February, and then I believe they would not have gone into it but that the Assem- bly of New York had just before resolved to appoint such a committee, and they did not choose to appear singular. "

On the 1st of June, the day next following the date
of Governor Franklin's letter, a meeting (probably
the first one) of the Committee of Correspondence
and Inquiry was held at New Brunswick, and a brief

X The " invitation" referred to was a proposition made by the House of
Burgesses of the colony of Virginia to the Assembly of New Jersey to
appoint from its members a Standing Committee of Correspondence for
the objects referred to above.

I Of Somerset County.

li Of Hunterdon County.



mentioa of it is found* in a letter written by one of
the members of the committee, under date of July 2,
1774, from which, the following is extracted, viz. :

" I returned yesterday from New Brunswick, where six of our Com- mittee met. We answered the Boston letters, informing them that we look on New Jersey as eventually in the same predicament with Boston, and that we will do everything which may be generally agreed on. We have signed a request to the Governor to call the General Assemblyf to meet at such time as His Excellency may think proper before the first of August next. Our Committee is well disposed in the cause of American freedom. "

Of the nine members of this first Committee of
Correspondence for the colony of New Jersey, three
were furnished by Hunterdon and Somerset, namely,
Samuel Tucter and John Mehelm of the former, and
Hendrick Fisher of the latter county.

The meeting of the committee at New Brunswick
was immediately followed by gatherings of the people
in nearly all of the counties in New Jersey. The ob-
ject of these meetings (which were convened at the
call of prominent and infl,uential citizens of the sev-
eral counties) was to perfect, as far as possible, a gen-
eral organization of citizens opposed to encroach-
ments on the rights of the colonies by the home
government, and especially to provide for the selec-
tion of persons to represent them in a general Con-
gress of Deputies from the several colonies, proposed
by the Burgesses of Virginia, to be held for the pur-
pose of forming a plan of union, and, in general, to
devise measures for the public welfare.

The first of this series of local meetings was held
by " the Freeholders and Inhabitants of Lower Free-
hold, in the county of Monmouth, in New Jersey, on
Monday, the 6th day of June, 1774, after due notice
given of the time, place, and occasion of this meet-
ing." The next meeting was in Essex County, held
at the court-house in Newark, on Saturday, June 11th.
This was followed by meetings held in Bergen County
on the 25th, and in Morris County on the 27th of the
same month. It is known that the people of Som-
erset County were convened in the same manner, at
about the same time, and for the same purposes, but
neither the exact date nor any minutes of the pro-
ceedings of the meeting have been found. The rec-
ord of the Hunterdon County meeting has been
preserved, and is as follows :

"The Freeholders and Inhabitants of Hunterdon County, in the Province of New Jersey, convened by advei-tiaement at the house of John Eingo, in Amwell, in said county, on Friday, the 8th July, 17Y4, Samuel Tucker, Esq., in the chair, came into the following Kesolutions without a dissenting voice, viz. : 1. We do most expressly declare, recognize, and acknowledge His "
Majesty King George the Third to be the lawful and rightful King of
Great Britain and of all other his Dominions, and that it is the indis-

* Fide Minutes of the Provincial Congress and Council of Safety, 1775

-76, p. 4.

dated Burlington, June 18, 1774, he said, " I have likewise had an ap-
plication made to nie by some of the members of the House of Repre-
sentatives to call a meeting of the General Assembly in August next,
with which I have not nor shall not comply, as there is no public busi-
ness of the province which can make such a meeting necessary."

pensable duty of this Colony, under the enjoyment of our constitutional
privileges and immunities, aa being a part of His Majesty's Dominions,
always to bear faithful and true allegiance to His Majesty, and him to
defend to the utmost of our power against all attempts upon his person,
crown, and dignity.

" 2. That it is the undoubted hereditary right of an English subject to give and grant what is absolutely his own, either by himself or his Bep- resentatives ; and that the only lawful Representatives of the freemen of this Colony are the persons they elect to serve aa members of the Genera] Assembly thereof. 3. That any Act of Parliament for the apprehending and carrying of "
persons into another Colony or to Great Britain to be tried for any crime
alleged to be committed within this Colony, or subjecting them to be
tried by Commissioners, or any Court constituted by Act of Parliament
or otherwise, within this Colony, in a summary way without a juiy of
this vicinage, is unconstitutional and subversive of the rights and liber-
ties of the free subjects of this Colony.

"4. That it is our indispensable duty, which we owe to our King, our country', ourselves, and our posterity, by all lawful ways and means in our power, to maintain, defend, and preserve our loyalty, rights, and liberties, and to transmit them inviolate to the latest generations ; and that it is our fixed, determined, and unalterable resolution faithfully to discharge this our bounden duty. 5. That it is our unanimous opinion that it would conduce to the "
restoration of the liberties of America should the Colonies enter into a
joint agreement not to purchase or use any articles of British manufac-
ture, nor any commodities imported from the East Indies, under such
restrictions bb may be agreed on by a general Congress of Delegates
from all the Colonies, hereafter to be appointed.

" 6. That aa the town of Boston is now suifering in the common cause of American freedom, it is the opinion of this meeting that subscriptions be hereafter opened in every town in this county, and the money sub- scribed to be applied towards the relief of the suffering poor in said town of Boston until they may be relieved by being restored to their just rights and privileges. 7. That this county will appoint a Committee to meet the Committees "
of the several counties of this Colony at such time and place as may be
agreed on in order to elect and appoint Delegates to represent this Col-
ony at the general Congress, whose resolutions we will most strictly ad-
here to and abide by. And we do hereby unanimously request the fol-
lowing gentlemen to accept of that trust, and do accordingly appoint
them our Committee for the purpose aforesaid, viz., Samuel Tucker,-
John Mehelm, John Hart, Isaac Smith, Charles Coxe, Joachim Griggs,
Benjamin Brearly, Abraham Hunt, and John Bmley.

" As we apprehend New Brunswick is not so convenient to the mem- bers of the lower counties.'and that all the counties will hardly have sufficient time to appoint their Committees by the 21st of July, vrith submission we would propose Princeton aa most central to be the place, and Thursday, the 11th of August the time, of meeting of the several Committees. Thomas Shelton, "
Committee Clerk,

Similar meetings for the choice of committees were
held in the other counties, and on Thursday, July 21,
1774, " a general meeting of the Committees of the
several counties in the Province of New Jersey" was
convened at New Brunswick, and continued its ses-
sions until the following Saturday. Seventy-two
members were in attendance. Stephen Crane, Esq.,
of Essex, was called to the chair, and Jonathan D.
Sergeant, of Somerset County, was chosen clerk. The
record J of the proceedings of the convention is as
follows :

" The Committees, taking into their serious consideration the danger- ous and destructive nature of sundry Acts of the British Parliament with respect to the fundamental liberties of the American colonies, con- ceive it their indispensable duty to bear their open testimony against them, and to concur with the other colonies in prosecuting all legal t Minutes of the Provincial Congress and Council of Safety, 1795-76, p. 25. 28 liUNTEEDOxNT AND SOMEKSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY. and necessary nieosures for obtaining their speedy repeal. Therefore we unanimously agree in the following sentiments and resolutions; Itit. We think it necessary to declare that the inhabitants of this "
Province (and we are confident the people of America in general) are,
and ever have been, firm and unshaken in their loyalty to His Majesty
King George the Third ; fast friends to the Revolutiou settlement; and
that they detest all thoughts of an independence of the Crown of Great
Britain. Accordingly we do, in the most sincere and solemn manner,
recognize and acknowledge His Majesty King George the Third to
be our lawful and rightful Sovereign, to whom, under his royal protec-
tion in our fundamental rights and privileges, we owe, and will ren-
der, all due faith and allegiance.

" 2d. We think ourselves warranted, from the principles of our excel- lent Constitution, to affirm that the claim of the British Parliament (in which we neither are nor can be represented) to make laws which shall be binding on the King's American subjects 'in all cases whatsoever,' and particularly for imposing taxes for the purpose of raising a revenue in America, is unconstitutional and oppressive, and which we think our- selves bound, in duty to ourselves and our posterity, by all constitutional means in our power to oppose. 3d. We think the several late Acts of Parliament for shutting up "
the port of Boston, invading the Charter rights of the Province of
Massachusetts Bay, and subjecting supposed offenders to be sent
for trial to other colonies, or to Great Britain, the sending over
an armed force to carry the same into effect, and thereby reducing many
thousands of innocent and loyal inhabitants to poverty and distress, are
not only subversive of the undoubted rights of His Majesty's American
subjects, but also repugnant to the common principles of humanity and
justice. These proceedings, so violent in themselves, and so truly alarm-
ing to the other colonies (many of which are equally exposed to Minis-
terial vengeance), render it the indispensable duty of all heartily to
unite in the most pi'oper measures to procure redress for their oppressed
countrymen, now suffering in the common cause ; and for the re-estab-
lishment of the constitutional rights of America on a solid and perma-
nent foundation.

"4th. To effect this important purpose, we conceive the most eligible method is to appoint a General Congress of Coinmissiouers of the re- spective Colonies, who shall be empowered mutually to pledge, each to the rest, the publick honour and faith of their constituent Colonies, firmly and inviolably to adhere to the determinations of the said Con- gress. '5th. Resolved, That we do earnestly recommend a general non-im- portation and non-consumption agreement to he entered into at such time, and regulated in such manner, as to the Congress shall seem most advisable. '* 6th. Besolved, That it appears to us to be a duty incumbent on the good people of this Province to afford some immediate relief to the many suffering inhabitants of the town of Boston. Therefore the several county committees do now engage to set on "
foot and promote collections without delay, either by subscriptions or
otherwise, throughout their respective Counties; and that they will
remit the moneys arising from the said subscriptions, or any other bene-
factions that may be volunta.rily made by the inhabitants, either to Bos-
ton, or into the hands of James Neilson, John Dennis, William Oake,
Abraham Hunt, Samuel Tucker, Dr. Isaac Smith, Grant Gibbon, Thomas
Sinnicks, and John Carey, whom we do hereby appoint a Committee for
forwarding the same to Boston, in such way and manner as they shall be
advised will best answer the benevolent purpose designed.

"7th. jKesoZued, That the grateful acknowledgments of this body are due to the noble and worthy patrons of constitutional liberty in the British Senate for their laudable efforts to avert the storm they behold impending over a much injured Colony, and in support of the just rights of the King's subjects in America. 8th. Resolved, That James Kinsey, William Livingston, John De "
Hart, Stephen Crane, and Richard Smith, Esquires, or such of them as
shall attend, be the Delegates to represent this Province in the General
Continental Congress to be held at the City of Pliiladelphia on or about
the first of September next, to meet, consult, and advise with the Depu-
ties from the other Colonies, aad to determine upon all such pnident and
laT\ful measures as may be judged most expedient for the Colonies im-
mediately and unitedly to adopt, in order to obtain relief for an oppressed
people and the redress of our general grievances.
" Signed by order, Jonathan D. Sergeant, "

" Clerk:' A new general Standing Committee of Corresi^ond- ence and Inquiry was also appointed, consisting of William Peartree Smith, John Chetwood, Isaac Og- den, Joseph Borden, Robert Field, Isaac Pierson, Isaac Smith,* Samuel Tucker,* Abraham Hunt,* and Hendrick Fisher.f It is noticeable, in the proceed- ings of this Convention, that, although they evinced an unmistakable spirit of opposition and resistance to the oppressive measures of the British Parliament and ministry, they were profuse in expressions of un- measured loyalty to the king, and resolutions of sim- ilar import had been passed in all the preliminary meetings in the several counties of this province. The Congress of Delegates from the several prov- inces assembled at Carpenters' Hall, in the city of Philadelphia, on the 4th of September in the same year, and organized on the following day, with Peyton Randolph, of Virginia, as President, Among the business transacted during the somewhat protracted session which followed was the adoption of resolutions prohibiting the importation, purchase, or use of goods from Great Britain, Ireland, or any of the British de- pendencies after Dec. 1, 1774, and also directing that (unless the grievances of the American colonies should in the mean time be redressed) all exportations hence to Great Britain, Ireland, and the British West Indies should cease on and after Sept. 10, 1775. An associa- tion in accordance with the requirements of these resolutions was then formed, and was signed by all the members present. Article XI. of this Association (adopted Oct. 20, 1774) provided: That a committee be chosen in every county, city, and town, by those "
who are qualified to vote for Representatives in the Legislature, whose
business it shall be attentively to observe the conduct of all persons
touching this Association; and when it shall be made to appear to the
satisfaction of a majority of any such committee that any person within
the limits of their appointment has violated this Association, that such
majority do forthwith cause the truth of the case to be published, ... to
the end that all such foes to the rights of British America may be pub-
lickly known and universally contemned as the enemies of American
Liberty ; and thenceforth we respectively will break off all dealings with
him or her."

On the 11th of January, 1775, the New Jersey
members of the Continental Congress reported its
proceedings to the Assembly of their province, which
body unanimously signified its approval of the said
proceedings,! and resolved that the same delegates
should represent New Jersey in the next Congress, in
which they should propose and vote for every reason-
able and constitutional measure for a settlement of
the differences between the colonies and Great Britain,
and should again report the proceedings of the Con-
gress to the Assembly of the province.

A great majority of the people in all parts of the
province of New Jersey approved the objects of the
Association adopted by the Continental Congress, and

* Of Hunterdon County.

t Of Somerset County.

X "Such members as were Quakers excepting only to such parts as
seemed to wear an appearance or might have a tendency to force, as
inconsistent with their religious principles." Gordon's Sistonj of New
Jersey, p. 157.



meetings numerously attended were keld in the diflfer-
ent countieSj and in many of the townships, for the
purpose of organizing to carry its measures into effect.
Some of the means proposed to be adopted to accom-
plish the objects desired are shown by the following
extracts from the minutes of several of these meet-
ings : " A General Meeting of the Inhabitants of the
To\\-nship of Woodbridge, in the County of Middlesex
in New Jersey," held on Saturday, Jan. 7, 1775, after
approving and adopting the Association entered into
and recommended by the Congress, and aft^r choosing
a Committee of Observation of twenty-one members,

"J?esoIred, unanijnouBly, That it is the desire of the people now met that the said Committee do execute the trust reposed in them with firm- ness and fidelity, and in every refii)ect follow the directions of the Asso- ciation, a£ much as if it was a law of this Province ; and they be upon oath for the conscientious discharge of their duty. "

At a meeting held in Hanover township, Morris
County, Feb. 15, 1775, it was, by the Committee of
Observation, of which Matthias Burnet was chairman,
resolved unanimously, as follows :

"1st, That they will discourage all unlawful, tumultuous, and disor- derly meetings of the people within their Districts, and upon all occa- eioDB exert themselves to the utmost of their power, and oppose and prevent any violence offered to the pereon or property of any one. 2d. That they will take notice of all Horse Bacing, Coct-Fighting, "
and every kind of Gaming whatsoever, and cause the offenders to be
prosecuted accordiug to law; and discourage every species of extrava-
gaut entertainments and amusements whatsoever, agreeable to the eighth
article of the Association of the Continental Congress.

"3d. That this Committee will, after the first day of March next, esteem it a violation of the seventh article of the said Association if auy peison or persons should kill any Sheep until it is four years old, or sell any such Sheep to any person whom he or they may have cause to sus- pect will kill them or carry them to market; and, further, that they will esteem it a breach of said article if any inhabitant of this Township should sell any Sheep of any kind whatsoever to anj- person dwelling out of this County, or to any person w^ho they may have cause to suspect will carry them out of this County, without leave first obtained of this Committee. 4th. That we do recommend to the inhabitants of this Township the "
caltivation, of Flax and Hemp, to the greatest extent that their lands
and circumstances will admit of.

"5th. That from seyeral Pamphlets and Publications printed by James Eivington, of Kew York, Printer, we esteem him as an incendiary, em- ployed by a wicked Ministry to disunite and divide us ; and therefore we will not, for ourselves, have any connection ordealings with him. and do recommend the same conduct towards him to every person of this Town- ship; and we will discountenance any Post-Rider, Stage-Driver, or Car- rier who shall bring his Pamphlets or Papers into this County. 6th. That if any manufacturer of any article made for home con- "
sumption, or any Vender of Goods or Merchandises, shall take advantage
of the necessities of his country by selling at an unusual price, such
perwm shall be considered an enemy to his country ; and do recommend
it to the inhabitants of this Township to remember that after the first
day of March next no East Indian Tea is to be used in any case whatso-

"7th. That we will in all cases whatsoever, and at all events, use our utmost endeavours to comply with and enforce everj- article of the Arao- ciation of the General Continental Congreffi. "

These resolutions, being nearly identical in their
import with those passed by meetings of freeholders
and committees in nearly all the other counties, are
reproduced here at length as showing the remarkable
earnestness with which the people indorsed and prom-
ised "to comply with and enforce every article of the
Association." The condemnation of Eivington and

his publications, so strongly expressed in thest resolu-
tions, was enunciated still more forcibly in the proceed-
ings of many of the county meetings, by which he was
denounced as " a vile Ministerial hireling, employed
to disunite the colonies and calumniate all their
measures entered into for the public good" ; as an
enemy to his country and a person to be hated,
shunned, and discountenanced by all friends of
American liberty.

The records of the meetings held at this time, and
in reference to this matter, by the people and com-
mittee of Somerset have not been found, but it is cer-
tain that this county stood second to none in the
province of New Jersey in the patriotism of its in-
habitants or in the alacrity and earnestness with
which they adopted and enforced the measures recom-
mended by the Continental Congress in its Articles
of Association. In Hunterdon County committees
were promptly chosen and organized, and the report
of the joint action of these committees at their first
meeting is as follows :*

"At a meeting of the several Township Committees in the County of Hunterdon and Province of New Jersey, held at John Ringo's, the 18th day of January, 1775: Present, sixty members. John Hart, Esq., Chair- man. The Committee, taking into consideration the Proceedings of the "
late Congress, highly approve thereof, and the Association entered into,
do recommend, and will abide by, and thank the Delegates for their firm
and steady conduct.

" Tlie Committee then taking into their consideration the method of choosing Delegates for this Province to attend at Philadelphia the 10th day of May next, or sooner if necessary, in Continental Congress, agreed to adopt the measure pursued by the several County Committees of this Province the 21st of July last, and do recommend that the several County Committees meet at Trenton on Wednesday, the 29th of March next, un- less some other time and place should he agreed on by a majority of the Counties in this Province, to choose Delegates for the purpose aforesaid; and we do hereby appoint Samuel Tucker, John Mehelm, John Hart, Daniel Hunt, Jasper Smith, Charles Coxe, Kichard Stevens, Samuel John- son, Esquires, Messrs. Thomas Jones and Thomas Stout, a County Com- mittee for the purpose aforesaid, who, or auy three of them, are also appointed a Committee of Correspondence, and a majority of the whole Committee to have power to call Committees of the several townships together, at such times and places as they may judge necessary. This Committee to continue till the Proceedings of the next Conti- "
nental Congress be published, or a new Committee chosen.

"SA31UEL COEWISE, Clerky "

On the morning of "Wednesday, the 19th of April,
1775, a detachment of British regular troops that had
been sent out from Boston to the town of Concord
met and fired upon a body of armed but unorganized
and undisciplined farmers and mechanics who had
collected at Lexington Common. The volley of the
regulars told with an effect fatal to some of the pro-
vincials, and this was the first blood shed in the war
of the Revolution. It has been called the battle of
Lexington. Before the crack of the yeomen's rifles
had ceased to sound along the road from Lexington
to Boston, the Committee of Safety of the town of
Watertown had sent out express-riders to carry the
news south and west. The dispatch destined for New


* 3Iinute8 of the ProTincial Congress and Council of Safen-, 17
pp. 49, 50.




York and Philadelphia passed on through Worcester,
Norwich, New London, Lyme, Saybrook, Guildford,
Brandford, New Haven, and Fairfield (being succes-
sively forwarded by relays by the committees of these
places), and reached the chamber of the New York
committee at 4 o'clock p.m. on Sunday, the 23d of
April. From New York* the dispatch was forwarded
with all haste to New Brunswick and Princeton, from
which places the momentous tidings spread like wild-
fire up the valley of the Earitan and across the Sour-
land hills into Somerset and Hunterdon Counties,
while the messengers with the committee's dispatch
sped on to Trenton and Philadelphia.

Upon the receipt of the alarming news from Lex-
ington the Committee of Correspondence for the
province was summoned by its chairman, Hendrick
Fisher, of Somerset County, to convene for delibera-
tion and to take such action as might seem necessary.
The committee accordingly met, and the following
is the record! of its proceedings on that occasion,
viz. .

" At a moeting of tha New Jersey Provincial Committee of Corre- epondence (appointed by the Provincial Congress) at the City of New Brunswick, on Tuesday, the second day of May, Anno Domini 1776, agreeable to summons of Hendrick Fisher, Esq., Chairman. Present, Hendrick Fisher, Samuel Tucker, Joseph Borden, Joseph "
Eiggs, Isaac Pearson, John Ohetwood, Lewis Ogden, Isaac Ogden, Abra-
ham Hunt, and Elias Boudinot, Esquires.

" The Committee, having seriously taken into consideration as well the present alarming and very extraordinaiT conduct of the British Ministry, for carrying into execution sundry Acts of Parliament for the express purpose of raising a revenne in America, and other unconstitutional meas- ures therein mentioned; and also the several acts of hostility tliat they have actually commenced for this pm-pose by the Kegular Forces under General Gage against our brethren of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay in New England, and not knowing how soon this Province may be in a state of confusion and disorder if there are not some effectnal measures speedily taken to prevent the same; this Committee are unanimously of opinion, and do hereby advise and direct, that the Chairman do immedi- ately call a Provincial Congress to meet at Trenton on Tuesday the twenty-third day of this instant, in order to consider and determine such matters as may then and there come before them ; .and the several Coun- ties are hereby desired to nominate and appoint their respective Deputies for the same, as speedily as may be, with full and ample powers for such purposes as may be thought necessary for the peculiar exigencies of this Province. The Committee do also direct their Chairman to forward true copies "
of the above minute to the several County Committees of this Province
without delay.

"Hendrick Fisher, Chairmany "

In accordance with this call of the committee, del-

* At New York the dispatch was thus indorsed by the committee-
Reel the within Account by express, and forwarded by express to New
Brunswick, with Directions to stop at Elizabeth Town and acquaint the
committee there with the following Particulars. By order of the Com-
mittee Isaac Low, Chairman. The committee at New Brunswick are
requested to forward this to Phila." The other indorsements made on
the dispatch m its passage through New Jersey were as follows: "New
Brunswick, Ap. 24,1776, 2 o'clock in the morning, rec- the above expres,
and forwarded to Princeton, Wm, Oake, Jas. Neilson, A.. Dunhams
Com. ;" Princeton, Monday, Ap. 24, 6 o'clock, and fo™. to TrenZ;

24 9 T "'«™- '''"'°' °""'- "^"^»™" " ^- "™. Monday, Ap
24 9 clock in the morning, reed the above per express, and forwarded

clr^ *" *' ^"""^"^^ °^ Philadelphia, Sam. Tucker. Isaac Smith!
76!p''lor' °^ "" ^'''"'°™' '^'"'^"""' ""^ Committee of Safety. 1775-

egates from the several counties of the province as-
sembled on Tuesday, the 23d of May, at Trenton,
where, on the following day, they organized as " The
Provincial Congress of New Jersey" by electing
Hendrick Fisher president, Jonathan D. Sergeant
secretary, and William Paterson and Frederick Fre-
linghuysen assistant secretaries. Samuel Tucker was
afterwards elected vice-president. It thus appears
that all the principal officers of this first Provincial
Congress were residents of Somerset County, except-
ing the vice-president, who was of Hunterdon.

The number of delegates in attendance was eighty-
seven. Those representing Hunterdon County were
Samuel Tucker, John Mehelm, John Hart, John
Stout, Jasper Smith, Thomas Lowry, Charles Stewart,
Daniel Hunt, Ealph Hart, Jacob Jennings, Eichard
Stevens, John Stevens, Jr., Thomas Stout, Thomas
Jones, and John Basset. The delegates attending
from Somerset were Hendrick Fisher, John Eoy,
Peter Schenck, Abraham Van Nest, Enos Kelsey,
Jonathan D. Sergeant, Frederick Frelinghuysen, and
William Paterson. Another delegate who had been
electedj for Somerset, Nathaniel Airs (or Ayers), did
not attend. Four of the deputies from Hunterdon
and Somerset^-viz., Messrs. Tucker and Mehelm of
the former county, and Fisher and Eoy of the latter
were also members of the Colonial Assembly of
New Jersey for 1776.

The Provincial Congress remained in session at

t The record of the meeting at which the Somerset County delegates
were elected is as follows :

"Pursuant to notice given by the Chairman of the Committee of Cor- respondence for the County of Somerset in New Jersey, the Freeholders of the County met at the Court-House the 11th day of May, 1775, Hend- rick Fisher, Esq., chosen, Frederick Frelinghuysen clerk. 1. Besohed, That the several steps taken by the British Ministry to "
enslave the American Colonies, and especially the late alarming hostili-
ties commenced by the Troops under General Gage, against the inhabi-
tants of Massachusetts Bay loudly call on the people of this Province to
determine what part they will act in this situation of affairs; and that
we therefore readily consent to elect Deputies for a Provincial Concrress
to meet at Trenton, on Tuesday, the 23d inst.. agreeable to the advice
and direction of the Provincial Committee of Correspondence.

" 2. Resolved, That the number of Deputies shall be nine, and that thev sh.all be chosen by ballot. Adjourned for an hour. "

" Four o'clock the people re-assembled. Hendrick Fisher, John Boy. Esquires. Mr. Frederick Frelinghuysen "
Mr Enos Kelsey. Peter Schenck, Jonathan D. Sergeant, Nathaniel Airs,
William Paterson, and Abraham Van Nest, Esquires, are appointed Dep-
uties for this County, who, or any iive of them, are hereby empowered
to meet the Deputies from the other Counties in Provincial Congress at
Trenton on Tuesday, the 23d instant, and to agree to all such measures
as shall be judged necessary for the preservation of our constitutional
lights and privileges.

" Resolved, That the Deputies for this County be instructed, and they are hereby instructed, to join with the deputies from the other Counties m forming such plan for the Militia of this Province as to them shaU seem proper ; and we heartily agree to arm and support such a number 01 men as they shall order to be raised in this County Bemlved, That this County will pay the expenses of their Deputies "
who shall attend the Congress.

"BcsoUed, That Messrs. Tobias Van Norden. and Daniel Blackford he By Order """"""' ""' Observation for the Township of Bridgewater. "




Trenton eleven days. The most important business
of the session was consummated on the day of ad-
journment in the adoption of '* a plan for regulating
the Militia of this Colony" and the passage of " an
ordinance for raising a sum of money for the purpose
therein mentioned," ^that is to say, for the purpose
of organizing and arming the militia troops and pre-
paring them for active service when necessary. The
preamble and first three sections of the militia bill
then passed were as follows :

"The Congress, taking into consideration the cruel and arbitrary measures adopted and pursued by the British Parliament and present ministry for the purpose of subjugating the American Colonies to the most abject servitude, and being apprehensive that all pacific measures for the redress of our grieTances will prove ineffectual, do think it highly necessary that the inhabitants of this Province be forthwith properly armed and disciplined for defending the cause of American freedom. And further considering that, to answer this desirable end, it is requisite that such persons be intrusted with the command of the Militia as can be confided in by the people, and are truly zealous in support of our just rights and privileges, do recommend and advise that the good people of this Province henceforward strictly observe the following rules and regu- lations, until this Congress shall make further order therein : 1st. That one or more companies, as the case may require, be imme- "
diately formed in each To'miship or Corporation, and, to this end, that
the several Committees in this Province do, as soon as may be, acquaint
themselves with the number of male inhabitants in their respective dis-
tricts, from the age of sixteen to filty, who are capable of bearing arms ;
and thereupon form them into companies, consisting as near as may be of
eighty men each ; which companies so formed shall, each by itself, as-
semble and choose, by plurality of voices, four persons among them-
selves, of sufficient substance and capacity for its officei-s, namely, one
captain, two lieutenants, and an ensign.

" 2d. That the officers so chosen appoint for their respective compa- nies fit persons to be sergeants, corporals, and drummers. 3d. That as soon as the companies are so formed the officers of such a "
number of companies as shall by them be judged proper to form a regi-
ment do assemble and choose one colonel, one lieutenant-colonel, a
major, and an adjutant for each regiment."

The remaining five sections were devoted to the
minor details of the plan of militia organization.
The closing paragraph is as follows : " The Congress,
taking into consideration the spirited exertions of
the counties of Morris, Sussex, and Somerset in the
raising of minute-men, do approve of, and thank
them for, their zeal in the common cause, and will
take the same into further consideration at their next
meeting" ; showing that bodies of minute-men had
already been raised in the counties named. A minute-
men organization was also formed in Hunterdon at
about the same time.

The following resolutions of a meeting in Hills-
borough township show the form in which action was
taken in enrolling the militia in Somerset County.
They are interesting as being the only memoranda
referring to this early period of the action of the
people in defense of their liberties. The original was
found accidentally among some old papers on a book-
stand in New York.

" At a meeting of the principal Freeholders, and Officers of Militia, of the Township of Hillsborough, County of Somerset and Province of New Jersey, held this 3d of May, 1775, at the house of Garret Garretson, it was agreed as follows, viz. : 1st. That the Companies of Militia this day assembled here do choose "
officers for their respective Companies.

"2d. That the officers so devised shall choose officers for a Company of Minute-Men, who are to beat up for volunteers to raise said Company, to consist of 60 men, who are to be exercised twice per week, and to bo ready at a minute's warning to march in defense of the liberty of our country. 3d. That the men so voluntarily enlisting in said Company shall "
receive one shilling and sixpence for every part of a day they are em-
ployed in being exercised by any of their officers, and the officers in pro-

" 4th. That in case said Company shall march in defense of their coun- try, the Captain to receive six shillings, the 1st Lieut, five shillings, the 2d Lieut, four shillings, and each of the inferior officers, three shillings, all Proc, per day j with provisions and ammunition, and to those who are able, Arms ; all the above money to be raised by tax on the inhabi- tants of said Township, in the same manner the Provincial Taxes are raised. 5th, In pursuance of the first article of the above agreement, the "
Companies here assembled choose the following gentlemen their officers,
viz. :

" For the BiUshorough Company. John Ten Eyck, Capt. ; Peter D. Yroom, Lieut. ; Jacobus Quick, 2d Lieut. For the Millstone Covipany. Hendrick Probasco, Capt. ; John Smock^ "
1st Lieut.; Casparus Van Nostrand, 2d Lieut.

" For the Shannick Company. William Yer Bryck, Capt. ; Eoelif Peter- son, 1st Lieut. ; Cornelius Peterson, 2d Lieut. For Uie Company of Grenadiers. Cornelius Lott, Capt. ; John Bennet, "
Lieut. ; ComeUus Van Derveer, 2d Lieut. ; Garret Garrison, 3d Lieut.

" 6th. The above officers proceeded, according to the authority given them in the second article, to the choice of officers for the Company of Minute-Men, when the following men were unanimously chosen : For Capt., Cornelius Lott; for 1st Lieut., John Nevius ; for 2d Lieut., Garret K. Garrison. 7th. The officers of the Militia and the Committee of Observation are "
desired to meet together and appoint a Committee to provide the above
Company with Arms and Ammunition.

" May 16, 1775. The Officers of the Militia and the Committee of Ob- servation, having met, unanimously chose Hendrick Van Middlesworth, Conrad Ten Eyck, and Dirck Low, to provide ammunition for said Com- pany, and arms for those that'are not able to buy for themselves, and the aforesaid gentlemen are desired to take £40 Proc in money on the credit of the Township, to buy 140 pounds powder, 420 pounds lead, and 210 flints; and if the said Company should be called to march in defense of their country, if not provided for, then the aforesaid Hendrick Van Mid- dlesworth, Conrad Ten Eyck, and Dirck Low are to find provisions on the credit of the township as above said. It is further agreed that the above agreement shall be subject to such "
alterations and additions as the Provincial Congress shall think proper.
"By order of the Assembly. John Baptist Dttmont, Chairman, "
Peter D. Vboom, Clerh.

We give a list of the members of Capt. P. D.
Vroom's company, enrolled after the above action ; it
is evidently not complete, but it contains all now re-
coverable: Jacobus Amerman, Albert Amerman,
John Amerman, Thomas Auten, John Brokaw (lieu-
tenant, killed*), Abraham Brokaw, Peter Brokaw
(corporal), George Brokaw, Jacobus Bergen (cor-
poral), Jacob Cook, Jacob W. Cook, Jacobus Cor-
show, Bergun Coevert (fifer), Thomas Coevert (cor-
poral), Peter Ditmas, Nicholas Dubois, Peter J-
Dumont, Thomas Dwere, Jacobus Dubois, Minne
Dubois (sergeant), William Griggs, Augustus Harts-
hough, Harmon A, Hoagland, Lucas Hoagland, Peter
Hoagland, Dirck Huff, Abram Low, Peter Leyster,
Hugh McAllum, Hendrick Post (sergeant), Peter
Perlee, Thomas Skillman, Joakim Quick (ensign),
Peter Quick (sergeant), Abram Stryker, Jonathan
Spader, Albert Stothoff, Benjamin Taylor (sergeant),
Willett Taylor, Abraham Taylor, Abraham Van Ars-

* Battle of Germantown, Oct. 4, 1775.



dalen (sergeant), John Van Arsdale, Garrett Van Ars-
dale, John Van Dyck, William Van Dyck, Andrew
Van Middlesworth (sergeant), Tunis Van Middles-
worth, Jacobus Van Nuyse, Coert Van Waggoner,
Jacobus Voorhees, Rynier Veghte (lieutenant, Sec-
ond Battalion; captain ditto), Peter Voorhees, Peter
Vroom, Jacob Winter (corporal), Peter Winter, Coert
Van Voorhees.

"At a meeting of the Committee of the Township of HillBboroiigh held at the house of Garret Garretson, the 3d day of July, 1775, it was unanimously agreed that the boundaries of the Company called Millstone Company are as follows, viz: Beginning at the mouth of Millstone River, thence along the said river to the house of Geretie Cornetry, then along her. westward bound to and still continuing westwardly to the house of Court Van Vorehase, then westwardly to a small brook, and thence down the said brook to the Amwell Road, then westwardly along the said road till it comes to the 2 rod road that leads to Millstone road, continuing along said road, thence along Millstone Road to Earitan Bridge, thence along the Raritan River to the place of beginning. Peter B. Vroom."" "

The "ordinance," also passed on the last day of the
session, and having for its object the raising of funds,
principally for the purpose of carrying out the pro-
visions of the militia bill, recited and declared that :

" Whereas, It has become absolutely necessary, in the present dangerous and extraordinary state of public atfairs, in which the usual resources of government appear to be insulficient for the safety of the people, and in which the good people of this Province hiive therefore thought proper to choose Deputies in this present Congress, that a fund be provided for the use of the Province : We the said Deputies being persuaded that every inhabitant is willing and desirous to contribute his proportion of money for 80 important a purpose, do, pursuant to the .powers intrusted to us by the people, resolve and direct that the sum of Ten Thousand Pounds, Proclamation Money, be immediately apportioned and raised for the use aforesaid ; the same to be apportioned laid out and disposed of in such manner as hereinafter is directed. "

The amounts to be raised under this ordinance by
the several counties of the province were apportioned
to them as follows : Bergen, £664 8s. Od. ; Burlington,
£1071 13s. 4d. ; Cape May, £166 18s. Od. ; Cumber-
land, £885 6s. 8d. ; Essex, £742 18s. Od. ; Gloucester,
£763 2s. 8d. ; Hunterdon, £1363 16s. M. ; Middlesex,
£872 6s. 8d. ; Monmouth, £1069 2s. 8d. Morris, £723
8s. Od. ; Salem, £679 12s. Od. ; Somerset, £904 2s. Od. ;
Sussex, £593 5s. 4d.

Other sections of the ordinance pointed out the
manner of assessing and collecting the tax, and pro-
vided that when the amount collected in a county
should be received by the county collector, he should
pay the same over to the county committee, " to be
disposed of by them in such manner as they in their
discretion shall think most proper" to meet expenses
arising from the exigencies of the times. After the
adoption of these measures for the public safety it
was by the Congress

" Ordered, That Mr. Fisher, Mr. Tucker, Mr. Daniel Hunt, Mr. Fre- linghuysen, Mr. I. Pearson, Mr. Dunham, Mr. Schureman, Mr. John Hart, Mr. Borden, Mr. Deare, Mr. Baldwin, Mr. Schenck, Mr. Ralph Hart, and Mr. Heard, or any three of them, in conjunction with the President or Vice-President, be a Committee of Correspondence, with power to con- Tene this Congress. "

Of the fourteen members composing this committee,
seven were of the counties of Hunterdon and Somer-

set, viz., Messrs. Fisher, Tucker, Hunt, Freling-
huysen, Schenck, and the two Harts. Immediately
after the appointment of the Committee of Corres-
pondence the Congress adjourned, June 3, 1775.

It is a rather remarkable fact in the history of this
Provincial Congress of New Jersey that, although one
of its first acts was to declare that its members had
" assembled with the profoundest veneration for the person and family of His Sacred Majesty George III., firmly professing all due allegiance to his rightful authority and government,* the close of its first ses- "
sion was marked by the adoption of the most vigorous
measures in preparation for armed resistance to that
sovereign's authority.

Two weeks from the day on which the Congress of
New Jersey closed its session at Trenton, a force of
British regulars moved from Boston to Charlestown,
and marched in splendid order and perfect confidence
up the acclivity of Bunker Hill to attack the slight
defenses of the patriot force that stood waiting for
them in silence upon the summit. Twice were the
scarlet lines hurled back in disorder down the slope,,
but as often did they re-form and return to the assault.
Their third charge was successful ; the provincial
forces, undismayed, but with empty muskets and car-
tridge-boxes, were at last forced from their position,,
and the soldiers of the king carried and held the
blood-soaked crest. This event the battle of Bunker
Hill is as well known and conspicuous in history as
that of Marathon or Waterloo, and it was more im-
portant in its results than either. Just before its
occurrence Gen. George Washington had been ap-
pointed! by the Continental CongressJ commander-
in-chief of the forces of the United Colonies, and
immediately afterwards he assumed command of the
army at Cambridge and disposed his thin lines to-
encircle the British forces in the town of Boston.

In less than a week after the memorable battle in
Charlestown, the startling news had been received in.
Philadelphia, and was known in every township of
New Jersey. In this alarming state of affairs the
general Committee of Correspondence of the Province,
exercising the powers intrusted to them, called a
second session of the Provincial Congress, which
body accordingly convened at Trenton on the 5th of
August following. Eighty-three members were in
attendance. Those of Somerset County were the
same as at the previous session, except that Nathaniel
Eyers,^ who had been elected with the other delegates
at the county-meeting of the 11th of May, was now
present, in place of John Roy, who had attended th©
first session. The Hunterdon County deputies were

« Minutes of the Provincial Congi-ess and Council of Safety, 1775-76
p. 171. '

t June 15, 1775.

J The Continental Congress had convened in Philadelphia on the 10th
of May, 1775.

§ Elsewhere found spelled Aii-s and AyeiB.



the same as at the May session, except that Abraham
Bonnell and Joseph Beavers were present in place of
Jacob Jennings and John Basset.

The Congress at this session adopted a number of
measures for promoting the public safety, the princi-
pal of which were a resolution to provide for the col-
lection of the ten thousand pounds tax ordered at the
May and June session, and a resolution " for further
regulating the Militia, etc.," the first named being the
first business that was attended to after the opening
of the session. It appears that many obstacles had
been encountered in the collection of the tax, and
that in a great number of instances payment had
been avoided or refused. The Congress therefore
(Aug. 5, 1775) resolved :*

" 1. That the several persons appointed in pursuance of tlie ordinance of this Congress in their last session to collect the quotas of the several ToTvnships, do pay the money by them collected to the County Collector on or before the tenth day of September next ; and if any persons within tlieir respective districts shall have refused payment, that in such case they do make and deliver in a list of names of the delinquents to their several Committees, together with their receipts and vouchee for the money which they shall have paid to the aforesaid County Collectors. 2. Resolved, That the several Committees do furnish the Provincial "
Congress at their next session with the names of all such persons within
their districts as shall have refused to sign the Association recommended
in the last Congress, or one of a similaj' nature, and of all such as shall
have refused to pay their respective appointments.

" 3. Resolved, That the respective Committees in this Colony do return to the Provincial Congress at their next session copies of the several Associations signed in their districts, agreeable to the former order of this Congress, together with the names of those who have signed the same. *' 4. Resolved, That the Assessoi-s and Collectors appointed to apportion and collect the said money do receive such reward for their labor and trouble therein as the Assessors and Collectors are by law entitled to for assessing and collecting the provincial taxes. 5. Resolved, That in case any part of the snro of ten thousand "
Pounds, by the said ordinance directed to be raised, shall from the event
of public affairs he found to be nnnecessary for the purposes thereby in-
tended ; in such case the surplus be paid by the several Connty Commit-
tees into the hands of the County Collectors appointed by act of As-
sembly, to be by them applied towards discharging the quotas of such
Counties in the public taxes of the Province.

" 6. Resolved, That the several Committees to whom the disposal of the said money was, by the ordinance of the last session, intrusted, do account to the Provincial Congress for their several disbursements, and the uses to which they may have been applied. "

In adopting "the plan for further regulating the
Militia, etc.," the Congress

" Resohed, 1. That the several County or {where there is no County) the Township Committees do transmit the names of all the Militia Offi- cers chosen within their respective Districts to the Provincial Congress, or to the Committee of Safety, to he by them commissioned, agreeable to the directions of the Continental Congress. ' Resolved, 2. That all officers above the rank of a Captain, not already chosen or appointed, pursuant to an ordinance of this Congress made at their last session, be appointed by the Congress or, during their recess, by the Committee of Safety. Resolved, 3. That where the inhabitants of different Townships have "
been embodied into one Company, Battalion, or Regiment, before the
20th day of June last, it is not the intention of this Congress that they
should be dissolved, provided they govern themselves according to the
rules and directions of the same."

Ten resolutions succeeding these above quoted di-
rected the organization of the militia of the province

* Vide Minutes Provincial_Congress and Council of Safety, 1776-76, p.

into regiments and battalions, and the number of
each of these organizations to be appointed to the
several counties; established the order of their prece-
dence ; prescribed the manner in which they were to
be raised, armed, and governed ; provided for the col-
lection of fines from " all effective men between the
ages of sixteen and fifty who shall refuse to enroll
themselves and bear arms," or who, being enrolled,,
should absent themselves from the muster, and di-
rected how such fines should be applied. The troops
directed to be raised and organized were to be equal
to about twenty-six regiments, apportioned to the dif-
ferent counties as follows : The militia of Bergen
County to compose one regiment ; of Essex, two regi-
ments or four battalions; of Middlesex, two regi-
ments ; of Monmouth, three regiments ; of Morris and
Sussex, each two regiments and one battalion; of
Burlington, two regiments and a company of rangers ;
of Gloucester, three battalions ; of Salem, one regi-
ment ; of Cumberland, two battalions ; of Cape May,
one battalion ; of Somerset, two regiments ; and of
Hunterdon, four regiments. And it was provided
"that the precedency of rank in the militia shall take place in the following order: 1. Essex; 2. Sa- lem ; 3. Gloucester ; 4. Morris ; 5. Sussex ; 6. Cape May; 7. Monmouth; 8. Somerset; 9. Bergen; 10. Cumberland; 11. Middlesex; 12. Hunterdon; 13. Burlington; and that, when there may be more than one regiment or battalion in a county, the precedency shall be determined by the county committee, accord- ing to their former seniority. "

Besides providing for the organization and arming
of the militia, as above mentioned, the Congress re-
solved :

" That for the puriwse of effectually carrying into execution the recommendation of the Continental Congress respecting the appoint- ment of minute-men, four thousaud able-bodied effective men be en- listed and enrolled in the several counties in this Province, under offi- cers to be appointed and commissioned by this Congress or Committee of Safety, who shall hold themselves in constant readiness, on the shortest notice, to march to any place where their assistance maybe required for the defense of this or any neighboring colony. "

These " minute-men" were to be enlisted for a term
of four months, at the end of which time they were
to be " relieved, unless upon actual service." They
were given precedence of rank over the common mi-
litia of the province, and whenever called into actual
service were " to receive the like pay as the Continen-
tal Army, and be furnished with camp-equipage and
provisions ; and also be provided for, if wounded and
disabled in the service of their country." Their offi-
cers were to be nominated by the several county com-
mittees, or (in counties having no general committee)
by the township committees jointly, "with assurance
that as soon as their companies are completed, they
shall receive commissions from the Provincial Con-
gress, or the Committee of Safety." The organiza-
tion of the " minute-men" was directed to be made
in companies of sixty-four men each, including offi-
cers, these companies to be formed into ten battalions



for the whole province, and the apportionment to tlie
several counties to be as given below, viz: I?('rfj;cn
County to furnish one battalion of four ( .(iiiiiiiniics ;
Essex County, one battalion of six companies ; Mid-
dlesex County, one battalion of six companies ; Mon-
mouth County, one battalion of six coraimnics ; Som-
erset County, one battalion of five companies ; Mor-
ris County, one battalion of six companies ; Sussex
County, one battalion of five comjiaiiies; Hunterdon
County, one battalion of eight companies; Tiurling-
ton County, one battalion of five eornpiuiies ; OIou-
cester and Salem Counties, one Imttaliou of seven
companies, f(iur to be furnished by Oloiicesler and
one by Salem ; Cumberland County to fiirnisli thrrv,
companies, and Cape May County one company, all
to act as "independent comi)anies of light infantry
and rangers."

Whatever arms and accoutrcmonta wv.n: obtained
by the county and township committees were directed
to be issued to the iiiinute-ni(!n in preference to the
militia until the former w(^ro armed and equipped,
the remainder to be used Cor arming the militia. It

*' J{<;it(ilved, Thai tlilH Cnngrfsa ilo iiiroriiiimnrl lo llii* Hrviinil f!miniy
Ccjniiiiittoea In tlilH Colony tliat tlioy liiimofliiitoly employ gniiHniiUiH Ui
niitUti Huch a rmiiibor of ariuH m tlidy sliull Jinlgu to bo iionnHHiiry aiirl
wanfing In their roHpoctlvo ConiitloH ; mid that In the niaiiiifiictliro of
Baiil ar-inB particular atlolitlon ho paid to the dIroctlonH of tlio Contltiontal

It was also by the Coiit.';reHs

" Ordcred^That the Hovoral County GonimlttenH do appoint ono HnrK«on to each Rogimont and Battalion ljr^)(iM|j;ing to theIr'rcHpof;(ive fJouritlcH; and gertify the name of «uch Surgeon to the next OoligrcHH, oi- to tlio Committee of Safety, In oiri.;i- to hia hcing properly comniiHsloiicd. "

Tlie above mentioned, with the appohilnKint of
Philemon Dickinson as brigadier-gen(!riil, witc all the
important military measures ado[)tod ttt this session.

The Congress adjourned on Thursday, Aiifriist i7th,
after a session ofseventeen days, its last act ])rior to ail-
journment having been the appointment of Ifendrick
Fisher, Samuel Tucker, Isaac Pearson, John Hart,
Jonathan D. Sergeant, Azariah Dunham, I'eter
Schcnck, Enos Kelsey, Joseph Borden, I'Vctderiek
Frelinghuyscn, and John Scliureman as a Uoiriiriittei;
of Safety to control public affairs during the recf'ss.
Of these eleven niernbera, seven were of the coiiiilics
of Hunterdon and SooicrHct.

This was the first Committee of Safety of the pro-
vince of New Jersey, a body which came to be
greatly feared by those to the c;:iuse of Amer-
ica. During the times when the Ooiifrress wits not in
session this committee wielded extraordinary and
almost unlimited power.* It does not ;ipije!i,r, how-

* Mr, Oharlca D. BcuhliT, In his excellent [.ajjer reoi] heforo the New
BrunBivick Illst'jrlcal Club at ItB fifth luiolvcrBary, flays of thin Conimlt^
teo of Safety: " In effect It conetltuted a practical dIctatoi-Hlilp, rcHlcJIng
not In one man ludeed, but In a majority voto of eleven or oiorr; perBfjriH,
who were appointed by the Provincial OongreaB from llni.' to time, Iln
menibcrHWere Invariably choBon by the tIc[.utleB tn the Provincial Con-
grcBH from among tliclr own number, and wore men upon whom tliey
could rely for courage, pnidonce, flrrnneHH, activity, and iiagiulty. Tbcy
cxciciHcd, aB a committee, all the powerB liitnifltijd to or aHBunicd hy the

ever, that it beeiinio neecwsary for the commitfiHi to
exercise this power in any very iiiipi)rl,aiit |iiililic
hiisiiuws in the less than seven wet^ljs which iiiter-
vciH^d bctwetMi its fornmfioii and the rcasHcinbling of
the Provincial Congress. During that interval tlio
sessions of llie committee wore htdd at rrliiceton.

At its August sessidii the (JoiignwH of New .U:rHry
had provided for a, new eliM'tion of (lejiiitie» from l,hu
eoiintics of tlie provinc.e by the adoption of the Ibl-
lowing preamble and resolution :

"WUereas, It 1h highly expedient, at ii lime when tlllN Province In likely to bo Involved In all the lioirorB of advll war, anil when It luw become ahBolulc-ly neeeHBJiry to Inc ri'iine tbo liiirllKm of taxoB alroady laid upon the good people of thlflccjlony for Uio JuHt dideiiHO of their Iji- valnahlo rlghtB anil prlvllegeB, that Mie InhabltantB thereof Hhollld bavo freiiuolit opportuiillloB of renewing llidi choice null appnduilhjri of llie KeproMe?itallvoB In I'rovliiehtl nongroBH. It Is l,lii^iiil'ore /taefnW, That tho Inhabltanbi In oiuih ciiunty (puillfled to vote for lti>pirwent,al,Ivo» In General AHHcmhIydo meet. together at tho placoB bojelnafter irietttloned an ThurBday, the twenty-llrBt day of Heptember next, ami thi'M ami there, by jilnrallty of vcd(;eB, elect anil appoint any nninber not oxoeeil- Ing five BiibHlantlal rieeliolilniH an DepulleH, with full Jiowor to repriiHont Hiieii (lotinly In Provincial (lojigreHB to be held at 'J'renbin, In the tjonnly of JIuiitordon, on Tiieflday, the third day of October next. "

The places designiiteil for holding this cleetion in
Somerset and llniilerdoM (Jounties were, reH|,
the Coiirt-I foiise in .llillsliorongh'' ittid thelioiiso
of John Riiigo in Amwell." The irieetingH w(;re ae-
eurdingly so held iit tho time s|ii^ci(ieil, ;itiil rcHttltcil
in the elcetiijti of 1 letidrii'.k l''ish(tr, (^oritelitiH Van
Mtiliiier, and Itiilode Van Dyke for Somerset, and
Hitmiiisl Tui^ker, John Mehe.lm, .John llart, Charles
Stewart, ami Aligttsl.ine Stevenson for I liiiiterilon

Tho Provini'ial (!otigrcKS of New .lersey, e.ompfjseii
of the deputies then recently ele.eleilj jiH mentioned
above, convctHid at Trenton on Tuesday, the 'lil of
Oetober, 1775. No orgiinization wits elleeted on that
day, its but few of the members were (ireHeiit;! btit on

Provincial CongreBB, Blive that of leglBbiMon. 'I'hey rondiii-teil all tlio
correBpoiideiiee and confercMceH with the Continental OofigieBB anil Pro-
vincial flongreflMefl of the other coloiileB; l-hey gave order-B for the arriiBt
of BiiBpIclniiB or illMaffecti'il perBoriM ; they tried and aciplltted m- coji-
demned b. ImprlHonment or detention men who were cliarged with dl«-
all'ectlon oracling In concert with, or giving Information t^t, the enemy ;
they Itejiti-xpreflBeB In coi octant reudlncHh Oi foi wind Intelligence with all
Bpced ; they a|ipro[ii [ated public niimeyB, conimlBBloiied oIllcorH In tho
rnllltlaorlri tliecorpMof niloiite-inen, helfl pi iHooerB of war, nettled f;on-
tioveiBlcB between oIllcerH, civil II nil military, fulUiil a« a Ooiirt of Admi-
ralty, conflBcaleil the pro|ieity of thoHe who aided and abettei] the [in bile
enemy, took oilier for the geneial Bciirlly of the Province and for ]l;l
ilefenne, anil, In fine, tliey were the executive brunch of I lie govei iiineiit,
iiB the reprcBentatlvcM of the power anil authority of tlie Provincial (Joii-
groBH during lt« n-ceBB. All which they exerelBed (with an ability and
Integrity that liaB never been inipeiLidiedj till they weie BiiperBeileil, In
Oi, 1771), by the llrBt l.iglHlaturo nniler the new Htato '.'oniitltiitlon
fiolopteil .Inly 2, 1770), which iiivoiiled tho (lov.roor noil a Connill of
twenty memlierB with cei lain |iowerB for a lliiilled time under tho titio
of ' The Oovenior and Council of Safety.' "

f "TncBday, Octyilier ii, l77o. Several l)e|iutl(ffl returned hi nervo In
tlilB f>jngre«fl for the reMpectlve Coiiiit,IeB of thiB Odony luinenihled at
Trenton, piirHuaut to the appidiitioent of tho lato Provlm hil CoiigreHB.

"Wednc-ulay, October 1, I77ri, -The OongreBB again luinemlded, and, Bcveral other memtinrii attending, jiroceeded to tbo election of a PrcBldentand Vlcc-PicBldeiit, . , .--MimUrt i,f Ihi: I'Tinlliusiul H'mriri'm "
and OmncU o/ Hiifclu, l77o 7<;, \i. 1!JK,



the following day the body organized by the election
of Samuel Tucker, of Hunterdon, as president, and
Henry Fisher, of Somerset County, as vice-president.
"John Mehelm, Esquire [of Hunterdon], at the re- quest of Congress, consented to act as Secretary until a Secretary be chosen. On the 5th it was ""Re- "
solved, That William Paterson, Esquire [also of Som-
erset], be appointed Secretary to this Congress ;" but,
on the 9th, "Mr. Dunham having informed this
Congress that he had seen Mr. Paterson, who had
acquainted him that his business and circumstances
would by no means admit of his oflaciating as Secre-
tary, the Congress proceeded to the choice of a Secre-
tary, when John Carey, Esq. [of Salem], was unani-
moiisly chosen Secretary, and Abraham Clark and
Charles Stewart, Esquires, Assistant Secretaries."
Thus, of the five principal officers of the Congress
{composed of deputies from the thirteen counties of
New Jersey), three were men of Hunterdon and Som-
erset. Forty-seven members from the several coun-
ties were present during the session.

The Congress, composed of these members so re-
cently elected and fresh from among the people, was
the first thoroughly representative body which had
convened in New Jersey under the Eevolutionary
order of things. Says Mr. Deshler, in the address be-
fore cited,

"Itspowere were peculiar and undefined: . . . there was no limita- tion upon ita powers by any instrument then existing to which its mem- bei-s or the people of the Province acknowledged fealty. They could and did imprison, exile, confiscate, lay taxes, emit money, exercise power over life and death, call out the militia, and levy war. . . . The session was a busy, earnest, and laborious one. The minutes of the Congress reveal the revolutionary state of the Province, the unrest and agitation that prevailed among the people, and the indnsti-ious preparation that the patriots were making for the war that they perceived was soon to roll towards them. The minutes also reveal the steady growth of the democratic principle of equality among the people, counting a man a man whether be owned property orwhether he did not. Petitions flowed into the Congress on a multitude of subjects from every county and from nearly every township ; fmm committees, municipal coiijo rations, and individuals. . . . All these petitions received respectful considera- tion, and the action that was taken upon them was dispassiouate, wise, independent, and dignified. Besides the consideration of these petitions, which, as a purely popular body, deriving its power, and even its very existence, from the will of the people, it could not, and did not, disre- gard, the Congress was engaged in receiving and scrutinizing the reports of the aasociations and committees that had been foi-med in the various townships and counties; in corresponding with the Continental Con- gress as to the raising, equipment, organization, footing, payment, and forwarding of troops, and with the Congresses and Committees of Safety of other colonies, and the county and township committees of the Prov- ince, on subjects pertaining to the general welfare; in examining into the stjite of the finances of the province and estimating the expenditures that would be required for the arming, equipment, and maintenance of the militia, etc., and for carrying on the governmeut ; iu preparing ordinances for the regulation of the militia, for raising additional troops, for enforcing the former taxes and levying new ones, for raising money by the emission of bills of credit, and for the apprehension of deserters. Their attention was also largely occupied in examining and deciding upon complaints that were showered upon them denouncing loyalists and sympathizers with Great Britain, and in considering public and private grievances of every fonn and variety, "

Among the business transacted by this Congress
was the passage, on the 24th of October, of " An Or-
dinance for compelling the payment of the ten thou-
sand pound tax from such persons as have refused to

pay their quotas." The resolution levying this tax
had been passed at the May session, and the subject
had received further attention at the session held in
August; notwithstanding which a large amount still
remained uncollected, payment being refused, for
which reason this ordinance was passed, authorizing
more stringent measures against delinquents and di-
recting the chairman or deputy chairman of any
county committee to order the properly authorized
persons " to make distress on the goods and chattels"
of such delinquents, and to " make sale thereof at
public vendue, giving five days' notice thereof by
advertisement in such town or county."

But the most important of the measures taken at
this session were those which related to the mustering
and equipping of the military forces, and to raising
the funds necessary for that purpose. One of these
(passed October 28(,h) was " An Ordinance for regu-
lating the Militia of New Jersey," which, after re-
citing in its preamble that " Wliereas, The ordinances
of the late Provincial Congress for regulating the
Militia of this Colony have been found insufficient to
answer the good purposes intended, and it appearing
to be essentially necessary that some further regula-
tions be adopted at this time of imminent danger,"
proceeded to adopt and direct such " further regula-
tions" as were deemed necessary to accomplish the
object for which the previous ordinances had been
found insufficient, viz., the enrollment in the militia
of all able-bodied male inhabitants of the province
between the ages of sixteen and fifty years (except
those whose religious principles forbade them to bear
arms), their muster, equipment, and instruction in
military tactics under the command of proper oiEcers.
It was not materially different from the earlier ordi-
nances passed for the same purpose, except that its
requirements were more clearly defined, thorough, and
peremptory, and that evasion or non-compliance was
punished by severer penalties and forfeitures, and
these to be rigidly and relentlessly enforced. One of
the provisions of the ordinance was to the efiect
that every man enrolled in the militia " shall with all '
convenient speed furnish himself with a good musket
or firelock and bayonet, sword or tomahawk, a steel
ramrod, priming-wire and brush fitted thereto, a car-
touch-box to contain twenty-three rounds of car-
tridges, twelve fiiuts, and a knapsack, agreeable to
the direction of the Continental Congress, under the
forfeiture of two shillings for the want of a musket or
firelock, and of one shilling for the want of the other
above-enumerated articles" ; also " that every person
directed to be enrolled as above shall, at his place of
abode, be provided with one pound of powder and
three pounds of bullets of proper size to his musket or

The following extracts from the minutes of the
Congress are given here as having reference to mili-
tary matters at that time in Hunterdon and Somerset
Counties :



Octolier4th. "Mr. President laid liefore the CongreBS alerter from the
Earl of Stirling, inclosing copies of some letters lately written by His
Lordship on the subject of his liaving received a commission of Colonel
of a Regiment of Militia [of Somerset County], together with the return
of his Regiment."

October 11th. " A petition from the Committee of Amwell, praying
that the Third Regiment of the Militia of Hunterdon County may con-
tinue, but that the commissions of the iield-ofiicers be vacated, and that
the Captains and subaltprna may be allowed to choose tield-officera, was
read and ordered a second reading.

"A petition from a number of inhabitants of the lower part of Am- well, praying that the Third Regiment in the county of Hunterdon may be united to the First Regiment, commanded by Colonel Smith, was read and ordered a second reading. A petition from the inhabitants of the upper part of Amwell, pray- "
ing that if any alteration be made in the Third Regiment of the Militia
of Hunterdon, the petitioners may be united to the Fourth Regiment
and not to the First Regiment, was read and ordered a second reading.

" A petition from Captain Imlay and Captain Gray, praying that the field-officers of the Third Regiment of Militia of Hunterdon may be con- tinued, was read and ordered a second reading. "

Octoher lath. " Resohed muinimottehi,'tha,t the appointment of field-
officers for the Third Regiment of Militia for the county of Hunterdon
be confirmed and that the several regiments continue as directed by
the late Congress."

October 23d. "Mr. Fisher, from the committee appointed to examine
what matters were referred over to this Congress by the late Provincial
Congress or Committee of Safety, reported ; ... and some petitiims from
the county of Somerset respecting Colonel McDonald's appointment to
the command of the Battalion of minute-men in that county. . . ."

October 28th. "Oi-rfej-ed, That a commission do issue to John Taylor,
Esq., as Second Major of the Fourth Regiment of Militia in Hunterdon

The purchase, for the province, of arms, ammuni-
tion, camp-equipage, artillery, and other military
necessities, and the furnishing of funds for such
purchase by the issuance of bills of credit, were
provided for by an ordinance passed October 28th,*
of which the preamble and most important sections
were as follows :

" TITieretK, It appears oSBentially necessary at this time of increasing danger that the inhabitants of this Colony should be furnished with ammunition and other military stores, and that this Colony should be put into some proper posture of defense : It is therefore Eesolved and Directed, That Messrs. Samuel Tucker, "
Abraham Hunt, Joseph Ellis, and Alexander Chambers be, and they are
hereby, appointed Commissioners for the Western Division; and "that
Hendrick Fisher, Azariah Dunham, Abraham Clark, and Samuel Potter
be, and they are hereby, appointed Commissioners for tlie Eastern Di-
vision of this Colony ; which said Commissioners, or the major part of
them, are hereby authorized and directed to receive of the Treasurers of
this Colony, for the time being, appointed by this Congress, or either of
them, all such sum or sums of money as they shall from time to time
find necessary to expend for the use of this Colony, pursuant to the res-
olutions hereinafter mentioned.

" And U isfwlher Resohed and Directed, That the said commissioners be, and they are hereby, authorized and directed to contract with artificers for, or otherwise purchase, three thousand stand of arms at any price not exceeding Three Pounds Seven Shillings each stand ; and also to purchase ten tons of gunpowder, twenty tons of lead, one thousand car- touch-boxes, at any price not exceeding nine shillings each; a quantity of flints, brushes, priming-wire, and cartridge paper, not exceeding one hundred Pounds in value ; two chests of medicine, not exceeding three hundred Pounds in value ; four hundred tents, with camp-equipage, etc., not exceeding one thousand eight hundred and seventy Pounds in value ;' two thousand blankets, not exceeding fifteen hundred Pounds in value | a number of axes, spades, and other intrenching tools, not exceeding three hundred Pounds in value; and a train of artillery, not exceeding five hundred Pounds in value.f * Minutes of the Provincial Congress and Council of Safety 17VS-76 p. 246. t It was found that the articles named could not be purchased for the And it is further Resolved and Directed, That the said Commissioners do "
supply the troops of this Colony, when called into action in this or any
of the neighbouring Colonies, with one month's subsistence, at one shil-
ling per day per man, or provisions to that amount if necessary; Pro-
vided, That the expense of such subsistence doth not exceed the sum of
one thousand four hundred Pounds in value ; and one month's pay for
the troops of this Colony, when called into actual service ; Provided,
That the Continental Congress do not malce provision for the same ; and
provided also that the pay of such troops doth not exceed the sum of
four thousand Pounds in value.

^' And it is further Resohed and Directed, That the Treasurers of this
Colony be, and they are hereby, required and enjoined to pay to the said
Commissioners, or to the major part of them, or to their order, all such
sum or sums of money astfhey may find necessary to expend for the pur-
poses aforesaid ; and the receipt or receipts from the said Commissioners,
or a major part of them, shall be sufficient vouchers and discharges to
the said Treasurei-s, or either of them, their executors and administra-
tors, for all moneys by them paid pursuant to this ordinance.

" And wherecu. It is absolutely necessary to provide a fund for defray- ing the above expense, it is therefore Resolited and Directed, That bills of credit to the amount of thirty thousandl Pounds, Proclamation money ,g be immediately prep.ared, printed, .and made as follows, to wit: Five thousand seven hundred bills, each of the value of three Pounds; six thousand bills, each of the value of ou6 Pound ten Shillings; four thou- and bills, each of the value of fifteen Shillings; and three thousand bills, each of the value of si-x shillings ; which bills shall be in the form following, to wit; ' This bill, by an Ordinance of the Provincial Congress, shall pass cur- "
rent in all payments within the Colony of New Jersey for Proclamation
Money; Dated the diiy of 1775,' and shall be impressed with

sxrch devices as the inspectors of the press hereinafter appointed shall
direct ; and when printed shall be delivered to Hendrick Fisher and
Azariah Dunham, Esquires, of the Eastern Division, and to John Hart
and John Carey, Esquires, of the Western Divi.sion, four of the signers
thereof, in equal moieties ; one moiety to be signed by the Treasurer and
signei-s of the Eastern Division, and the other moiety by the Treasurer
and signers of the Western Division. . . ,"

The succeeding parts of the ordinance provided for
the numbering, signing, countersigning, counting, and
inspection of the bills, with various other details, all
which were laid out and directed with great minute-
ness as a safeguard against the possibility of irregu-
larity or fraud. And it was further provided by the
ordinance that "for the better credit and etfectual
sinking of the said bills of credit there shall be as-
sessed, levied, and raised on the several inhabitants
of this colony, their goods and chattels, lands and
tenements, the sum of ten thousand pounds annually
in every of the years one thousand seven hundred and
eighty-four, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-
five, and one thousand seven hundred and eighty-
six" ; . . . and the apportionment of this annual tax
was made identical in the amounts assigned to each

sums to which the Commissioners were limited; and thereupon, on the
10th of February, 1776, the Congress gave them unlimited authority to
purchase, by the following action : " Wliereas, By an ordinance of this
Congress, passed at Trenton the 28th day of October last, the Commis-
sioners therein named and appointed to purchase firearms and military
stores were particularly restricted in the price to be paid for said fire-
arms, whereby, the manufactory thereof hath been greatly impeded ; for
the remedy whereof it is resolved unanimously that the said Commis-
sioners have full power immediately to proceed in contracting for fire-
arms upon the best terms in their power, without any limitation or re-
striction ; and that this Congress will in convenient time pass an ordi-
nance for that purpose." Jlfiarito Provincial Congress and Ooimcil of Safetu
1776-76, pp. 358, 359. '

X Tlio amount was raised to fifty thousand pounds by an ordinance
passed Feb. 28, 1776.

g Proclamation money was reckoned at seven shillings six pence to
the dollar.



of the counties with that of the ten thousand pound
tax, before mentioned, levied at the session of the
preceding May.

The sum of one thousand pounds was voted "to
encourage the erection of saltpetre- works in this
colony'' ; and it was directed that this sum " be ap-
propriated to the payment of a bounty of one shilling
per pound over and above the market price for any
quantity not exceeding twenty thousand weight of
good merchantable saltpetre which shall be made
and manufactured in this colony on or before the first
day of January, 1777; Provided, That the Continental
Congress shall not offer the like premium for saltpetre
manufactured in any of the United Colonies."

The question of the enlistment and organization of
two battalions of soldiers in New Jersey for the Con-
tinental service was among the business brought be-
fore the Congress at this session. It originated in the
receipt, on the 13th of October, of a letter from the
president of the Continental Congress to the Provin-
cial Congress of New Jersey, being as follows :

"Philadelphlj, Oct. 12, 1776. GESTLEMEif, Some late intcIUgence,* laid before CoDgres, seems "
to render it absolutely necessary, for the protection of our Uberties and
the safety of our lives, to raise several new battalions, and therefore the
Congress have come into the inclosed resolutions, which I am ordered to
transmit to yon. The Congress have the firmest confidence that from
your experienced zeal in this great cause, you will exert your utmost
endeavors to carry the said resolutions into execntion with all possible

" Thetlongress have agreed to furnish the men with a hunting-shirt, not exceeding the value of one dollar and one-third of a dollar, and a blanket, provided these can be procured, but these are not to be made part of the terms of enJistment. I am, gentlemen, "

" Tour most obedient humble servant, John Hakcock, "

" President.^ By order of Congress, I forward you forty-eight commissions for the "
captains and subaltern officers in the New Jersey Battalions.


The resolutions of the Continental Congress referred
to in llr. Hancock's letter were passed by that body on
the 9th and 12th of October, recommending to the Con-
gress of New Jersey that it should " immediately raise,
at the expense of the continent, two battalions, con-
sisting of eight companies," of men for the service, and
specifying the manner in which they were to be en-
listed and officered and the pay and allowances they
would receive.

A reply was at once sent (October 13th) to the Con-
tinental Congress, expressing the desire of the Con-
gress of New Jersey to promote the common interests
of the colonies as far as lay in their power, and to
raise the troops as desired, but objecting to the man-
ner in which the field-officers for the proposed bat-
talions were to be appointed. This disagreement
resulted in some further correspondence, and the
matter was afterwards satisfactorily arranged ; but in
the mean time the Congress of New Jersey passed the

* Unfavorable intelligence from the Canadian expedition under Gens.
Schuyler and Montgomery.

following resolution,! which was ordered to be imme-
diately published in the form of an advertisement,
viz. :

"In Provincial Congress held at Trenton The 26th Day or Octobee, 1775. "

" Whereas, The Honorable Continental Congress have recommended to this Congress that there be immediately raised in this Colony at the ex- pence of the Continent, two Battalions, consisting of eight companies each, and each company to con-ist of sixty-eight privates, and officered with one Captain, one Lieutenant, one Ensign, four Sergeants, and four Corporals, on the following conditions: That the privates be enlisted for a year, at the rate of five dollars per calendar month, liable to be dis- charged at any time on aUowing one month's pay extraordinary • that each of the privates be allowed, instead of a bounty, a felt hat, a pair of yam stockings, and a pair of shoes,-the men to find their own arms ; that each capUiu and other commissioned officer while in the recruiting service of this Continent, or on their march to join the army, shall be aUowed two dollars and two-thirds of a dollar per week for their subsists euce ; and that the men who enlist shall, each of them, whilst in quarters, be allowed one dollar per week, and one dollar and one-third of a dollar when on their march to join the army, for the same purpose [here fol- lows the prescribed form of enhstment]. This Congress, desirous to carry into execution the above resolution "
of the Continental Congress, do resolve that warrants be issued to proper
pcrs<,n8 for immediately raising the said two Battalions, consisting of
eight companies each, and each company of sixty-eight privates, and
officered with one Captain, one Lieutenant, one Ensign, four Sergeants,
and four Corporals, on the terms aforesaid ; which sergeants, corporals!
and privates to be enlisted shall be able-bodied freemen. And it is further
directed that, when any company shall be enlisted, the persons having
warrants for raising the same shall cause a muster to be had thereof, in
the presence of either Elias Dayton, Azariah Dunham, Joseph Ellis! or
John Jlehelm, Esquires, who are hereby appointed muster masters' to
review the said companies. . . And it is hereby recommended to

the inhabitants of this Colony to be aiding and assisting, as far as their
influence extends, in raising the aforesaid levies. . . ."

On the 28th of October the Provincial Congress
passed a resolution recommending to the Continental
Congress the appointment and commissioning of the
following-named field-officers for the two battalions to
be raised in New Jersey, viz. : For the Eastern Bat-
talion, the Earl of Stirling colonel, William Winds
lieutenant-colonel, and William De Hart major ; for
the Western Battalion, William Maxwell colonel,
Israel Shrieve lieutenant-colonel, and David Eay
major. These appointments were soon after made,
and commissions issued by direction of the Conti-
nental Congress.

The Provincial Congress adjourned on the 28th ol
October, "to meet at New Brunswick on the first
Tuesday in April next, unless sooner convened by
the President, Vice-President, or the Committee of
Safety." The gentlemen appointed to form this com-
mittee, to act for the public welfare in the recess of
this Congress, were Samuel Tucker, Hendrick Fisher,
John Hart, Abraham Clark, Lewis Ogden, Joseph
Holmes, John Mehelm, Isaac Pearson, John Pope,
Azariah Dunham, John Dennis, Augustine Stevenson,
Ruloff Van Dyke. Six of these thirteen members
were from Hunterdon and Somerset Counties.

The Committee held a five days' session at Prince-
ton, from the 9th to the 13th of January, 1776, at
which a number of Tories and disaflfected persons

t Minutes of the Provincial Congress and Council of Safety, 1775-76
p. 233.



were severely dealt with, and provision was made for
the erection of beacons and the keeping of express-
riders in constant readiness to convey intelligence in
case of alarm from invasion or other causes, but no
important action is found having special reference to
Hunterdon or Somerset Counties. They saw fit, how-
ever, to call an extra session of the Provincial Con-
gress, as appears by the following extract from their
minutes, dated January 12th, viz. :

" This Committee received several resolutions and determinations of the Continental Congress respecting raising one new battalion in this Province, erecting and establishing a Court of Admiralty, advising the forming some useful regulations respecting the Continental forces raised in this Colony ; which requisitions, together with many other important concerns, render the speedy meeting of the Congress of this province absolutely necessary. This Committee have therefore appointed the meeting of said Congress to be at New Brunswick on Wednesday, the thirty-firBt day of this instant, January. "

The Congress accordingly met at the time and place
designated, and commenced business on the 1st of

The recruitment of the two battalions which Con-
gress at its previous session had ordered to be raised
had proceeded successfully and with rapidity. Lord
Stirling, having been commissioned colonel of the
First or Eastern battalion, had taken with him to it
several of the officers and a considerable number of
the men of the Somerset County regiment of militia,
which he had previously commanded, and he found
very little difficulty in filling the ranks of his new
command. Col. Maxwell's (Western) battalion was
recruited with nearly equal facility. In the last week
of November (1775) Stirling established his head-
quarters at Elizabethtown to fill his battalion to the
maximum, six companies of it having previously
been ordered to garrison the fort in the Highlands on
the Hudson River. Lieut.-Col. Winds was soon after
stationed, with a part of the battalion, at Perth Am-
boy. Col. Maxwell's battalion was ordered to the
vicinity of the Hudson River, and both the Eastern
and Western battalions having been filled, or nearly
so, were mustered into the Continental service in De-
cember.* It does not appear, however, that they
were fully armed and equipped when so mustered, as
is shown (at least in regard to the Western battalion)
by the following action taken by the Provincial Con-
gress! at New Brunswick, on the third day of its ses-
sion, Feb. 2, 1776, viz. :

"Wliereas, The Continental Congress have ordered Colonel Maxwell's battalion to march to Canada as soon as the men can be furnished with arms and other articles absolutely essential ; and whereas, arms are ex- tremely scarce, and indeed impossible to be procured in time for the equipment of said battalion without making application to the several Counties in this Province: Resolved, That the Committees, or other public bodies, in whose hands any of the Kew Jersey Provincial arms and * These two battalions were the first troops of New Jersey which actu- ally took the field. Lord StirUng was of Somerset County, and one of its leading citizens, while Gen. Maxwell bore nearly the same relation to Hunterdon County, although he resided a short distance outside her boundaries. t Minutes of the Provincial Congi-ess and Council of Safety 1775-76 pp. 341, 342. accoutrements are deposited [are requested ?] to deliver the same to the commanding oiHcer of said battalion, or his order ; of whom they are required to tiike vouchers, with the valuation of said arms, etc., there under written; and that this Congress will either immediately pay for said arms, agreeable to appointment, or replace them as soon as possible, whichever the said Committees or public bodies shall think most proper. This Congress do, in the most strong and explicit manner, recom- "
mend to every private person who has anns fit for immediate use to dis-
pose of the same for the purpose above mentioned."

And the Congress, on the same day, ordered to be
sent " to the commanding officers and chairmen of
the several county committees in the province" a cir-
cular-letter in these words :

" Gentlemen, The late repulse at QuebecJ requires every exertion of tlie friends of American freedom, in consequence whereof Colonel Max- well's battalion is ordered to march forthwith, and the Continental Con- gress have applied to our body urging the greatest dispatch in procuring arms and necessaries for this expedition. Therefore, in pursuance of the aforesaid application, we request you, gentlemen, to use the utmost dili- gence and activity in collecting all the public arms belonging to your county, being your proportion of the Provincial arms unsold. Dispatch in this case is quite necessary, as, no doubt, the arms are distributed in the hands of the associators, it will be necessary that every officer do his part. The value of the arms will be paid in money, or the number be replaced, and the expenses of collecting and forwarding them punc- tually discharged. We put you to this trouble with regret ; but the ne- cessity of the measure must apologise. You will have the arms collected in your county valued by good men and sent to Burlington or Trenton, under the care of such officer of Colonel Maxwell's battalion as may be the bearer hereof. "

That some of the arms for the New Jersey battalions
were supplied by New York appears from the record
of the proceedings of the Continental Congress, which
body on the 2d of January, 1776,

" Resolijed, . . . That the hundred stand of arms supplied by the Colony of New York for the New Jersey Battalion be paid for by the Convention of New Jersey ; and that, in order to enable the said Conven- tion to make such payment, as well as to furnish such of the men belong- ing to the said Battalions as are yet unprovided with arms, the further sum of one thousand dollars be advanced to the said Convention, and that the price of the arms be deducted out of the wages of the privates belonging to said Battalions. "

That a great scarcity of ammunition as well as of
arms existed among the men of the two battalions
appears by the following extract from the minutes of
the Congress, dated February 1st, viz. .

" Lieut.-Col. Winds infoi-med this Congress that he was stationed at Perth Amboy with a part of the Eastern battalion of the Continental forces raised in this Colony, and that he waa destitute of ammunition, and thought it not improbable he miglit soon have occasion for a supply. And this Congress being informed that the County of Somerset had a quantity of powder in store, and the County of Middlesex a quantity of lead, in consideration whereof: Ordered, That Mr. President request the Chairman of the Committee of Somerset to furnish Colonel Winds with four quarter casks of powder ; and that he also request the Chair- man of the Committee of the County of Middlesex to furnish Colonel Winds with 150 pounds of lead ; and that the said powder and lead shall be replaced in some convenient time. "

The Committees promptly acceded to this request,
as appears from the minutes, dated February 10th,
viz. :

" On a requisition from Lord Stirling, the Committee of Elizabethtown have furnished him with six thousand cartridges, Somerset county four X The unsuccessful assault on the defenses of that town, in the morn- ing of Dec. 31, 1775, by the American forces under Blontgomery and Ar- nold, in whicli the first-named gallant officer lost his life and the latter was severely wounded. HUNTERDON AND SOMEESET COUNTIES IN THE REVOLUTION. 39 quarter casks of powder, Woodbridge a considerable quautity, and Brunswick one liundred and lifty weight' of lead. Our militia are very illy supplied with ammunition ; those who have granted the above sup- plies are therefore very desirous that they be immediately replaced. "

This extract is from a communication sent by the
Provincial Congress on the date named to the Conti-
nental Congress asking for " ten tons of gunpowder
and twenty tons of lead, or as much as may be spared,"
out of a large quantity reported to have then re-
cently arrived at Philadelphia. The request was
granted to the extent of half a ton of powder, and
out of this the quantity borrowed of Somerset County,
Brunswick, Woodbridge, and Elizabeth was replaced.
In consequence of the unfavorable result of the
military operations in Canada, and the strong proba-
bility (indicated in letters from Gen. Washington to
Congress) that Gen. Howe intended to evacuate his
uncomfortable position at Boston and move his forces
thence by sea to New York, as also the knowledge
that Sir Henry Clinton had embarked from England
on a secret expedition, whose probable destination
was New York, a greater degree of activity was in-
fused into military measures in general, and especially
to those having reference to the defense of the middle
colonies. The Continental Congress having resolved
in January, 1776, that it was necessary to raise a num-
ber of additional battalions, assigned the raising of
one of these to the province of New Jersey, and
recommended to the Provincial Congress that it should
take immediate steps to that end. Accordingly, on
the 5th pf February, the last-named Congress passed
a resolution to raise a battalion, in addition to the two
previously raised, to be enlisted, organized, and oflB.-
cered in the same manner (except that each of its
eight companies should be composed of seventy-eight
instead of sixty-eight privates), and, like the others,
to be employed in the Continental service. Company
officers for the battalion were appointed by the Con-
gress of New Jersey, but the field-officers were to be
appointed and commissioned by the Continental Con-
gress. The Provincial Congress also resolved, Feb-
ruary 13th,

" That Col. Dunbar, who lives in the Eastern Division of New Jersey, be recommended to the Honorable Continental Congress as a person well qualified to be appointed joint commissary with Col. Lowrey, who lives in West Jersey, for the Third Battalion, now raising, and such as shall be raised in this Colony in the future. "

Col. Lowrey was a resident of Flemington, Hun-
terdon Co., and, receiving the appointment of com-
missary, performed most valuable services to the
American cause during the war.

The rapid progress made in raising the Third Bat-
talion is indicated by the following extract from a let-
ter written by President Tucker to the Continental
Congress on the 24th of February, only nineteen days
after the passage of the resolution ordering the bat-
talion to be raised, viz. : " I am likewise to request
that commissions may be sent for the officers of the
Third Battalion, as some of the companies are already
full and others in a fair way."

The ever-present difficulty scarcity of arms was
an obstacle to the new battalion, as it had been in the
cases of the others, and of all troops being raised at
that time. This is made apparent by the tenor of a
letter sent by the New Jersey Congress to the Conti-
nental Congress, dated February 10th, from which is
quoted the following :

" Gentlemen, Sensible of the importance that the battalions raised in this Province should be as speedily as possible furnished with arms, we collected for the supply of the First and Second Battalions all the arma fit for service that could be obtained in this Province. We have therefore no resource of providing arms for the Third Battalion hut from our own manufactories, or importation. How soon they can be manufactured is uncertain ; and we have no present prospect of receiving them from abroad. But, being informed that two thousand stand have lately been imported, and that they are within your disposal, we should be glad that part of them may be ordered for the use of the Third Battalion, unless some more immediate public service calls for them. We beg leave to propose whether it would not be advisable to clothe the battalions now raising in uniform, deducting the expence attending it out of the men^s wages. . . . "

The pressing need of blankets for the troops is also
shown by this entry on the congressional minutes
dated March 1st :

" This Congress, sensible of the extreme scarcity of blankets now wanted for Continental forces, do recommend it to all the inhabitants of this colony who may have any good blankets that they can possibly spare to dispose of the same to the commissary on reasonable terms for the use of said forces. "

On the 13th of February, Congress resolved " that
a train of artillery, consisting of twelve ;f>ieces, be
immediately purchased for the use of this Colony'' ;
and on the 2d of March an ordinance was passed di-
recting that two complete artillery companies be im-
mediately raised for the defense of the colony, ''one
to be stationed in the Eastern and one in the Western
Division thereof, . . . to be disposed of in this Colony
as the Congress, Committee of Safety, Brigadier-Gen-
eral of the Division to which they respectively belong
shall direct ; each company to be commanded by a
Captain, Captain-Lieutenant, First and Second Lieu-
tenants; and to consist of a Fire-worker, four Ser-
geants, four Corporals, one Bombardier, and fifty
matrosses, all of whom are to be able-bodied free-
men, and to be enlisted for one year, unless sooner
discharged." The commissioned officers appointed
for these companies were Frederick Frelinghuysen
captain,* Daniel Neil captain-lieutenant, Thomas
Clark first lieutenant, and John Heard second lieu-
tenant of the Eastern Company, and Samuel Hugg
captain, Thomas Newark captain-lieutenant, John
Westcott first lieutenant, and Joseph Dayton second
lieutenant of the Western Company. A company of
riflemen was also ordered to be raised, to be joined to
Col. Maxwell's (Second Continental) battalion. And

* Capt. Frelinghuysen soon after resigned his commifision, and there-
upon his artillery company was disbanded, as is shown by an ordinance
passed Aug. 21, 1776, ordering the payment of certain demands, among
them being: "To Frederick Frelinghuysen £61 13s. 2d., being the bal-
ance due to him and men by him enlisted for the eastern company of ar-
tillery, who were discharged upon his resignation." Mm. Prov. Cong.,
1776, p. 675.



it was ordered (February 3d) that, as Lord Stirling,
previously colonel of the First Regiment of militia in
the county of Somerset, had been appointed to a com-
mand in the Continental army, "Stephen Hunt, Esq.,
be colonel, Abraham Ten Eyck, Esq., lieutenant-colo-
nel, James Linn, Esq., first major, and Derrick Med-
dagh, Esq., second major of the said regiment, and
that their commissions be made out accordingly."

In view of the probability, as before mentioned,
that Gen. Howe was about to move his army to oc-
cupy New York, and the expected arrival, by sea, of
a force under Sir Henry Clinton, a considerable num-
ber of Continental and provincial troops had been
ordered to that city, and among these the battalion
of Lord Stirling, who received orders to that effect
about the 1st of February, and moved his command
from Elizabethtown to New York on the 5th and 6th
of that month.* On the 15th of February the Con-
gress of New Jersey received a communication from
the president of the Continental Congress, dated Feb-
ruary 12th, asking this province to send a force of
minute-men to New York. Its tenor was as follows :

" Gentlemen, The arrival of troope at New York, the importance of that place to the welfare of America, and the neceBsity of throwing up a number of works to prevent our enemies from landing and taking post there, render it necessary that a number of troops should immediately join Maj.-Gen. Lee; I am therefore desired to apply to you, and request you would, with all possible expedition, send detachments of your minute-men equal to a battalion, under proper officers, and well armed and accoutred, to New York, there to be under command of Gen. Lee. Your approved zeal in the cause of your country gives me the strongest assurance that you will with alacrity embrace this opportunity of giving aid to your neighbors, and that your people will cheerfully engage in a service by which they will not only render a very essential service to their country, but £^1bo have an opportunity of acquiring military skill and knowledge in the construction of field-works and the method of fortifying and entrenching camps, by which they will be the better able, when occasion calls, to defend their rights and liberties. "

Upon the receipt of which the Provincial Congress
resolved unanimously,

" That the above requisition be complied with, and that detachments of minute-men, properly accoutred, equal to a battalion in the Continen- tal sei-vice, be immediately made, and marched to New York, under the command of Charles Stewart, Esq., colonel, Mark Thompson, Esq., lieu- tenant-colonel, Frederick Frelinghuysen and Thomas Henderson, Esqrs., majors. "

But again the scarcity of arms presented a serious
difficulty, and this time it proved an insuperable ob-
stacle to the desired movement of the troops, as is ex-
plained by the following extract from the minutes of
the Continental Congress, dated February 22d, viz. :

"A delegate from New Jersey having informed Congress that the regi- ment of militia ordered by the Convention of that Colony to march to the defense of New York, in consequence of the resolve of Congress of the l'2th of this mouth, were not sufficiently ai-med, and that they could not he furnished with arms unless the Congress supplied them, and as * In a letter addressed by Lord Stirling to the president of Congress, dated New York, Feb. 19, 1776, he says, SiK, On the 14th instant I informed you of having received Gen. "
Lee's orders to march with my regiment to this place. I accordingly
marched the next morning with four companies from Elizabethtown,
and arrived here the next day, as soon as the ice permitted us to cross

Hudson's River. The other four companies lolloAved the next day."

CoUectUmB of the New Jersey Hutorical Socidij, vol. ii. p. 129.

this Congress have not arms to spare, those they have being necessary
for arming the battalions in the'Continental sei-vice : Therefore, Betolved,
that the march of said battalion of militia be countermanded."

One week after the marching orders to the New
Jersey minute-men were thus countermanded, the
several organizations of minute-men in the colony
were disbanded by action of the Provincial Congress,
which on the 29th of February passed an ordinance
in which it was directed

"That all the minute-men heretofore embodied in the several parts of this Colony be immediately dissolved, and incorporated with the militia, in the several companies in the district in which they respectively reside, as though such minute-men had never been raised. , . . "

The principal reasons for this action, as enumerated
in the preamble to the ordinance, were that large
numbers of the members of minute-men organiza-
tions had enlisted in the Continental service, thereby
greatly reducing the companies and battalions, and
so placing them in a condition in which they could
not " answer the design of their institution," and that
" our defense, under God, chiefly depends upon a well-regulated militia. Thus the ""minute-men',' "
organizations of New Jersey ceased to exist, never
having had an opportunity to perform any of the
peculiar services for which they were formed.

The Congress of New Jersey adjourned on the 2d
of March, 1776, having previouslyf passed an ordi-
nance, in which it was " Resolved and directed, That
there be a new choice of Deputies to serve in Provin-
cial Congress, for every County of this Colony, on the
fourth Monday in May yearly, and every year," thus
establishing regular annual elections of deputies in-
stead of the special elections called, as they had pre-
viously been, at the pleasure of Congress.

The elections were held at the time specified, and
resulted in the choice of Philemon Dickinson, John
Allen, Samuel Tucker, John Hart, and John Mehelm
for Hunterdon, and Frederick Frelinghuysen, WU-
liam Paterson, John Witherspoon, Jacob E. Harden-
bergh, and James Linn for Somerset County. These,
with fifty-five deputies from the other counties, assem-
bled in Provincial Congress at Burlington, and organ-
ized on the nth of that month by electing Samuel
Tucker, of Hunterdon, president, and William Pater-
son, of Somerset County, secretary.

At this session a great amount of business was
transacted, a large proportion of which was included
in the measures taken for raising, organizing, and
forwarding troops. These measures will not be
noticed in detail here, but the most important of them
will be mentioned incidentally in succeeding pages,
in connection with the military events of which the
year 1776 was so fruitful. But the most notable
action taken at this session was that which transformed
New Jersey from a colony into an independent State
by the adoption of a State constitution on the 2d of
July. And it is worthy of note that when the vote
was taken upon the immediate adoption and confirma-

t February 28th.



tion of this constitution, John Mehelm, who voted for,
and William Paterson, who voted against, that prop-
osition, were the only members of the Hunterdon and
Somerset delegations who answered the roll-call of

On the 17th of July the Congress ratified the Dec-
laration of Independence by the adoption of this
resolution, viz. :

"Wha-eas, The Honorable Continental Congress have declared the TJnited Colonies Free and Independent States : We, the Deputies of New Jersey in Provincial Congress assembled, do resolve and declare that we will support the freedom and independence of the said States with our lives and fortunes, and with the whole force of New Jersey. "

And on the following day it was by the same body

" Beaolved, That thisHouse from henceforth, instead of the style and title of the Provincial Congress of New Jersey, do adopt and assume the style and title of the Convention of the State of New .Jersey. "

On the same day (July 18th) an ordinance was
passed defining the crime of treason against the State
of New Jersey, and making it punishable " in like
manner as by the ancient laws of this State," ^that
is, by the infliction of the penalty of death.

The old colonial Legislature of New Jersey had held
its sessions and (nominally) exercised its functions in
1775 until the 6th of December in that year, when
Governor Franklin prorogued the House, and this
proved to be its dissolution. The Governor, who was
notoriously inimical to the American cause, issued
his proclamation in the following May, calling a ses-
sion on June 20th, but this was met by prompt action
on the part of the Provincial Congress, which, on the
14th of June,

" Eesolved, That in the opinion of this Congress the Proclamation of William Franklin, late Governor of New Jersey, bearing date on the thirtieth day of May last, in the name of the King of Great Britain, appointing a meeting of the General Assembly to be held on the twen- tieth day of this instant June, ought not to be obeyed. "

This action had the desired effect; the colonial
Legislature never reassembled. On the 16th of June
the Congress

"Bawtoed, That in the opinion of this Congress the said William Franklin, Esquire, by such proclamation, has acted in direct contempt and violation of the resolve of the Continental Congress of the fifteenth of May last That in the opinion of this Congress the said William Franklin, Esquire, has discovered himself to be an enemy to the liberties of this country ; and that measures ought to be immediately taken for securing the person of the said William Franklin, Esquire. "

On the same day orders were issued to Col. Na-
thaniel Heard, of the First Battalion of Middlesex
militia, to wait on the Governor, to offer him a parole,
by which he was to agree to remain quietly at Prince-
ton, Bordentown, or on his farm at Eancocus (which-
ever he might elect), and, in case of his refusal to
sign this parole, to arrest him. On the 17th, Col.
Heard and Maj. Dears proceeded to Amboy, waited
on the Governor, offered him the parole, and, upon
his refusal to sign it, surrounded his house with a
guard of sixty men to hold him prisoner until further
orders were received from Congress. The orders
came to remove the Governor to Burlington, and he
was accordingly taken there. Upon examination he

was adjudged a violent enemy to his country and a
dangerous person, and he was then placed in custody
of Lieut.-Col. Bowes Read to await orders from the
Continental Congress. On the 25th of June orders
were received to send him, under guard, to Governor
Trumbull, of Connecticut, who was requested, in case
of Franklin's refusal to sign a parole, to treat him as
a prisoner, agreeably to the resolutions of Congress
applying to such cases. He was accordingly sent to
Connecticut, jjlaced in custody of Governor Trum-
bull, and never returned to this State. This was the-
end of the civil authority of King George in New

The constitution adopted on the 2d of July, 1776,
vested the government of the State in a Governor,*
Legislative Council, and General Assembly, the mem-
bers of the Council and Assembly to be chosen for
the first time on the second Tuesday in the following
August, and afterwards, annually, on the- second
Tuesday in October. The members elected in 1776,
in conformity to these provisions, met in October of
that year, and organized as the first Legislature of
New Jersey under the State constitution, succeeding
to the powers and functions of the Provincial Con-
gress and the Convention of the State of New Jersey,
and continuing to exercise those powers as a perma-
nent body.

Although New Jersey had been actively engaged
in military preparations from the time when the war-
like news from Lexington sped across her hills and
streams, it was not until the winter and spring of
1776 the time when Washington sent his warning
that the British commander in Boston was probably
contemplating the movement of his forces to New
York that the people of this province began to
realize the immediate danger of actual invasion, and
that the lapse of a few weeks might whiten their
valleys and highlands with the tents of a hostile

It has already been mentioned that when the de-
signs of Gen. Howe became apparent the battalion of
New Jersey Continental troops under Lord Stirling
was moved from Elizabethtown to New York, and
that a regiment of minute-men under Col. Charles
Stewart was ordered to march "with all possible
expedition" to the same place, but was prevented
from doing so by lack of the necessary arms. On the
1st of March, 1776, the Continental Congress com-
missioned Lord Stirling a brigadier-general, and im-
mediately afterwards he assumed command of all
the troops at New York, Gen. Lee having been or-
dered to other duty. On the 20th of March the force
under Stirling's command! comprised his own New

* The constitution provided that the Governor should be elected annu-
ally by the Council and Assembly in joint ballot.^

+ In the evening of the 20th the command was assumed by Lord Stir-
ling's senior, Brig.-Gen. ITiompson, who had then just arrived from
Philadelphia. A few days later, however, he was ordered to Canada, and
the command again devolved on Lord Stirling.



Jersey battalion (about five hundred men, sick and
well), five hundred minute-men from Dutchess and
Westchester Cos., N. Y., about two hundred New
Jersey militia,* and two Connecticut regiments, under
Cols. Ward and Waterbury, numbering in the aggre-
gate about one thousand men, whose term of service
was then within a few days of its expiration. All
of this force, except the necessary guards, was at that
time employed in the erection of defensive works in
and around New York and on Long Island, " assisted
by about one thousand of the inhabitants of the city,
who turned out on this occasion with great alacrity,
the inhabitants and negroes taking their tour of duty
regularly." The force was immediately afterwards
augmented by two other regiments from Connecticut,
under Cols. Dyar and Williams.

For eight months following the time when Gen.
Washington assumed commandf of the American
forces his army lay in fortified camps encircling the
British post in Boston, which place he was fully de-
termined to occupy, though he preferred to do so by
forcing the enemy to evacuate rather than to risk the
chances of battle. At first the British commander
felt secure and confident of his ability to continue
his occupation of the city, but, in the winter of 1775-
76, Washington discovered strong indications of an
intention on the part of the enemy to withdraw, and
he so notified the Continental Congress. He relaxed
none of his vigilance, however, but pushed his military
preparations with energy. The final movement which
compelled the evacuation was the occupation and for-
tifying of Dorchester Heights during the night of the
4th and 5th of March. The morning of the 5th re-
vealed to the astonished eyes of Gen. Howe a formida-
ble line of earthworks upon the crest, with cannon
mounted on the ramparts commanding his position ;
and from that moment he resolved on an immediate
evacuation of the city. He prepared for a real or
feigned attack, however, by ordering Earl Percy with
a corps of two thousand four hundred men to cross in
transports to Dorchester Point and make a night as-
sault on the rebel works. Washington was fully pre-
pared to receive him, but there arose a furious gale of
wind, which rendered it impracticable for the British
troops to cross. The storm continued with unabated
violence through all the next day, and the attack was
finally abandoned.

On the 7th, Howe called a council of war, at which
it was decided to evacuate the place without delay.
He had threatened to burn the town if his army was
molested in its departure, and the terrified inhabitants
(largely composed of loyalists) waited on him, im-
ploring him to spare it. The result was a promise on
the part of the British commander to leave the town
unmolested if Washington would allow him to depart
in quiet. The American general, not unwilling to

• CoUectioDB of the New Jersey Historical Society, vol. ii. pp. lei 162.
t At Cambridge, July 12, 1776.

avoid bloodshed and the destruction of the place,
tacitly consented ; and so, on the morning of Sunday,
March 17th, the British troops marched to the wharves
and, embarking, took their final departure. The fleet
dropped down the bay to Nantasket Eoads, where it
lay at anchor for ten days, and then put to sea.

Although it was announced that the British fleet,
with Howe's army on board, was bound for Halifax,
there to await reinforcements from England, Gen.
Washington suspected that its real destination was
New York, and, leaving a suflScient force to occupy
Boston, he put his army in motion for the former city,
and arrived there in person on the 14th of April. He
at once commenced active preparations for repelling
the expected enemy by strengthening the defensive
works already erected by Lee and I^ord Stirling, by
constructing additional fortifications at several points,
by a thorough reorganization of his forces, and by
laying before Congress the urgent necessity of provid-
ing reinforcements.

On the 3d of June the Continental Congress re-
solved "That a flying camp be immediately estab-
lished in the middle colonies, and that it consist of
ten thousand men, . . ." to be made up of militia
furnished by Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware;
and on the same day " Resolved, That thirteen thou-
sand eight hundred militia be employed to reinforce
the army at New York," of which number the quotai
assigned to New Jersey was three thousand three
hundred men. On the 14th of June the Congress of
New Jersey passed an ordinance directing that this
number of men, in forty companies, to compose five
battalions, all to form one brigade, to be " imme-
diately got in readiness and marched to New York
under the command of a brigadier-general," the bat-
talions to be raised by voluntary enlistment, to con-
tinue in service till the 1st of December following,
unless sooner discharged. The quotas assigned to
each of the counties, and the field-officers appointed
to the command of the several battalions, were as fol-
lows :

One battalion to be made up of three companies
from each of the counties of Bergen and Essex, and
two companies from Burlington. Ofiicers : Philip
Van Cortland, Colonel ; David Brearly, Lieutenant-
Colonel ; Richard Dej^, Major.

One battalion of four companies from each of the
counties of Middlesex and Monmouth. OflScers : Na-
thaniel Heard, Colonel ; David Forman, Lieutenant-
Colonel ; Thomas Henderson, Major.

One battalion of four companies each from Morris
and Sussex. Officers : Ephraim Martin, Colonel ;
John Munson, Lieutenant-Colonel; Cornelius Lud-
low, Major.

One battalion composed of two companies from
each of the counties of Burlington, Cumberland
Gloucester, and Salem. Officers; Silas Newcomb

Colonel ; Bowes Reed, Lieutenant-Colonel ;




One battalion composed of three companies from
Somerset and five companies from Hunterdon County.
Officers : Stephen Hunt, Colonel ; Philip Johnston,
Lieutenant-Colonel ; Joseph Phillips, Major.\ Dr.
Cornelius Baldwin was appointed surgeon of this

Joseph Reed was appointed brigadier-general and
assigned to the brigade formed of these five battalions,
but for some cause which does not appear he did not
assume the command, and on the 21st of June the
Congress " Ordered, That the President write to Gen-
eral Livingston and inform him that it is the desire
of Congress that he would take the command of the
militia destined for New York." He declined to ac-
cept it, however, and on the 25th of the same month
Col. Nathaniel Heard, of Middlesex, was appointed
brigadier-general and placed in command of the
brigade, which, under him, was soon after marched
to reinforce the army at New York. But on the 24th
of July a letter addressed by Gen. Washington to the
Convention of New Jersey* was read before that
body, informing them " that the brigade under Gen-
eral Heard was far from being complete, and urging
the necessity of raising and forwarding the new levies
destined to reinforce the army at New York" ; where-
upon it was by the Convention " Ordered, That a
letter be written to General Washington informing
that several companies were on their way to join the
brigade ; and that this Convention will use its utmost
efforts to furnish its quota, and to give His Excellency
such other aid as the weal of the United States may_
require and the condition of this State wOl admit."

When the British commander, Gen. Howe, evacu-
ated Boston, in March, 1776, he sailed with his forces
to Halifax, as had been announced, with the inten-
tion of awaiting there the arrival of reinforcements
from England. But,' as these did not arrive at or
near the time when they were expected, he became
wearied by the delay, and on the 10th of June set
sail from that port with the troops of his command,
bound for Sandy Hook, where a part of the force
arrived on the 25th of the same month, and were
soon followed by others, including the commanding
general, who disembarked his army on Staten Island
to await the arrival of the squadron from England,
under command of his brother. Admiral Lord Howe,
who entered the bay with part of his fleet on the 12th
of July ; but it was not until the middle of August
that the last of the reinforcements arrived.

The appearance of Howe's forces on Staten Island
caused great consternation throughout New Jersey,!

* Minntes of the Provincial Congress and Council of Safety, 1776-76,
p. 518.

t In the " Minutes of the Provincial CongreBs and Council of Safety,"
nnder date June, 1776, is found the following : " Cougresa received a
letter from Col. Taylor, of Monmouth, dated 10 o'clock in the forenoon
of this aay, informing that nineteen sail of the enemy's fleet [meaning
the shipe of Gen. Howe from Halifax, and not the men-of-war under
^dmiroJHowe] lies at the Hooli, and forty-flve in sight; read and re-

particularly in the eastern portion of the State, and
this alarm was greatly increased and intensified when
the bay and all the adjacent waters became black with
the almost innumerable ships of the British fleet. The
Tory element, too, which was by no means inconsid-
erable in numbers, became at once rampant, and was
especially aggressive in the counties of Monmouth
and Hunterdon. With reference to the Tory bands
in the former county, the Provincial Congress, on the
26th of June, ordered that Col. Charles Read, with
two companies of Burlington militia, proceed to cap-
ture them, taking also for the purpose all the militia
of Monmouth County if found necessary. And, with
regard to Hunterdon, the Convention, on the same
day, took action as follows :

" WliereaSf it appears, from authenticli information, that certain disaf- fected persons in the^County of Hunterdon have confederated for the purpose of opposing the measures of the Continental and Provincial Congresses, and have even proceeded to acts of open and daring violence ; have plundered and rohhed the house of Captain Jones; have beaten, wounded, and otherwise abused the friends of freedom in said County, and now publicl£ly declare that they will take up arms and engage in behalf of the King of Great Britain, the avowed and implacable enemy of the United Colonies ; In order to put an effectual stop to a combina- tion BO hostile and dangerous, It is resolved unanimously, That Lieuten- ant-Colonel Ten Eick and Major BeiTy take to their aid such a number of the militia, properly oSicered and armed, of the Counties of Huntei^ don aud Somerset, as they may think necessai-y, and proceed without delay to the said County of Hunterdon, in order to apprehend such in- surgents and disaffected persons as this Congress shall direct. "

Under the above resolution, Col. Ten Eyck received
the following instructions, signed by the president of
the Congress :

" CoL. Abraham Ten Eick, ^Tou are hereby ordered to apprehend John Vaught, Joseph Lee, Thomas Swindle, George Cyphers, Jr., Peter Cyphers, John Day, William Hunt, Jr., Jonathan Hunt, John Hunt, John Seal, Jr., Herman Millham, Christopher Vaught, James MacCord, George Casner, Thomas Buskirk, Frederick Frittz, Peter Abgar, Baniel Hunt, George Updike,J John Horpence, Philip Forker, Christopher Dilts, Bartholomew Thatcher, Samuel Slater, Edward Taylor, and John Taylor, all of whom you are to keep under strong guard, and to bring before this Congress, or Committee of Safety during their recess ; to de- liver them to the keeper of the common gaol of Trenton, who is hereby commanded to keep them in close and safe coniinement until this Con- gress, or Committee of Safety, shall take further orders therein. "

filed. Ordered, That the President write to the Coutiuental Congress in-
closing a copy of the above letter, and requesting a supply of powder."
And in the proceedings of the same day is the following : " Certain ad-
vice being received of the arrival of General Howe at Sandy Hook;
Ordered, That all oflicers who have enlisted men properly armed, under
the late ordinance for raising three thousand three hundred men within
this Colony, proceed immediately with such numbers as they have col-
lected, or can collect, without delay to New York, assigning a due pro-
portion of oflicers to the men, that they may be ready, and leaving other
oflicers, as occasion may require, to collect the remainder. All officers,
paymasters, and others are required to be diligent in their respective star
tions ; and all the friends of Liberty throughout the Colony are most
earnestly entreated now to exert themselves for the preservation of
their country, their lives, liberties, and property."

It was under this order that Gen. Heard moved his command in haste
to New York, aa before noticed. On the 1st of August it was by the
Congress " Ordered, That PhiUp Johnston, Esq., be Colonel, Joseph PhU-
lips, Esq., Lieutenant-Colonel, and Piatt Bayles Majsr of the battalion
raised in the counties of Hunterdon and Somerset, in the brigade under
the command of General Heard, destined to reinforce the army at New


t Among the charges made against some of these men was that of
opposition to the draught in Capt. Groendyck's company, in the town-
ship of Kingwood.



In pursuance of these instructions, Col. Ten Eyck
proceeded to apprehend the persons named, and their
cases were afterwards acted on according to the judg-
ment of the Convention. Persons of Tory proclivi-
ties were also numerous in Somerset County, hut it
does not appear that they became, at this time, so
defiant and dangerous as those of Monmouth and

The troops of the " Flying Camp," composed of
men from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware,
and under command of Gen. Hugh Mercer, were
stationed at Perth Amboy, and at points north of that
place, opposite the west shore of Staten Island. The
nominal strength of this corps was ten thousand men,
but it had never actually reached that figure, and
now it had been materially reduced by detachments,
amounting to two thousand men, sent to Gen. Wash-
ington, at New York ; so that at this critical time,
when this portion of the New Jersey frontier was
peculiarly liable to invasion by the army of Howe,
the guarding-force became wholly insufficient. In
view of this imminent danger, the Continental
Congress passed a resolution requesting a levy of
two thousand of the militia of New Jersey, to
supply the places of an equal number of men sent
from the Flying Camp to Gen. Washington. This
resolution was read on the 17th of July in the Pro-
vincial Congress, and on the following day an ordi-
nance was passed by the Convention,* to the effect
that " whereas the situation of New York, the vicinity
of New Jersey to the enemy, and, above all, the
arrival of Lord Howe, who, it is probable, will
speedily make some decisive movement, render it
absolutely necessary that the most immediate .and
effectual steps be taken to guard against the incur-
sions of the British troops, and to strengthen the army
of the United States; Resolved, therefore, unani-
mously, that two thousand of the militia of this State
be immediately detached to supply the place of the
like number taken from the flying camp in New
Jersey and ordered to New York." The force was to
be composed of four battalions, an aggregate of thirty
companies of sixty-four men each, besides officers,
the whole to compose a brigade, under command of a
brigadier-general, and to be in the Continental service.
To the counties of Hunterdon, Somerset, and Sussex
was assigned the raising of one battalion, of which
Mark Thompson was appointed colonel, Abraham
Bonnell lieutenant-colonel, Enos Kelsey major, and
Dr. Jacob Jennings surgeon. Any of the men of this
brigade while in service were permitted to enlist in
the brigade under command of Gen. Heard, and on
doing so were entitled, each man, to receive a bounty
of three pounds, voted by the Continental Congress.

Again, on the 22d of July, the Continental Con-
gress, in view of the imminent danger of invasion, re-

* The name of that body having been changed on that day from " The
ProYiucial Congress of New Jersey" to "The Convention of the State of
New Jersey," ae before mentioned.

solved to further increase the Flying Camp, and for
this purpose desired the State of New Jersey "to aug-
ment its quota with three battalions of militia, in ad-
dition to those formerly desired by Congress, and send
them with all possible dispatch to join the flying
camp." Upon being notified of this action, the Con-
vention of New Jersey informed Congress that two
thousand men had already been ordered detached
from the militia of the State for the purpose men-
tioned ; but beyond this it took no further action at
that time.

The feeling of alarm, however, rapidly increased,
and on the 7th of August the Convention received
notice of a resolve of Congress "recommending to
the State of New Jersey to order their militia imme-
diately to march and join Gen. Mercer." This had
the effect to cause the Convention to pass (August
11th) an ordinance reciting that "the Convention,
viewing with serious concern the present alarming
situation of this and their sister-States, that on a pru-
dent use of the present moment depend their lives,
their liberty and happiness, think it their indispensa-
ble duty to j)ut the militia on such a footing that their
whole force may be most advantageously exerted ; and
to call out the one-half into immediate service, to be
relieved by the other monthly," and ordering that all
able-bodied men in the State between the ages of six-
teen and fifty, without exception, be immediately en-
rolled in companies and formed into two divisions,
and " that the first division be immediately equipped
with arms and every necessary accoutrement that can
be obtained, and four days' provision, and march with
all dispatch to join the flying camp in this State."
This division consisted of thirteen battalions, made
up of men drawn from the militia organizations of the
several counties of the State, those containing Hun-
terdon and Somerset County men being one battalion
formed from the two regiments, and one battalion
commanded respectively by Cols. Mark Thompson,
Ephraim Martin, and John Cleves Symmes, in Hun-
terdon and Sussex ; another battalion from the bat-
talions of Cols. Stephen Hunt and Abraham Quick,
in Somerset ; another battalion from the battalions of
Cols. Isaac Smith and David Chambers, in Hunter-
don ; and a fourth battalion from the battalions of
Cols. Joseph Beavers and John Mehelm, in Hunter-
don. The best arms in the possession of all the mili-
tia of the State were taken to arm this First Division,
and they were to be turned over to the Second Division
when it should relieve the First, at the end of one
month from the time when the latter was reported for
duty with the Flying Camp.

The ordinance closed by a most stirring appeal to
the people of New Jersey by the members of the
Convention. They said,

" In this interesting situation, viewing, on the one hand, an active, inveterate, and implacable enemy, increasing fast in strengrth, d.tily re- ceiving large reinforcements, and industiionsly preparing to strike some decisive blow; on the other, a considerable part of the inhabitants su- HUNTEKDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES IN THE EEVOLUTION. 45 pinely shimbering on the brink of ruin, and moved T\'itb affecting ap- prebensions, tbe Convention thinlt it incumbent upon tbem to warn tbeir constituents of tbe impending danger. Ou you, our friends and bretbren, it depends, this day, to determine whetber you, your wives, your cbildren, and millions of your descendants yet unborn sball wear tbe galling, tbe ignominious yoke of slavery, or nobly inberit tbe gen- erous, tbe inestimable blessings of freedom. Tbe alternative is before you ! Can you hesitate in your choice ? Can you doubt which to pre- fer ?. . . Happily, we know we can anticipate your virtuous choice. With "
confident satisfaction we are assured that not a moment will delay your
important decision ; that you cannot feel hesitation, whether you will
tamely and degenerately bend your necks to tbe irretrievable wretched-
ness of slavery, or by your instant and animated exertions enjoy the fair
inheritance of heaven-born freedom, and transmit it unimpaired to your

This language indicates clearly the intensity of the
alarm which then pervaded the public mind ; and the
facts above noticed show what preparations had been
made by the people of New Jersey to meet the im-
pending danger at the time when the neighboring
hillsides of Staten Island were dotted with the camps
of Howe's army, and its shores encircled by the black
hulls and menacing batteries of the British fleet.

It proved to be the design of the British comman-
der not to invade the territory of New Jersey, but to
siege and occupy the western end of Long Island ; and
he made no delay, after the arrival of the last of his
reinforcements, in putting this design into execution.
His army, consisting of British regulars and German
mercenaries, amounted to about twenty-five thousand
men, and with about ten thousand of them he crossed
from Staten Island on the 22d of August and effected
a landing between the settlements of New Utrecht
and Gravesend. The American forces in and about
New York numbered, nominally, about twenty-seven
thousand men,* and, though they had offered no oppo-
sition to the landing of the enemy's columns, it was
clear that a conflict between the two armies was in-
evitable and could not long be delayed.

Five days were spent in preparation on both sides.
On the 25th of August, Gen. Putnam succeeded Gen.
Sullivan in the command of the American forces at
Brooklyn, which had been reinforced by six regiments.
On the same day the German general De Heister
landed two brigades of Hessians on the island, and on
the 26th took position at Flatbush, which Lord Corn-
•wallis had occupied with his division three days be-
fore. Thus the American and British forces stood on
the evening of the 26th, confronting each other, and
•within striking distance.

Before dawn, in the morning of the 27th of August,
the British columns, under Clinton, Percy, and Grant,
were put in motion in the direction of the American
lines, and it was not long after daylight when their
advance became warmly engaged with the troops
under Gen. Sullivan ; and then followed the general
engagement known in history as the battle of Long
Island, which raged until past noon of the day and
resulted in the defeat of Gen. Washington's army and

* Nearly one-third of this number, however, were unfit for duty, by
reason of sickness and other causes.

the capture of Lord Stirling with his entire command,
who were surrounded and made prisoners. Gens.
Sullivan and WoodhuU were also among those taken
by the enemy. The loss of the Americans was heavy,
being admitted by Gen. Washington to exceed one
thousand, and estimated by Gen. Howe to be more
than three times that number, including about eleven
hundred prisoners. Among the killed was Col. Philip
Johnston, of Hunterdon County, commanding the
First Regiment.

After this disastrous engagement the American
forces remained in a fortified position confronting the
enemy until the night of the 28th, when they were
withdrawn and transported in safety across the East
River to New York, taking with them nearly all their
military stores, and all their artillery, except a few
of the heavier pieces. The public stores were re-
moved to Dobb's Ferry, on the Hudson, while the
main part of the army, some ten or twelve thousand
men, was marched to King's Bridge and there en-
camped. A force of between four and five thousand
men was left in the city to keep up a show of defense,
but not with the intention of holding it against any
determined attack of the enemy in force. On the
12th of September, Gen. Washington, by the advice
of a council of war, decided on the abandonment of
the city, and Gen. Mercer, commanding the Flying
Camp, on the New Jersey side, was ordered to move
up the river to a point opposite Fort Washington.

On the 15th of September, while the city was still
partially occupied by the American troops. Gen.
Howe commenced crossing the East River with his
army under cover of a heavy fire from the men-of-
war. Some of Washington's troops who occupied a
fortified position near the place of landing fled in
terror before the advance of the British and the can-
nonade of their ships, and in their panic threw into
confusion two brigades which were marching to their
support. The result was a disorderly and disgraceful
retreat to the main body. No resistance was made,
except a temporary stand and slight skirmish at
Bloomingdale, and all the. heavy artillery, with a
large part of the military stores and provisions, fell .
into the hands of the enemy. Gen. Howe occupied
the city with a comparatively small force, and moved
the main part of his army northward and established
his lines, stretching from Bloomingdale across the
island to the East River.

After the defeat on Long Island and the retreat to
King's Bridge the American army was reduced to a
state of most discouraging demoralization. In refer-
ence to its condition. Gen. Washington, in a letter
addressed to Congress in September, 1776, used this
language :

" Our situation is truly distressing. The check to our detachment on the 27tb ultimo has dispirited too great a proportion of our troops and filled their minds with apprehension and despair. The militia, instead of calling forth their utmost efforts to a brave and manly opposition, in order to repair our losses, are dismayed, intractable, and impatient to re'- turn. Great numbers of them have gone off,- • ' ' ' in some instances almost 46 HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY. by whole regiments, in many by hulf ones and by companies, at a time. This circumstance of itself, independent of others, when fronted by a well-appointed enemy, superior in number to our whole collected force, would be snfflciently disagreeable, but when it is added that their exam- ple has infected another paH of the army, that their want of discipline and refusal of almost every liind of restraint and government have ren- dered a like conduct but too common in the whole, and have produced an entire disregard of that order and subordination necessary for the well-doing of an army, and which had been before inculcated as well as the nature of our military establishment would admit, our condition is still more alarming ; and with the deepest concern I am obliged to cou- fesa my want of confidence in the generality of the troops. "

And he added in effect that all these facts but con-
firmed his previous opinion that no dependence could
be placed in militia, or in any troops other than those
enlisted for a long term, and that in his belief the
American cause was in great danger of being lost if
its defense was intrusted to any but a permanent army.
Upon this representation Congress adopted measures
for the immediate raising and organization of such a
permanent army, to consist of eighty-eight battalions
of seven hundred and fifty men each, to be furnished
by the several States. Four of these battalions were
assigned to New Jersey as her quota.

From the time when Gen. Howe moved his forces
across the East Eiver from Long Island to New York,
the two opposing armies remained on the east side of
the Hudson for about two months, during which time
there occurred a great amount of skirmishing (fre-
quently resulting favorably for the Americans) and a
series of minor engagements, sometimes called the
battle of White Plains,* resulting from an attempt,
on the part of the British commander, to flank the
American position. This attempt finally proved suc-
cessful, and the American army was thus placed in
great peril, having its line of retreat cut off; so that,
in the event of a general engagement, it must proba-
bly have been destroyed. In this state of affairs a
council of war was held (November 6th), at which it
was decided that the army should be moved across the
Hudson into New Jersey, those of the forces which
were raised on the west side of that river to cross first,
and afterwards the others, with more or less rapidity,
as necessity might require. A small force, however,
was to be left at Fort Washington to hold that work,
which, in conjunction with Fort Lee, on the opposite
side of the river, was expected to be able to prevent
the free passage of the British ships up and down the
river. This view of the case was urged upon the
council by Gen. Greene, but was disapproved of and
warmly opposed by Gen. Lee, who had then just re-
turned to this army from a successful campaign in the
South. But unfortunately his advice was overruled
in the council, and a force was left to hold the fort.

The crossing of the Hudson River by the greater
part of the army was effected on the 12th and 13th
of November, Washington himself crossing on the
latter day. Gen. Lee was left on the east side with

* Oct. 26-29, 1776.

about three thousand men,t with orders to join Wash-
ington in New Jersey if the enemy should show in-
dications of moving in that direction.

Fort Washington had been reinforced by detach-
ments from Gen. Mercer's Flying Gamp, augmenting
its defending force from twelve hundred to about threa
thousand men. It was almost completely surrounded
by the enemy, who had determined on its capture.

On the 15th of November, Howe sent a summons
to Col. Magaw, the commander at the fort, to surren-
der, threatening to give no quarter if refused! The
summons, however, was disregarded, and on the 16th
heavy masses of British and Hessian troops moved to
the assault of the work, which after several hours of
fighting was surrendered, with two thousand six hun-
dredj men as prisoners of war.

Washington, on crossing the river into Jersey, had
established his headquarters at Haclcensaok, five miles
in the rear of Fort Lee, and at the same place were
the headquarters of Gen. Greene, who was in com-
mand of the troops which had crossed in that vi-
cinity. On the 18th of November, two days after the
fall of Fort Washington, the first actual invasion of
the State of New Jersey by British troops was com-
menced by Lord Cornwallis, whose division, six thou-
sand strong, crossed the river to Closter Landing, and,
marching thence down the river, proceeded to the
attack of Fort Lee, the garrison of which evacuated
the work in haste? and retreated to the main body of
the American army, at Hackensack, leaving their
baggage and the military stores at the fort in the
hands of the enemy.

The army which Gen. Washington then had with
him in New Jersey amounted to no more than three
thousand effective men, exclusive of the Flying Camp,
which was stationed in the neighborhood of Bergen,
and still under command of Gen. Mercer. The troops
of this last-mentioned corps had only been enlisted
for a term to close on the 1st of December, which was
then but a few days distant ; and not only was there
very little probability that any considerable number
would remain after that time, but a great many of
them had already left and returned to their homeSv
Nearly the same was true of the forces with which
Washington had crossed the Hudson, which was daily
growing less as the general feeling of despondency
increased. The commander-in-chief sent orders to
Gen. Lee, who was still east of the Hudson, to cross

f The term of service of a large part of Lee's men was then about ex-
piring, and, na they could not be induced to re-enlist, this force was soon
afterwards greatly reduced by their return to their homes.

X This number, given. by Howe in his report, included about two thou-
sand regular troops and five or six hundred militia and stragglers.
Washington stated the number captured to be two thousand, in which
he probably only included the Continental troops.

g Gen. Washington had decided, immediately upon the fall of Fort
Waabington, to evacuate Fort Lee and remove its stores to the interior
of New Jersey, but the promptness of Cornwallis' movements prevented
the execution of the plan ; consequently, the stores and material wore
lost. As the evacuation had already been decided on, of course no de-
fense was intended, and none was made.



that river into New Jersey and hold his command in
readiness to give assistance in case the enemy should
as it was now nearly certain he would advance to
the interior of the State. Orders were also sent to
Gen. Schuyler to move his troops among whom were
those under command of Gen. Maxwell,* including a
large number of men from Hunterdon and Somerset
Counties from Lake Champlain to New Jersey to the
aid of Washington; but these succors were distant,
and it must be long before they could arrive at the
point of danger. Gen. "Washington wrote to Governor
Livingston of New Jersey, setting forth his pressing
need of reinforcements, and asking that every en-
deavor might be used to send men to him in the least
possible time; but there was very little probability
that any new troops could then be raised.

The American army was advantageously posted on
the right bank of the Hackensack Eiver, but, as its
eflfective strength was scarcely more than one-half
that of Cornwallis' corps alone (to say nothing of the
other divisions of the British army), any attempt to
hold the line of the Hackensack was evidently use-
less ; and so, when Cornwallis moved up from Fort
Lee to confront him, Gen. Washington immediately
retired and set his columns in motion for Newark,
which he reached on the 22d of November, and re-
mained there until the 28th of the same month, when,
on the approach of Cornwallis' advance-guard, the
patriot forces left the town and continued their retreat
to New Brunswick, where Washington had hoped to
make a stand. In this he was sorely disappointed,
for, with an active and energetic enemy pressing on
his rear, it would require all his forces, to the last
man, to enable him to dispute their advance with any-
thing like a hope of success, and even then the odds
against him would be discouraging. But he could
not retain even the meagre force which he had
brought with him thus far, for the terms of service of
several of the commands (among them the brigades
from Maryland and New Jerseyf) had expired, and
neither arguments nor threats could prevent the men
composing them from disbanding themselves and re-
turning to their homes. Without them it was im-
practicable to oppose the enemy's advance ; and so, on
Sunday, the 1st of December, the day on which
their enlistments expired, the remnant of the army
left New Brunswick, and, passing through the south-
east part of Somerset County by way of Six-Mile
Eun, and crossing the Millstone Eiver at Eocky Hill,
made its way to Princeton, the advance arriving there

* Col. Maxwell had been appointed brigadier-general in the Continen-
tal army in the preceding October.

t The Pennsylvania militia of the Dying Camp, whose term also ex-
pired on the 1st of December, had engaged to remain in service till the
Ist of January ; notwithstanding which, they deserted in such numbers
that it was found necessary to send guards to patrol the shares of the
Delaware to intercept the fugitives on their way to their homes and
bring them_back to the army. Many of them, however, evaded the
guards and made their way successfully into Pennsylvania.

the same evening. A stop of several days was made
at this place.

At New Brunswick Cornwallis had halted his col-
umns in obedience to an order from Gen. Howe to
proceed no farther than that point until he should be
reinforced by other commands of the British army.
Washington, aware of this, left behind him in Prince-
ton, when he moved thence to Trenton, a force con-
sisting of the remnants of two brigades, in all, twelve
hundred men, in order to make a show of defense,
hoping thereby to delay the advance of the British
general, and to give renewed confidence to the people
of the surrounding country. This detached force was
under command of Lord Stirling, who, taken prisoner
by the enemy at Long Island, as before mentioned,
had been exchanged and returned to his command in
the American army a short time before it crossed the
Hudson Eiver into New Jersey.

Immediately after entering this State, Gen. Wash-
ington, in view of the rapid diminution of his army,
had dispatched Gen. Miifiin to Pennsylvania to urge
the hurrying forward of troops, and he had been so
far successful that fifteen hundred men had been sent
from Philadelphia, besides a German battalion or-
dered thence by Congress. These troops joined Gen.
Washington on his arrival at Trenton, and, upon
being thus strengthened, the commander-in-chief or-
dered a large part of his force to march back on the
road to Princeton, to further deceive the British by
the appearance of a general advance to meet them.
Before the column reached Princeton, however, he
received word that Lord Cornwallis, having been
strongly reinforced from Howe's army, was already
on the move from New Brunswick and marching his
troops rapidly by several roads with the evident in-
tention of gaining the rear of the American army,
and thus securing its destruction. This intelligence
caused Washington to decide at once on a retreat to
and across the Delaware Eiver, and accordingly he
turned the faces of his men once more towards that

The main body of Cornwallis' troops marched rap-
idly and confidently from New Brunswick to Prince-
ton, and on their approach Lord Stirling, knowing
that an attempt at defense with his weak force would
be useless, evacuated the town and marched rapidly
towards Trenton, with the pursuing column of Brit-
ish and Hessians close in his rear, so near, says Los-
sing, in his "Field-Book of the Eevolution," that
•'often the music of the pursued and the pursuers
would be heard by each other;" but this is doubtless
drawn from the imagination, as there is little proba-
bility that the tattered, shoeless, and dispirited army
of Washington, in its flight along the highways of
Somerset and Hunterdon Counties, moved to the
sound of any music other than that of the howling of
the winds of December. On the 8th of that month
the American army was moved across the Delaware,
the last man of Lord Stirling's rear-guard reaching



the Pennsylvania shore in safety at about midnight,
just as the head of the Hessian column entered Tren-
ton. The main body of the British force halted a
few miles before reaching the town.

The American army which crossed the Delaware
into Pennsylvania numbered about two thousand two
hundred men, but two or three days later this force
was further reduced by the departure of about five
hundred whose terms of service had then expired.
But even then Washington did not despair. Gen.
Gates at the North, and Gen. Heath at Peekskill, had
been ordered to join him with their troops with all
possible dispatch, and expresses were sent out through
Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland urging the
militia to march to him without delay ; and it was
believed that by these means a sufiicient force might
be collected to enable him to resume offensive opera-
tions at no distant day. Probably he had already
conceived the plan which he afterwards executed so
successfully at Trenton.

When the crossing was made, Washington, fearing
that Cornwallis might attempt the passage of the
stream to attack him, took the precaution to secure
all the boats upon the Jersey side and have them
taken to the opposite shore. He had previously or-
dered all boats, bateaux, and river-craft of every kind
on the Delaware and Lehigh* rivers to be seized,

* " Thia service was assigned to Capt. Daniel Bray, afterwards Gen. Bray,
of the New Jersey militia, Capt. Jacob Gearhart, and Capt. Thomas
Jones, who collected all the boats on the upper waters of the Delaware
and Lehigh and brought them down to Coryeirs Ferry. The boats were
hid behind Malta Island, just below what is known as ' The Mills,' on
the Pennsylvania side. The island was densely wooded, so that the boats
could not be seen by a reconnoitering-party of the enemy as it looked
down from the Jersey heights. These boats were thus secured for the
famous crossing of Christmas night. Capt. Bray was a native of King-
wood, and wai3 familiar with every boat and crossing along the river ;
Capt. Gearhart was from Flemington. To procure these boats, to con-
ceal their plau from the Tories who were lurking about, and who would
betray them at the first opportunity, to cut out these flat-boats in the
darkness of the cold winter nights, to float them down amid the rocks
and through the rapids, to keep them from being crushed or swamped,
was a task most difficult and hazardous. But it was successfully accom-
plished. Cornwallis was informed of this enterprise and sent a detach-
ment to seize the boats, but they could not find them, or were afraid to
venture across the river in the face of those frowning batteries.

"Probably while engaged in this search the British learned that a lot of guns were stored in Flemington. A part of Cornwallis' army was then encamped just below Pennington. Five hundred cavalry were de- tailed to seize these arms. At that time, near the Presbyterian church was a long low frame building. For many years afterwards it was a store famous throughout that part of the county. It afforded a market for wheat to a wide section. The store was kept in connection with a mill, on the site of John Rockafellow's mill. In this building a quantity of muskets had been stored by the Continentals. The cavalry reached the village early in the morning, and found in the street a man with a cart, whom they pressed into their service. The chests, with the guns packed in them, were taken out of the building and put into the cart, and then the whole troop hastened away. But when they reached Tat- tersall's Lane, where the tile-kiln now is, they became alarmed, and con- cluded it would be better to destroy the muskets than attempt to carry them away, so they broke the guns by striking them upon the posts of the fence. In the mean time Capt. John Schenck had collected a band of men "
and secreted them in a piece of woods between Copper Hill and Lara-
son's. As the horsemen filed through this they were fired upon. Capt.
Geary, the commander of the British, ordered his troops to halt and face

taken to safe places, and carefully guarded. Some of
these boats were afterwards used in recrossing the
army for its movement on Trenton, and it is not im-
probable that Washington even then contemplated
putting them to this use, but the immediate object in
Securing them was to compel Cornwallis to remain on
the eastern side of the river until he could build new
boats or until the ice should have become of sufiicient
thickness for his troops to pass over on it.

The position of Washington on the Pennsylvania
side of the Delaware was one of safety for his troops,
at least for a time. He made his dispositions at
once by posting Gens. Lord Stirling, De Fermoy,
Stephens, and Mercer, with their brigades, at differ-
ent points along the river from Yardley's to Coryell's
Ferry (Lambertville), with the remaining troops of
the Flying Camp, under Gen. Irvine, to guard (as
well as their feeble strength would permit) the west
bank of the river from Yardley's to the point opposite
Bordentown. The Pennsylvania militia, under Col.
Cadwallader, was posted along the Neshaminy, and
the Third Philadelphia Battalion, under Col. Nixon,
occupied a position at Durck's Ferry. Gen. Putnam
was sent to assume command at Philadelphia, and to
take immediate measures for fortifying the approaches
to the city. Defensive works were rapidly thrown up
at the most exposed points on the river from Coryell's
to McConkey's Ferry. Special orders were given to
the several brigade commanders holding this section
of the shore to exercise sleepless vigilance in guard-
ing every practicable crossing-place, and to be pre-
pared to support one another promptly in case of
emergency; and finally, in case the worst should
come and the army be forced back from the Dela-
ware, the several commands were ordered to retreat
to a general rendezvous at Germantown.

The British army in New Jersey was posted in de-
tachments along a very extended line. The largest
force was at New Brunswick, which was their prin-
cipal depot of military stores. A strong detachment
was stationed at Princeton ; another, consisting of
one thousand five hundred Hessians and a troop of
cavalry, at .Trenton ; a body of troops of about equal
strength was at Bordentown, under Count Donop ;
and smaller detachments occupied Black Horse,
Mount Holly, and several other posts, extending
below Burlington. The chief command in New Jer-
sey was held by Lord Cornwallis, Gen. Howe remain-
ing at his headquarters in New York.

When the main body of the American army crossed
the Hudson Eiver into New Jersey after the battle at

the spot whence the firing proceeded, when he was almost immediately
shot through the head. His men wheeled and fled. Afraid that they
might meet more opposition if they returned the same road they came,
the British turned and went towards New Brunswick. Capt. Geary's
body was buried in the woods. This Capt, Schenck-atterwards colonel
-was a brave ofiicer. With Col. Charles Stewart he rallied the minute-
men m 1775, and was active during the whole conflict, in various ways "
r;»e First Century of Bunterdon Comity, by George S. Molt, D.D


White Plains, Gen. Charles Lee had been left near
the latter place with his division of about three thou-
sand men. Gen. Washington, on reaching his halting-
place at Haokensack, wrote at once to Gen. Lee re-
questing him to move his command to the west side
of the river and join him without delay. Lee having
taken no notice of this request, an order to the same
effect was transmitted to him from headquarters ; and
when it was found that he still lingered, the order
was repeated in the most peremptory terms. In
obedience to this second order, but with apparent
reluctance, he moved his division and crossed into
Jersey, but his march was so dilatory that three
weeks were consumed by him in bringing his force to
Morristown.* From that place his division moved
slowly on towards the southwest, and in the evening
of the 12th of December the troops bivouacked at
Vealtown (now Bernardsville), Somerset Co. The
general, however, did not make his headquarters at
that place, but passed the night, with only a small
guard, at the public-house of Mrs. White, at Basking
Eidge, some two and a half miles distant from the
main body of his force ; and there, in the morning of
the 13th,t he was made prisoner by a detachment of
British cavalry under Col. Harcourt. The manner
in which the capture of the general was effected is
thus told in Wilkinson's " Memoirs" :

Gen. Lee wasted the morning in altercationB with certain militia
corpB who were of his command, particularly the Connecticut Light-
horse. One wanted forage, one his horse shod, one his pay, and a fourth
his provisions ; to which the general replied, ' Your wants are numer-
ous, hut yon have not mentioned the last ; you want to go home, and shall
be indulged, for you are no good here.' Several of them appeared in
large full-bottomed perukes and were treated very irreverently.

" The call of the adjutant-general for orders also occupied some of his time, and he did not sit down to breakfast before ten o'clock. Gen. Lee wag engaged in answering Gen. Gates' letter, and I had risen from the table and was looking out of an end window, down a lane, about one hundred yards in length, which led to the house from the main road, when I discovered a party of British turn the corner of the avenue in full charge. Startled at this unexpected appearance, I exclaimed, * Here, sir, are the British cavalry.' 'Where?' asked the genei-al, who had signed the letter on the instant. ' Around the house,' for they had opened files and encompassed the building. Gen. Lee appeared alarmed and yet collected, and his second observation marked his self-possession : * Where is the guard? Damn the guard I Why don't they fire?' and = "" It is evident,"" says Lossing, "" from Lee's conduct, and the tenor of "
his letters at that time, that it was not so much a spiiit of determined
disobedience which governed his actions as a strong desire to act inde-
pendent of the cojnmander-in-chief and perform some sigual service
which would redound to his personal glory. He was ambitious as he
was impetuous and brave. He had endeavored, but in vain, to induce
Gen. Heath, who was left in command at Peekskill, to let him have a
detachment of one or two thousand men with which to operate. Heath
refused to vary from his instructions, and it was well that he did.
Washington continued to urge Lee to form a junction with him; yet, as
late as the 11th of December, two days after the passage of the Dela-
ware, a letter written to Washington by Lee at Morristown hinted at
various contemplated movements, not one of which referred to a junc-
tion of forces. This was the last letter Washington received from Lee
during his march. Two days afterwards, while pursuing his slow and
reluctant progress towards the Delaware, Lee was taken prisoner."

t Gordon, in his " History of New Jersey," p. :;25, says the capture of
Gen. Lee was made on the 12th. Dr. Messier, in his " Centennial His-
tory of Somerset County," p. 135, mentions it as having occurred on the

after a momentary pause he turned to me and said, 'Do, sir, see what
has become of the guard.' The woman of the house at this moment en-
tered the room and proposed to him to conceal himself in a bed ; which
he rejected with evident disgust. I caught up the pistol which lay ou
the table, thrust the letter he had been writing in my pocket, and passed
into a room at the opposite end of the house, where I had seen the guard
in the morning. Here I discovered their arms, hut the men were absent.
I stepped out of the door and saw the dragoons chasing them in different
directions, and, receiving a very uncivil salutation, I returned into the

" Too inexperienced immediately to penetrate the motives of this en- terprise, I considered the rencontre accidental, «.nd, from the terriflo tales spread over the couutry of the violence and barbarity of the enemy, I believed it to be a wanton marauding-party, and determined not 'to die without company. I accordingly sought a position where I could not be approached by more than one person at a time, and with a pistol in each hand awaited the expected search, resolved to shoot the first and second pel-son who might appear, and then appeal to the sword. I did not long remain in this unpleasant situation, but was apprised of the incursion by the very audible declaration : ' If the general does not surrender in five minutes, I will set fire to the house,' which after a short pause was re- peated with a solemn oath; and within two minutes I heard it pro- claimed, 'Here is the general; he has surrendered!' A general shout eusued, the trumpet sounded the reassembling of the troop, and the un- fortunate Lee, mounted on my horse, which stood ready at the door, was hurried off in triumph, bare-headed, in his slippers and blanket coat, his collar open, and his shirt very much soiled fiom several days' use. "

Lee was taken by his captors to Middlebrook
(Bound Brook), and thence to New Brunswick,
whence he was delivered to Lord Cornwallis, who
sent him to Gen. Howe at New York. There he was
denied the privileges of a prisoner of war, but was
treated as a deserter from the British service and
placed in confinement on board the frigate " Centu-
rion,'' in the harbor. This charge against him was
afterwards abandoned, and he was treated as a pris-
oner of war. He was exchanged for the British
general Prescott in May, 1778.

It is stated that the British colonel, Harcourt, was
apprised of the location and unprotected condition of
Gen. Lee's headquarters by an elder in the Presbyte-
rian Church at Mendham, a Mr. Mucklewraith, who
while traveling on foot on private business passed
Mrs. White's inn, learned that the general was there
with but a small cavalry guard, and, proceeding on
his way, soon after met the cavalry of Harcourt, to
whom he imparted the information, and who then
forced him to accompany the detachment as a guide
to the place. That part of the story, however, which
has reference to the compulsion used is not fully
authenticated, and appears, to say the least, doubtful.
But it is certain that Elder Mucklewraith was not the
only one who acted as informer and guide to the
British horsemen, for on page 126 of the "Minutes
of the Council of Safety of New Jersey, 1777," is
found this record :

" James Compton of Baskingridge, having been apprehended as a dis- aflectcd person, was brought before the Board, and upon his examination "
confessed that he, being frightened from home, went over to Staten Island
in May last, & after continuing there about two months returned home ;
He also acknowledged to have been at the takeing of Geni Lee, but says
the British Light horsemen forced him to go with them for that purpose,
threatening to kill him ou refusal. Also James Worth, of the same
place with the ff^ Compton, having been apprehended on like suspicion,
was brought before the Board, & upon examination, by his own Confes-
sion, found guilty of going voluntarily into the Enemies' lines upon
Staten Island, and after some considerable stay on the said Island, re-



turned to thia State ; gives no better reason for this his conduct than the
gratifying his curiosity.

"BenjamiQ Worth, brought in as the two foregoing, and appearing in the same predicament as the others ; The Board considered their case, & agreed to give Each of the three liberty of Entering on board the ves- sels of War of the United States of America, or take a trial for their lives, agreeably to Law. "

The charge of the British horsemen on the head-
quarters of Lee at White's tavern was made with the
sahre only, as they dared not use firearms, fearing to
alarm the American troops at Vealtown and on the
Pluckamin road. The men of the guard, being sur-
prised at a distance from their arms, scattered and
fled, hut two of them, who, when overtaken by the
troopers, refused to surrender, were killed, and their
bodie^s were found to he so horribly gashed and hacked
by the British sabres that they could not be removed
to the burial-ground, and were therefore interred on
the spot where they fell. Gen. Wilkinson, who was
with Gen. Lee at the time of the capture, as above
noticed, concealed himself in the house until after
Harcourt's departure, and then, mounting one of the •
horses in the stable, rode with all speed to carry the
news of the aifair to Gen. Sullivan ; but, as the cap-
turing force were already many miles on its way
towards their lines, pursuit was useless.

The division, or rather the remnant of what had
been a division, was now under command of Gen.
Sullivan, as next in rank to Gen. Lee. Its march
(which was now continued with more rapidity) was
from Vealtown, by way of Pluckamin, to Clinton,*
Hunterdon Co., and thence to the Delaware Eiver
opposite the mouth of the Lehigh, where it crossed
the first-named stream into Pennsylvania. It was
marched several miles up the Lehigh, then down
through Northampton and Bucks Counties to Wash-
ington's army, which it joined on the 21st of Decem-
ber. Four regiments of Gen. Gates' troops, who had
marched from New York State through the northern
part of New Jersey, joined the main army the same

Having been reinforced by the forces of Gens. Sul-
livan and Gates and by a considerable number of
troops from other quarters, Washington immediately
prepared to execute the plan which he had for some
time had in contemplation, viz., to recross the Dela-
ware by night and march rapidly to Trenton, in the
hope of surprising, and possibly of capturing, the
force of about fifteen hundred Hessians which then oc-
cupied that post in winter quarters. His plan also con-
templated simultaneous attacks by other detachments
of his army on the several British posts along the

* It was recollected by old people many years afterwards that while
on this march through Clinton forty of Sullivan's soldiers were furnished
with breakfast by Mrs. Hope, wife of Capt. Adam Hope, who was himself
a soldier of the Revolution and commanded a company of Hunterdon
militia at the battle of Monmouth.

t Gordon, in his "History of New Jersey," dates the arrival of both
these corps December 20th.

Delaware below Trenton ; but that part which had
reference to the surprise of Trenton was regarded as
of the most importance, and this was to be under the
personal supervision of the commander-in-chief. The
time fixed on for its execution was the night of the
25th and morning of the 26th of December, because,
knowing the convivial habits of the German soldiers-
and the universal custom among them of celebrating
Christmas with bacchanalian revelry, he believed that
in the unheralded visit which he proposed to make in
the early morning of the 26th he would find the guards
less vigilant than usual, and both officers and soldiers
in poor fighting condition, as a result of the previous
night's debauch. The plan was an excellent one, and
the secrecy with which it was carried out seems re-
markable, particularly when it is remembered that
the Hunterdon shore of the Delaware at that time
was infested by a great number of Tories, all closely
watching the movements of the patriots on the other
side, and eager to carry in all haste any information
they might obtain to the nearest British post.

The means for transporting the troops across the
Delaware were furnished by the boats which had pre-
viously been collected on that river and the Lehigh.
Among those collected for the purpose were sixteen
Durham! boats and four scows, sent down by Gen.
Ewiug to McConkey's Ferry, § which was to be the
place of crossing. There, on the evening of the 25th
of December, as soon as the early nightfall of winter
had settled down upon hill and river, the troops des-
tined for the expedition were mustered in silence and
inspected by Washington and his generals. The com-
mander-in-chief had expected to land his army on the
Jersey side with but little delay and to reach Trenton
by midnight, but the river was so filled with masses
of floating ice, and the weather was so thick by reason
of a storm of snow and sleet which had just com-
menced, that it hardly seemed practicable to cross at
all ; and when it was decided to move forward regard-
less of these obstacles, the transportation was found
to be so slow and difficult that it was not until nearly
four o'clock in the morning that the last of the troops
and cannon were landed in safety on the eastern
shore. II

The expeditionary corps, consisting of two thou-
sand four hundred men, with ten pieces of artillery,
was marched in a body by way of the " Bear Tav-

t So called because this particular kind of boat was first constructed
to transport iron on the Delaware from the Durham furnaces to Phila-
delphia. They were very large, flat-bottomed, and rounded at bow and
stem, instead of being square at the ends like scows.

2 Now known as " Washington's Crossing" on the New Jersey side and
Taylorsville on the Pennsylvania side of the river.

I " General Washington (who had sat in silence on a beehive wrapped
in his cloak while hU troops were crossing), as they were about to march,
enjoined upon them aU profound silence during their march to Trenton,
and said to them, I hope you will all fight like men.' " Room's Ui,Uyr'y
of TrerUon. Uriah Slack, William Green, and David Lanning were
among those who rendered must efficient service in ferrj-ing the troops
across the river.



em,''* to Birminglisuu (between foiir suid five miles
from T^eJlton^, where it was baited, and the meu took
some refresbmentt The force was tbeji divided into
two columns, one, under Gen. Sullivan, taking tlie
rivex road, and the other, under Gen. Greene, with
G«as. Mercer, Stevens, and Lord Stirling, and accom-
panied by the commander-in-chief, moving to and
down the Scotch road to its junction with the Pen-
nington road, and thence down the latter to Trenton.
The columns marched very rapidly and in perfect
silence under the direction of a number of guides
who were familiar with the routes. Among those
who acted as gviides on that march are mentionedj
the names of Col. Joseph Phillips, Capt, Philip Phil-
lips, and Adjt. Elias Phillips, of M;udenheAd ; Joseph
Inslee, Etion Burroughs, Stephen Burroughs, Ephraim
Woolsey. and Henry Simmons, of Hopewell ; and
Capt, John Mott Amos Seudder. and 'William
Green, of Trenton. It was also desired by Gen.
^^"ashington to find twelve men familiar with the
country, who would ride in advance of the columns,
unarmed and dressed in taxmers' clothes, to gain such
intelligence as they might of the position of tlie
enemy's outposts, and to prevent any of the numer-
ous Tories who infested the vicinity fixtm cjirrying
news of the advance into Trenton. For this hazar-
dous service only three volunteers could be found,
and they were John Guild and John Muirheid of
Hopewell, and David Lanning of Trenton.

The march of the two columns w;ts so well planned
and orvlered that both reached the enemy's outposts
at Trenton at almost exactly the same time, Sullivan
coming in from the west and Washington and Greene
from the north. At a few minutes before eight o"cloci|
the Hessian encampments cajne into view, and, at
the sight, 'Washington, riding to the head of the troops
and pointing with his sword towards Trenton, shouted,
" There, soldiers, you see the enemies of your country, and now all I have to ask is that you remember what Tou are about to lisrht for. M.arch! They moved "

* "Tbe rv^Ad which 1*.\,-:? from >V,-ConkeT"? Ferrr ^now T;iylor?viU©)
runs northeast, and on© and a qnartw miles from the river it civ^svii the
rirar ravi si the Bow Tavern, ei^t miles from Trenton; rvvo miles fiur-
ther it cl\*!S^ the S,a>ic1i ivwd, son on miles frvm Trenton. Frvm the
Be*r T*Tern, on tl»e riTer rwad, to Birmingbam wiv? three and a half
niil«6. and fham Bimiin^am to Trenton fimr and a half milee. Faim
Birmitt£ham acxv^ss to the S^vt.-h road wheje it beiuis to Uie east is alv>ut
one mile ; ftvvm this point to its junction with the Pennington road is
twv> and a quarter nulos; and from thence to Ttvnton one mile." i^iuN'j

t **G*n. Washington with liis amv.T halted at the hou.*e of Benjamin
UooiT it Binninghani and ate a jaeot of mince-pie and drank a class of
cider. His meu al-^^ partv«ok of some befor* marvhing luto
Trenten." Ihid.


j Wasliir^ton in his c*cial rep>^rt of the Trenton fight siid, "The
upper diTision arrired at the enem^ 's adranced post exactlr at eight
o'clock ; and in three minutes after I found fK-«m the fire on the lower
raad that that divsaon had abo got up. The out-gnajvls made but a
small oppositjon, tl>oi:gb., for their nnmbeis, they behaved very well,
keeping up acottstant ivtiwiling^re fKim behind hoi:s<^- We preeentlT
s»w th^ main body lorme^i. tut from their motions they seemed unde-
termined how to act."

forward with great impetuosity, drove in tlie outposts,
and in a few minutes had possession of all the British
artillery. The brave Col. Eahl, tlie Hessian com-
mander, surprised, and not yet recovered from the
ell'eots of his Christmas potations, rushed frantically
out of his quMters and mounted his horse to form hia
men for defense, but he almost immediately received
a mortal wonud ;|! and, as further resistance then ap-
peared hopeless, the place with its troops i^except
such as had escaped aud fled towards Princeton and
Bordentowu) and military stores surrendered to the
American commander.

An account of the Trenton fight (for it could not
with propriety- be termed a battle, in view of the
slight resistance made by the enemy and the very in-
significant loss sustained by the Americans) was soon
after published by order of the Continental Congress,
having been transmitted to that body by the New
Jersey Council of Safety with the expilanation that it
was furnished by " an officer of distinction in the
army.'' Following is the account referred to:

" HkADOrASTEKS, 2f KWTOVn?, BrCKS CotJXTT, Pecember -7, 1776. "
•* It wns determined some days ag\i that our arnty should pass over to
vTersey at three different places and attack the enemy. Acc\)rdiugly,
about two thousand five hundred men and twenty bra^ field-pieces, with
His Excellency General Wasliingtou at their head, and Mjyor-Genenil
Sullivan and Lreueral Greene in command of two divisions, pa^ed over
on the night of Christmas, and al*out three^ o'clock in the morning were
on their march by tw-o routes towards Trenton. The night was sleety
and cold, aud tli© roads so slipjvry that it was daybreak when we wer»
two miles from Trenton. But. happily, the enemy were not apprised of
our ilosign, and our advanced ^^arties were on their guard, at half a mile
fKan the town, where Gen. Sullivau^s and Gen. Greeners divisions came
into the same r.Md. The guard gave our advanced parties several smart
fir«s .IS we diove them, but we soon got two field-pieces at play, and
several others in a short time, and one of our columns pushing down on
the right, while the other advanced on the left, into the town. The
enemy, consisting of about one thousand rive hundred Hessians, uuder
<\d. Kalil, formed and made some smjirt fires from their musketry and
six field-p'.ocos ; but our people preyed fhan every quarter and drove
tltem from their cannon. They retired towards a field behind a piece of
wovvis, up the creek ftvm Trenton, and fomted in two bodies, which I
expected would have brought on a smart action from the troops who had
! formed very near them ; but at that insiaat, as I Ciune in full view of
! tliem iroin tlie l^ack of tire w^xvi. with His Excellency Gen. Washington,
an officer informed him that one party had grounded their arms and sur-
I rendered prisoners. The ctliors s-vn followed tlloir ejtanrple, except a
' part wlridr had got off, in the Iraiy weather, towards Priucetorr. A party

of their hght-hor^^ made off on our lir^t appearance.
) " T^v much pnuse cannot be given to our otficors and men of every
' regiment, who seemed to vie with each other : and by their active ;ind
spirited behavior they soon put an honorable issue to tlris glorious day.

{ " C^olonel Ralil, the Hessian commander, whose headquarters were at
the City Tavern, corner of Warren ,ind Bank Streets, opposite Still's
.Mley, was mortally w-onnded during the e.arly part of the engagement,
being shct from his horse while endeavoring to form his disnrayed and
disordered troops. Wlien. sr.-, ix-rted by a file of sergeants, he presented
his swor^ to (ren. Washington ^whose conntenance beamed with com-
placency at the^ss of the day), he was pale and bleeding, and in
brvken Accents soenred to implorv those atteritions which the victor was
well viisposed to K^tow upon him. He was taken to his headquarter^
where he died." Sta's flWir> o/ IVe»/o«.

The shot that killed Rahl was said to have been fired by Ool. Frederick
Frelingliuysiin, of Somerset c\mnty.

VGen. Washington, however, in his report said: "" But the quantity of
ice made that right impeded the passage of the boats so much that it
V IS three o'clock helbre the artillery could all be got over, and near fotil
before the irooj^ took up their line of marvh."



I was immediately sent off with the prisoners to McConltey's !Ferry, and
have got about seven hundred and fifty safe in town and a few miles from
here on this side of the ferry, viz., one lieutenant-colonel, two majors,
four captains, seven lieutenants, and eight ensigns. We left Col. Rabl,
the commandant, wounded, on his parole, and several other officers and
wounded men, at Trenton. We lost but two of our men that I can hear
of, a few wounded, and one brave officer, Capt. Washington, who as-
sisted in securing their artillery, wounded in both hands."*

From a narrative detailing events of the Trenton
fight, and published in 1781 in the Pennsylvania
Journal, the following is extracted :

" About eight o'clock in the morning an attack was made on the picket-tiuard of the enemy. At half-past eight o'clock the town was nearly surrounded, and all the avenues to it were seized except the one left for Gen. Ewingf to occupy. An accident here liked to have deprived the American army of the object of their enterprise. The commanding officer of one of the divisions sent word to Gen. Washington, just before they reached the town, that his ammunition had been wet by a shower of rain that had fallen that morning, and desired to know what he nmst do.J Washington sent him word to ' advance with fixed bayonets.' This laconic answer inspired the division with the firmness and courage of their leader, The whole body now moved forward in sight of the enemy. An "
awful silence reigued in every platoon. Each soldier stepped as if he
carried the liberty of his country upon his single musket. The moment
was a critical one. The attack was begun with artillery, under com-
mand of Col. Knox. The infantry supported the artillery with firmness.
The enemy were thrown intoiconfusion at every quarter. One regiment
attempted to form in an orchard, but was soon forced to fall back upon
the main body. A company of them entered a stone house, which they
defended with a field-piece judiciously posted in the entry. Capt. AVash-
ington advanced to dislodge them with a field-piece, but, finding his men
exposed to a close and steady fire, he suddenly leaped from them, rushed
into the house, seized the ofiicer who had command of the gun, and
claimed him as a prisoner. His men followed him, and the whole com-
pany were made prisoners. The captain received a ball in his hand in
entering the house In the meanwhile, victory declared itself every-
where ill favor of the American arms."

The captures made by the Americans at Trenton
comprised six brass field-pieces, one thousand stand
of arms, four colors, and nine hundred and nine pris-
oners, of which latter twenty-three were commissioned
officers. In reference to the losses in action of the
British and American forces respectively. Gen. Wash-
ington said in his report,

" I do not know exactly how many they had killed, but I fancy not above twenty or thirty, as they never made any regular stand. '* Our loss is very trifling indeed, only two officers and one or two privates wounded. "

Lossing, in his " Field-Book of the Eevolution,"
says (p. 229), "The victory of the Americans at
Trenton was complete. They lost in the engagement

* This officer was Capt. William A. Washington. He was afterwards a
colonel of cavalry, and as such performed distinguished services in the
Carolina campaigns against Cornwallis and Lord Kawdon. Another
American officer wounded at Trenton though not mentioned in the
above account was Lieut. James Monroe, afterwards President of the
United States.

t Gen. Ewing had been ordered to cross his troops from the Pennsyl-
vania side nearly opposite Trenton and attack from the south, in conjunc-
tion with the movement of Greene and Sullivan from the north and
west. The great quantities of ice running in the Delaware prevented
him from crossing as ordered. The same obstacle prevented Cadwallader
from crossing at Bristol as expected.

{The dispatch, was from Gen. Sullivan. Raum, in his "History of
Trenton," mentions that the soldiers of Sullivan's division found their
priming wet, and proceeds : " Capt. Mott, notwithstanding he had taken
the precaution to wrap his handkerchief around the lock of his gun,
found the priming was wet. 'Well,' said General Sullivan, 'we must
fight them with the bayonet.' "

only two privates killed, and two others who were
frozen to death."? This statement, that men of the
American army were frozen to death in the expedi-
tion to Trenton, has several times been made by other
writers, but it cannot be regarded otherwise than as
of doubtful authenticity, for these reasons : First, that
the account of the expedition above quoted from
the Pennsylvania Journal mentions that "the com-
manding ofiicer of one of the divisions sent word to
Gen. Washington, just before they reached the town,
that his ammunition had been wet by a shower of rain
that had fallen that morning ;" and second, because in
the narrative already given, as published by order of
Congress and written by " an officer of distinction in
the army" who was an eye-witness to the scenes en-
acted at Trenton on that occasion, allusion is made to
" a part [of the Hessian force] which had got oif, in the hazy weather, towards Princeton. The account "
first noticed was written and published witliin five
years of the time of the Trenton fight, when all the
particulars were fresh in the minds of those who took
part in the expedition, and it is therefore but reason-
able to suppose that no such mistake could have been
made as that of mentioning a shower of rain falling
on a morning sufficiently cold to freeze men to death.
The passage quoted from the account authorized by
Congress sustains the other, and seems to prove that
on the morning of the 26th of December, 1776, the
weather at Trenton, though doubtless damp and chil-
ling, was not of such stinging Arctic cold as has fre-
quently been stated.

The plan of Washington in recrossing the Delaware
had contemplated the probability that, in the event
of success at Trenton, he might be able to maintain
his position in New Jersey ; but, on account of the
inability of Ewing and Cadwallader to cross the river,
as was expected, there were still left at Bordentown,
Mount Holly, and other points below Trenton and
within striking distance several British detachments
which were collectively far stronger than the Ameri-
can force which could be mustered to hold them at
hay. Under these circumstances, Washington thought
it his only prudent course to return with his army to
the west side of the river ; and this he did without
delay, remaining in Trenton only a few hours to allow
his men sufficient time for rest and refreshment. In
the afternoon of the 26th the columns were again put
in motion and marched back by the route over which
they had come in the morning, and, recrossing at
McConkey's Ferry with their prisoners and captured
material, were all safely quartered before midnight in
the camp which they had left in the evening of the
preceding day.

But, though he had found it expedient to retire to
his strong position on the Pennsylvania shore after

§ Gordon, in his "History of New Jersey," p. 227, makes the same



the victory at Trenton, Washington had by no means
abandoned his plan of repossessing West Jersey, and
he at once commenced preparations for a second
expedition to that end. On the 29th of December
only three days after the Trenton exploit he wrote
from his headquarters at Newtown, Pa., to Congress,

" I am jnst setting out to attempt a second pSssage over the Delaware with the troops that were with me on the morning of the 26th. Gen. Cad- wallader crossed oyer on the 27th, and is at Bordentown with about one thousand eight hundred men. Gen. Mifflin will be to-day at Borden- town with about one thousand six hundred more. ... In view of the measures proposed to be pursued, I think a fair opportunity is offered of driving the enemy entirely from Jersey, or at least to the extremity of the province. "

In anticipation of the projectedresumption of opera-
tions in New Jersey, orders had been sent to Gen.
Heath, who was still at Peekskill-on-the-Hudson, to
leave only a small detachment of his troops at that place,
and to move at once with his main body, cross into New
Jersey, and march towards the British cantonment,
to divert their attention, but without intending an at-
tack. Gen. William Maxwell, who in the retreat
through this State had been left at Morristown with
a considerable force (in which was included a large
proportion of the soldiers of Hunterdon and Somerset
Counties), was ordered to advance his troops towards
New Brunswick as if threatening an attack and harass
all the contiguous posts of the enemy as much as pos-
sible ; and finally. Gens. Cadwallader and Mifflin, at
Bordentown and Crosswicks, were directed to hold
their forces (then amounting to more than three thou-
sand five hundred men) in constant readiness to rein-
force the main body under Washington when it should
make its appearance at Trenton. These dispositions
having been made, and all preparations completed,
Washington moved his army across the Delaware into
New Jersey on the 30th of December and marched to
Trenton. At this point he was under serious embar-
rassment, for the terms of service of a large part of the
Eastern militia expired on the 1st of January, and it
was very doubtful whether they could be persuaded
to remain. The arguments of the commander-in-
chief, however, were successful in prevailing on them
to continue for an additional term of six weeks, in
view of the brightening prospects of the American
cause and the promise of a bounty of ten dollars per
man. There was no money in the military chest to
pay these promised bounties, but Washington at once
sent a messenger to Robert Morris, at Philadelphia,
asking him to supply the means if possible ; and that
patriotic financier promptly responded by sending
fifty thousand dollars in cash, borrowed from a rich
Quaker on Morris' individual note and the pledge of
his honor to repay it.

At the time of the Hessian disaster at Trenton the
British forces in New Jersey were under command of
Gen. Grant, whose headquarters were at New Bruns-
wick. Lord Cornwallis was at New York, making
preparations to sail for England, in the belief that

the rebellion was virtually crushed and the war nearly
over. Upon receipt of the amazing news from Tren-
ton he at once relinquished his voyage, returned to
New Jersey, and put his troops dn motion towards
Trenton. The British post at Bordentown, previously
held by a strong force under Count Donop, had been
abandoned on the 27th of December, and the troops
which had been stationed there retreated to Princeton,
where they joined the force of Gen. Leslie and threw
up defensive earthworks. When Cornwallis ad-
vanced fi-om New Brunswick, the force at Princeton,
excepting three regiments under Col. Mawhood,
joined the main column, which moved towards
Trenton and arrived there at about four o'clock in
the afternoon of Thursday, the 2d of January, 1777.

The two hostile armies which then and there con-
fronted each other were each about five thousand
strong, but one-half the force of Washington* was-
made up of undisciplined militia, while that of his
adversary included many of the finest troops of the
British army. Before the advance of Cornwallis,
Washington's forces retired across the bridge to the
south side of Assanpink Creek, where it was soon
afterwards joined by General Greene's division, which
had been sent out to reconnoitre and skirmish with
the enemy, hoping to so delay his movements that no
engagement would be brought on until morning. But
the British regulars promptly drove Greene's detach-
ment into Trenton and across the Assanpink, and
then with very little delay moved in two columns,
one down Green Street towards the bridge, and the
other down Main Street towards the point where the
lower bridge now stands, intending to force a passage
over the bridge and across the ford ; but they were
repulsed by the vigorous fire of Washington's artil-
lery, which, being posted on the high southern bank
of the stream, was so effective that the assailants failed
to cross, and were compelled to retire, but with what
loss is not known.f After the failure of this attempt
of the British to cross, the Americans kept up their
artillery-fire till dark, and the British withdrew to the
higher ground in the outskirts of the town, along the
Princeton road, where Cornwallis established his

* Cadwallafler and MifHin, with their forces from Bordentown, had
joined Wasliington on the night of the Ist of January.

f The " battle of Assanpink" has frequently been described as a fearful
conflict, in which the stream was filled with the bodies of slain British
soldiers. That this is a gross exaggeration, and that there was really no-
battle at all (but merely a brisk cannonade from the American artillery
on the south bank, preventing the enemy from crossing the stream), is
pretty clearly shown by an authority as high as Gen. Washington him-
self, in the report which he made to CongresB, dated Pluckamin, Jan. 5, .
1777, in which, referring to this affair, he says, "On the 2d, according
to my expectations, the enemy began to advance upon us ; and after soma
skirmishing the head of their column reached Trenton about four o'clock,
whilst their rear was as far back as Maidenhead. They attempted to
pass Sanpink Creek, which runs through Trenton, but, finding the fords
guarded, halted and kindled their fires. We were drawn up on the other
side of the creek. lu this situation we remained until dark, command-
ing the enemy and receiving the fire of their field-pieces, which did ua
but little damage." This is all the mention mode by the commander-in-
chief in his official report, of the so-called " battle of Assanpink."



headquarters and directed dispositions to be made for
a renewal of the battle in the morning, when, he said,
he would " catch that old fox," Washington, whom
he imagined he had now so securely entrapped beyond
the Assanpink. But his boast failed most signally of

The situation of Washington was now perilous in
the extreme, for nothing could be more certain than
that Cornwallis would renew the battle in the
morning, and it was almost equally certain that in
such an event the victory would be with the disci-
plined soldiers of Britain. If such should be the result,
ths American army could hardly escape the alterna-
tive of surrender or annihilation, for a retreat across
the Delaware in presence of such an enemy would be
impossible. Immediately after dark a council of war
was called, at which were assembled the commander-
in-chief and Generals Greene, Sullivan, Knox, Mer-
cer, St. Clair, Dickinson, Stevens, Cadwallader, Mif-
flin, Stark, Wilkinson, and others. Some of the more
impetuous officers advised a stand for a battle in their
present position ; others favored a retreat down the
left bank of the Delaware and a crossing of the river
at Philadelphia under protection of the guns of Gen.
Putnam ; but the plan which was adopted was that of
a rapid night-movement around the enemy's flank to
his rear, and a sudden attack on the British force at
Princeton, which consisted of only three regiments
of cavalry and three squadrons of dragoons. The
execution of this plan was singularly favored by
Providence, for, even while the council of war was
engaged in its deliberations, the weather, which had
been warm during the day, turned suddenly cold ; so
that in a few hours the muddy roads were frozen suf-
ficiently hard to bear up the artillery and greatly to
facilitate the marching of the troops.

The movement to Princeton being decided on, its
immediate execution was ordered. The camp-fires of
the American army along the shore of the Assanpink
were kept brightly burning, and were replenished
with fresh fuel about midnight ; and soon afterwards,
leaving the sentinels on their posts, to delude the
enemy, the forces were all put in motion, and marched
rapidly but silently away in the darkness, with Elias
Phillips, Ezekiel Anderson, and Patrick Lamb as
guides. The baggage-train of the army was sent
away quietly on the road to Burlington. The route
taken led, by way of Sandtown, across Miry Eun, and,
farther up, across the Assanpink, around the left flank
of the British army ; then, veering to the left, along
the " Quaker road" to and across Stony Brook, where
the main column left the highway and took a by-road
passing through lowlands directly to Princeton ; while
Gen. Mercer, with about three hundred and fifty men
and two pieces of artillery under Capt. Neal, con-
tinued along the Quaker road, with orders to proceed
to Worth's Mill and take possession of the bridge by
which the old road from Princeton to Trenton crossed
Stony Brook.

The march of the American forces had been slow
during the two or three hours immediately following
their departure from their camp on the Assanpink, be-
cause on that part of their route they had been com-
pelled (in order to avoid the outposts of the enemy's
left flank) to traverse a new road, from which the logs
and stumps had not been cleared. But the last part
of their march ha(| been made very rapidly over the
hard-frozen highway ; so that when the sun rose they
were already nearing Princeton. And never was a
sunrise more auspicious than that which sent its rosy
rays through the frosty air on the morning of the 3d
of January, 1777. To Cornwallis at Trenton* it re-
vealed the mortifying fact that the " fox" had escaped
from his trap, and the unpleasant truth was soon after
emphasized by the dull sound of distant artillery
coming from the northward. To the eyes of Wash-
ington and his officers that sunrise was welcome, for
it showed them the position of the foes they had come
to seek ; and it lighted them on their way to one of
the most important victories achieved in the war for

The British troops in Princeton were a body of cav-
alry and the Seventeenth, Fortieth, and Fifty-fifth
Infantry Eegiments of the line, all under command of
Lieut.-Ool. Mawhood. He had during the night re-
ceived orders to march at daylight with the greater part
of his command for Trenton, to give his assistance in
the battle which Cornwallis intended to open along
the shores of the Assanpink on the morning of the
3d, and in obedience to that order he had put the
Seventeenth and Fifty-fifth Eegiments, with a part of
the cavalry, in motion, and, accompanying them in
person, moved out on the old Trenton road. The
commanding officer, with the Seventeenth Eegiment
and nearly all his cavalry, was fully a mile in ad-
vance of the rear division of the column, and had
already crossed the Stony Brook bridge at Worth's
Mill when he discovered Mercer's force moving
rapidly along the apposite bank of the stream towards
the mill. Upon this he promptly countermarched
his men, moved them on the double-quick back to the
bridge, recrossed it, and hastened on to secure a com-
manding position on high ground to the right of the
road. Gen. Mercer, as his detachment emerged from
a piece of woods near the Quaker meeting-house, dis-
covered the British, and, divining their object, double-
quicked his troops towards the same eminence, deter-
mined to occupy it in advance of the enemy if pos-
sible. Having reached the house and orchard of

* "Groat was his [Oornwallis'] astonisliment and alarm at dawn to find
the patriot camp-firea Btill burning, but not a man, nor hoof, nor tent,
uor cannon there. All was silent and dreary on the south side of the
Assanpink, and no man of the British army knew whither the Ameri-
cans had fled until the din of battle in the direction of Princeton came
faintly upon the keen morning air at sunrise. Cornwallis heard the
booming of cannon, and, although mid-winter, he thought it was the
rumbling of distant thunder. The quick car of Ersklne decided other-
wise, and he exclaimed, ' To anns, general 1 Washington has orUgeneraUd
us I Let us fly to Princeton I' "Loaaing, vol. ii, p. 234.



William Clarke, he perceived the enemy's line ad-
varicing up the opposite slope. The Americans
pushed on to the slight cover of a rail-fence vs'hich
was hetween the opposing forces, and there they de-
livered their volley with precision and deadly effect,
firing afterwards at will. The British promptly re-
turned the fire and charged with the bayonet. Mer-
cer's riflemen had no bayonets or their pieces, and,
being unable to withstand the furious onset of the
British, fled in precipitation and disorder, abandon-
ing their two field-pieces and closely pursued by Maw-
hood's grenadiers; but when they reached the east
brow of the slope near Clarke's house, they were met
by the Continentals and militia under "Washington,
who had left the by-road on which he was marching,
at a point near the Olden farm, and hurried up to the
support of Mercer. The fugitive Americans were
here rallied and reformed on a new line, and a section
of one of Washington's batteries, commanded by Capt.
William Moulder, poured a storm of canister into the
faces of the pursuers.

At this point, Mawhood, discovering for the first
time the presence of Washington and his force, ceased
the pursuit, brought up his artillery-pieces, and
opened on Moulder's section, which he immediately
afterwards charged in a desperate but unsuccessful
attempt to capture the guns. The scene of the con-
flict at this moment, when the lines of the opposing
forces confronted each other and the men of each
awaited the command to fire, is thus described by
Bancroft :

" Gen. Washington, from hig deeire to animate his troops by example, rode into the vei-y front of danger, and when within less than thirty yards of the Britisli he reined his horse with its head towards tliem as both parties were about to fire, seeming to tell his faltering forces that they must stand firm or leave him to confront the enemy alone. The two Bides gaye a volley at the same moment, when, as the smoke cleared Away, it was thought a miracle that Washington was untouched.* By • In Custis' KecoUections of the Life and Character of Wsahington,"" "
this part of the battle of Princeton, and the incident of the commander-
in-chief spurring his horse to the front, between the hostile lines, are
mentioned thus: " The aide-de-camp [Col. Fitzgerald] had been ordered
to bring up tbe troops from the rear of the column when the band under
Gen. Mercer became engaged. Upon returning to the spot where he had
left the commander-in-chief, he was no longer there, and upon looking
around the aide discovered him endeavoring to rally the line, which had
been thrown into disorder by a rapid onset of the foe. Washington, after
several ineffectual efforts to restore the fortunes of the fight, is seen to
rein up his horse with his head to the enemy, and in that position to
remain immovable. It was a last appeal to his soldiers, and seemed to
say, 'Will you give up your general to the foe?' Such an appeal was
not made in vain. The discomfited Americans rally on the instant and
form into line. The enemy halt and dress their line. The American
chief is between the adverse posts, as though he had been placed there
a target for both. The arms of both are leveled. Can escape from death
be possible? Fitzgerald, horror-struck at the death -of his beloved com-
mander, dropped the reins upon his horse's neck, and drew his hat over
his face that he might not see him die. A roar of musketry succeeds,
and then a shout I It was the shout of victory. The aide-de-camp ven-
tures to raise hU eyes. Oh, glorious sight I The enemy are broken and
flying, while dimly amid the glimpses of the smoke is seen the chief,
alive, unharmed, and without a wound, waving his hat and cheering his
comrades to the pursuit. Col. Fitzgerald, celebrated as one of the finest
horsemen in the American army, now dashed the rowels in his charger's
flanks, and, heedless of the dead and dying in his way, flew to the side
cf the chief, exclaiming, ' Thank God Tour Excellency is safe I' while

this time, Hitchcock, for whom a raging hectic made this day nearly his
last, came up with his brigade, and Hand's riflemen began to turn the
left of the English. These, after repeated exertions of the greatest cour-
age and discipline, retreated before they were wholly surrounded, and
fled over the fields and fences up Stony Brook. The action, from the first
conflict with Mercer, did not last more than twenty minutes. Washing-
ton, on the battle-ground, took Hitchcock by the hand, and before his
army thanked him for his semces."

Col. Mawhood, with the Seventeenth British Regi-
ment and his cavalry, fled from the battle-field to the
same road over which they had marched in the morn-
ing, and, crossing the Stony Brook bridge at Worth's
Mill, moved rapidly on towards Maidenhead, where
they knew Gen. Leslie had passed the night with Jiis
division, the rear-guard of Cornwallis' army. Leslie,
however, hearing the cannonade in the direction of
Princeton, was already on the march towards Stony
Brook, and in his advance met the routed troops of
Mawhood, which latter had been pursued only a
short distance by the Americans, because Washing-
ton knew of the proximity of Gen. Leslie in the direc-
tion in which they retreated. Mawhood's artillery-
pieces were left on the field, and fell into the hands of
the Americans ; but, as they could not take them
away for want of horses, they afterwards returned to
the possession of the enemy.

At the close of the action near Clarke's house Gen.
Washington sent a detachment, under Maj. Kelley, of
the Pennsylvania militia, to destroy the bridge over
Stony Brook, for the purpose of delaying the advance
of Gen. Leslie with the reserve division of Cornwallis ;
but before they had accomplished the work the enemy
came in sight on Millett's Hill and opened a fire on
the working-party from their artillery, which finally
drove them from the bridge, though not until it had
been rendered impassable for the British artillery and
trains. The commanding officer of the detachment,
Maj. Kelley, was knocked off the bridge into the
stream, but, succeeding in crawling out, was making
his way towards Princeton, when he fell into the
hands of the enemy. The British commander, Corn-
wallis, on coming up to the bridge, found it impassable
for his column ; but so great was his anxiety for the
safety of his magazines of supply at New Brunswick
(which he fully believed to be Washington's destina-
tion) that, bitterly cold as it was, he ordered his troops
to ford the stream, which they did, and then, with
their clothing frozen stiff, pushed on as fast as they
were able in pursuit of the Americans.

In the battle with Mawhood the left wing of his
force, the Fifty-fifth Regiment, was cut off from the
right, and was driven into the town, where it took a
position in a ravine near the college. There it was
attacked by the New England regiments of Stark,
Poor, Patterson, and Reed, and after a desperate re-

the favorite aide, a gallant and warm-hearted sou of Erin, a man of
thews and sinews, and albeit unused to the melting mood, gave loose to
his feelings and wept like a child for joy. Washington, ever calm amid
scenes of the greatest excitement, affectionately grasped the hand of his
aide and friend, and then ordered, ' Away, my dear colonel, and bring
up the troops; the day is our own.' "



sistance was utterl)' routed and sent flying in disorder
along the road towards Kingston. A part of the
Fortieth Regiment (which had been left in Princeton
when Mawhood marched out in the morning, and
which consequently participated very little in the
day's fighting) joined in the retreat and swelled the
throng of fugitives. A detachment of the American
force pursued them, but they soon left the main road,
and, striking off to the left, fled in a northerly direc-
tion along the by-ways and through the fields and
woods of Somerset County.^ As to the route of their
flight, different accounts have been given. The Hon.
Ralph Voorhees, in one of a series of historical papers
recently published, said,

" The Fortieth and Fift3'-fifth retreated hastily to Kingston, and from thence pureued a route that brought them to Middlebush, where they en- camped for a week in a field a few yards west of where the present church stands, and a little to the east of the field where Gen. De Heister laid with his division in June of the same year. "

In another account,! published some ten years
since, it is stated that, "while Washington took the
main road towards New Brunswick, these [the fugi-
tives of the Fortieth and Fifty-fifth Regiments],
frightened and flying, made towards the heights
southwest of Rocky Hill, crossed Beden's Brook, and
rushed on till they crowded on the little point formed
by the junction of that brook with the Millstone River,
just in front of what is now known as the old Van-
derveer homestead. Abraham Vanderveer, now
[1870] living at Rocky Hill, says that when the
family saw them coming they were on a run. When
they came into the forks they halted, finding the ice
broken. They then procured rails, laid them on the
ice, and passed over. The Vanderveers had a large
pot of mush, just taken from the fire, intended for
breakfast. The British on coming up said they had
had nothing but hot bullets for breakfast, and, hastily
scooping the mush out with their hands, pursued their
march. These accounts doubtless have reference to
different parties^ of the retreating British, as it is not
to be supposed that they tept together in one body
during the panic of their headlong flight.

In the college buildings at Princeton there remained
a part of the Fortieth Regiment, which had occupied
it as barracks. Washington, supposing that these
men would stand and defend their position, ordered
up a section of artillery, which opened on the build-
ings. The first shot fired passed into the Prayer-
Hall and through the head of a portrait of His

* Washington had no cavalry with him, and of course the pursuit of a
terrified crowd of fugitives by infantry was fruitless. Many of them,
however, were captured, and the pureuing-parties kept up the chase so
long that they had not all rejoined the main body two days later.

f From the pen of Jacob Magill, of the Newark Journal.

X Washington, in reporting to CongTess under date of Pluckamin, Jan.
6, 1777, mentions that some of the British prisoners taken in the pursuit
after the battle at Princeton were taken across the Delaware River; and
also that at that time two days after the battle the pursuing-parties
had not all returned to the main army. These facts would seem to indi-
cate that some of the British fugitives fled towards the southwest and
entered Hunterdon County.

Majesty George II. which hung on the wall. But lit-
tle show of resistance was made by the British within
the buildings, and finally James Moore, of Prince-
ton, a captain of militia, with the assistance of a few
others as bold as himself, burst open a door of Nassau
Hall and demanded a surrender of the forces within.
The demand was at once complied with, and the en-
tire body, including a number of sick, gave themselves
up as prisoners of war. This was the last of the
British forces in Princeton, and Washington, having
now entirely cleared the town of his enemies, imme-
diately evacuated the place, and wdth his army moved
rapidly away towards the northeast on the New Bruns-
wick road.

The advance division of Cornwallis, which had hur-
ried up from Maidenhead towards the scene of action
and dashed through the icy waters of Stony Brook, as
before mentioned, moved forward in the greatest haste
from that point to Princeton. Guarding the south-
western approach to the town was a bastioned earth-
work which had been thrown up a week or two
earlier by their own forces, and upon its rampart a
thirty-two-pounder gun had been mounted by Count
Donop. Now, as the head of Leslie's division came
on at a quick-step, it was greeted by a thundering re-
port from the great gun, which had been fired by two
or three American soldiers who still lingered near it.
The rush of the ponderous shot above the heads of the
British caused the advancing column to halt, and the
commander, who now believed that Washington had
determined to defend the place, sent out parties of
cavalry to reconnoitre, the infantry in the mean time
advancing slowly and with great caution preparatory
to an assault of the work. By these movements Corn-
wallis lost one precious hour, and when his men at
last moved up to the fortification they found it en-
tirely deserted,, and soon after the cavalry-parties re-
ported that there was not a rebel soldier in Princeton.
Upon this the British general, chagrined at the de-
lay resulting from his useless caution, ordered his
columns to move on with all speed on the New Bruns-
wick road. Arriving at Kingston, three miles from
Princeton, he found that the Americans had broken
down the bridge at that place ; but this was soon re-
paired, and the army, having crossed the stream, was
again hurried on in the hope of overtaking the Amer-
icans in time to prevent the destruction of the
military stores at New Brunswick. Cornwallis
arrived at that place during the succeeding night,
and was rejoiced to find his stores untouched ; but he
found no American army, for " the fox" had again
eluded him, and was at that time safe among the hills
of Somerset.

Washington, on leaving Princeton, moved his force
with the greatest possible speed to Kingston, crossing
the Millstone River and destroying the bridge behind
him. Having proceeded thus far he was not a little
perplexed in deciding on his subsequent movements.
The heavy column of Cornwallis was following so



closely in his rear that it was only at great peril that
he could pursue his original plan* of marching to
New Brunswick. The destruction of the British
magazines and stores at that place would have been a
most glorious ending of the winter campaign, and
would, beyond doubt, have driven the last vestige of
British military power out of New Jersey ; but, on
the other hand, a collision with the superior forces
of Cornwallis which it seemed hardly possible to
avoid if the march to New Brunswick was continued
could hardly result otherwise than in defeat, and not
improbably in the rout and destruction of the Amer-
ican army. At this juncture the commander-in-chief
adopted his usual course, called a council of war,
which was held by himself and his generals in the
saddle, and, although " some gentlemen advised that
he should file off to the southward,"! the council re-
sulted in the decision to abandon the original plan,
strike off from the New Brunswick road, and march
the army by way of the Millstone valley, and thence
across the Earitan, to the hilly country in the north-

The plan adopted by the council of war was at once
put into execution. The army filed off from the main
highway,! and, turning sharply to the left, marched
over a narrow and unfrequented road to Rocky Hill,
where it recrossed the Millstone Eiver and moved on,
as rapidly as was practicable in the exhausted condi-
tion of the men, to Millstone. " The guides were di-
rected to take the road leading to the northward
through Hillsborough, but before they reached Som-
erset Court-house many of the infantry, worn out
with fatigue, fasting, and want of rest, lay down and
fell asleep by the way. "J That night (January 3d)

* "My original plan," said Wafihington in hie letter to Congress dated
Fluckamin, January 5th, " was to have pushed on to Brunewic ; but
the harassed state of our troops {many of them having had no rest for
two nights and a day;, and the danger of losing the advantage we had
gained, by aiming at too much, induced me, by the advice of my oflB-
cers, to relinquish the attempt; but, in my judgment, six or eight hun-
dred fresh troops, on a forced march, would have destroyed all their
stores and magazines, taken (as we have since learned) their military
chest containing seventy thousand pounds, and put an end to the war.
The enemy, from the best intelligence I have been able to get, were so
much alarmed at the apprehension of this that they marched immedi-
ately to Brnnswic without halting, except at the bridges (for I also took
up those on Millstone on the different routes to Brunswic), and got
there before day."

f Marshall.

1 The French Marquis de Castellux, who visited this region in 1781,
made the following mention of the locality, and of Washington's march
down the Millstone after Princeton : " It was here [Kingston] that Gen.
Washington halted after the affair at Prince Town. After marching
from midnight until two o'clock in the afternoon, almost continually
fighting, he wished to collect the troops and give them some rest ; he
knew, however, that Lord Cornwallis was following him on the Maiden-
head road, but he contented himself with taking up some planks of the
bridge, and as soon as he saw the vanguard of the English appear he con-
tinued his march quietly towards Middlebrook." This account, however,
is not strictly correct.

2 "It was on this march, or possibly on a similar one in December of
the same year, as the Army of Liberty passed the parsonage [at Mill-
stone], half clothed, unshod, and in want of food, that the patriotic Foer-
ing, collecting all the stores of his house (it being, moreover, just after
baking-time), and cutting the food into convenient portions, distributed


the headquarters of the commander-in-chief were
made at the Van Doren house, half a mile south of
the old Millstone church, and the weary soldiers of
the army bivouacked in the neighboring woods and

In the darkness of that winter night a small body
of Washington's militia, under command of that noted
trooper Capt. John Stryker, of Millstone, performed
quite a brilliant exploit in capturing a part of Corn-
wallis' baggage-train on the New Brunswick road.
The British general, terrified at the prospect of losing
his stores at New Brunswick, thinking that Washing-
ton was still in his front and moving on that post,
had pressed on from Kingston in such headlong haste
as to break down a number of his wagons ; and these,
being disabled, were turned out of the road and left,
with a few others, in charge of a quartermaster and
guarded by a detachment of soldiers. The American
militiamen referred to, having learned of the situation
of these wagons, resolved to capture them, and boldly
proceeded to put their plan into execution, though
their party numbered not more than twenty men,
while the British detachment guarding the disabled
train was of more than ten times their own strength.
Cautiously approaching the spot in the thick dark-
ness, they ranged themselves among the trees in a
semi-circle, partially surrounding the bivouac of the
British wagon-guard, and at a preconcerted signal
set up a loud shout and poured in a volley upon the
astonished soldiers, who, believing themselves to be
encircled by an attacking force superior in numbers
to their own, fled in a panic towards New Brunswick,
escaping with a few wagons which happened to have
their teams attached, but leaving the greater number
in the hands of the Americans, who were jubilant at
the success of their project, and still more so when it
was found that the Wagons were principally laden
with the article which their army especially needed,
woolen clothing. The captors with their prize moved
up as rapidly as possible on through Somerset County,
crossed the Millstone at Somerset Court-house, and
overtook the main body a day or two later.

In the morning of the 4th of January, Washington,
with his army and prisoners, left their encampment
of the previous night, and, continuing the march
northward, crossed the Earitan River at Van Vegh-
ten's Bridge. Passing up by the site of the present
village of Somerville, he encamped the same evening
at Pluckamin, where a halt of two days was made for
the rest and refreshment of the army. While at this
encampment the commander-in-chief wrote to the
president of the Continental Congress narrating the
events of the campaign which had then just closed.
This letter, as being an official, and of course an au-

them, as far as they would go, to the weary and hungry soldiers as they
hurried on their way. On one of these occasions, as the army passed,
they encamped for the night in the field directly south of the present
parsonage, Washington himself sleeping in the northwest corner of the
parlor of the present homestead of John Van Doren." Rev. E. T. Corusin^



thentic, account of the aflfair at Assanpink and the
hattle of Princeton, and a statement of the losses and
captures at the latter place, is given below, viz. .

" Pltjckamin, January 5, 1777. Sir, I have the honor to inform you that since the date of my last "
from Trenton I have removed with the army under my command to this
place. The diificulty of crossing the Delaware, on account of the ice,
made our passage over it tedious, and gave the enemy an opportunity of
drawing in their several cantonments and assembling their whole force
at Princeton. Their large picquets advanced towards Trenton, their
great preparations, and some intelligence I had received, added to their
knowledge that the 1st of January brought on a dissolution of the best
part of our army, gave me the strongest reasons to conclude that an at-
tack upon us was meditating.

" Our situation was most critical, and our force small. To remove im- mediately was again destroying every dawn of hope which had begun to revive in the breasts of the Jersey militia, and to bring those troops which had first crossed the Delaware, and were lying at Crosswix's under Gen. Cadwallader, and those under Gen. Mifflin at Bordentown (amounts ing in the whole to about three thousand six hundred), to Trenton, was to bring them to an exposed place. One or the other, however, was un- avoidable ; the latter was preferred, and they were ordered to join us at Trenton, which they did, by a nigbt-march, on the 1st instant. [Here fol- lows an account of the so-called battle of Assanpink,"" before quoted.] "
" Having by this time [that is, on the evening of January 2d, after the British had made the attempt to cross the bridge and ford of the Assan- pink] discovered that the enemy was greatly superior in number, and that their design was to surround us, I ordered all our baggage to be silently removed to Burlington soon after dark; and at twelve o'clock, after renewing our fires and leaving guards at the bridge in Trenton and other passes on the same stream above, marched by a round-about road to Princeton, where I knew they could not have much force left, and might have stores. One thing I was certain of, that it would avoid the appearance of a retreat (which it was, of course, or to run the hazard of the whole army being cut off) ; whilst we might, by a fortunate stroke, withdraw Gen. Howe from Trenton and give some reputation to our arms. Happily we succeeded. We found Princeton about sunrise with only three regiments and three troops of light-horse in it, two of which were on their march to Trenton. These three regiments, especially the two first, made a gallant resistance, and in killed, wounded, and prisoners must have lost five hundred men ; upwards of one hundred of them were left dead on the field; and with what I have with me, and what were taken in pursuit and carried across the Delaware, there are near three hundred prisoners,* fourteen of whom are officers, all British. This piece of good fortune is counterbalanced by the loss of the brave "
and worthy General Mercer, Cols. Hazlet. and Potter, Capt. Neal of the
artiller}', Capt. Fleming, who commanded the First Virginia Regiment,
and four or five other valuable officers, who, with about twenty-five or
thirty privates, were slain on the field. Our whole loss cannot be ascer-
tained, as many who are in pursuit of the enemy (who were chased three
or four miles) are not yet come in.

" The rear of the enemy's army, lying at Maidenhead, not more than five or six miles from Princeton, was up with us before our pursuit was over ; but, as I had the precaution to destroy the bridge over Stony Brook (about half ahiile from the field of action), they were so long retarded there as to give us time to move off in good order for this place. We took two brass field-pieces, but for want of horses could not bring them away. We also took some blankets, shoes, and a few other trifling articles, bnrned the hay, and destroyed such other things as the short- ness of the time would admit of. [Here follows a paragraph which has before been given, viz., an explanation that his original plan had been to proceed to and attack the post of New Brunswick for the purpose of destroying the British stores deposited there.] From the best information I have received. Gen. Howe has left no "
men either at Trenton or Princeton. The trnth of this I am endeavor-
ing to ascertain, that I may regulate my movements accordingly. The
militia are taking spirits, and, I am told, are coming in fast from this
State ; but I fear those from Philadelphia wiU scarcely submit to the
hardships of a winter campaign much longer, especially as they very
unluckily sent their blankets with their baggage to Burlington. I must

* The number of prisoners taken by the Americans in the conflicts of
the 3d of January in and about Princeton was two hundred aud thirty.
The entire loss of the Americans on that day did not exceed thirty, kiUed
and wounded.

do them the justice, however, to add that they have undergone more
fatigue and hardship than I expected militia, especially citizens, would
have done in this inclement season. I am just moving towards Morris-
town, where I shall endeavor to put them under the best cover I can;
hitherto we have been without any, and many of our poor soldiers bare-
foot, and ill-clad in other respects.

" I have the honor to he, etc., G. W."" "

Gen. Hugh Mercer, whose death is mentioned in
the letter of Washington, was the commanding officer
of the American detachment which first joined battle
with the British troops under Mawhood on the morn-
ing of the 3d of January near Princeton, and it was
in that first short but disastrous conflict that he re-
ceived his mortal wounds. In the volley which the
British Seventeenth Regiment poured into the Amer-
ican line when it held the position along the rail-fence
on the height west of Clarke's house on that memor-
able morning, a ball, striking Mercer's horse in the
fore leg, disabled him and compelled the general to dis-
mount ; and in the hurried retreat which immediately
followed through the orchard, while he was in the very
midst of the fight, trying to rally his flying troops, he
was felled to the earth by a blow from a British musket.
" The British soldiers were not at first aware of the general's rank. So soon as they discovered he was a general ofiBcer they shouted that they had got the rebel general, and cried, ' Call for quarter, you d d rebel I' Mercer to the most undaunted courage united a quick and ardent temperament ; he replied with in- "" dignation to his enemies, while their bayonets were at his bosom, that he deserved not the name of rebel, and, determining to die, as he had lived, a true and honored soldier of liberty, lunged with his sword at the nearest man. They then bayoneted him and left him for dead.t It was afterwards ascertained that "
he had received sixteen bayonet wounds,J and he was
also terribly beaten on the head with the butt of a
musket by a British soldier while he lay wounded
and helpless on the ground. He was taken to Clarke's
house, and there most tenderly cared for and nursed
by the ladies of the household ; but after lingering
in agony for nine days he expired on the 12th of

Gen. Washington while on the field of Princeton
had learned with great grief of the fall of Mercer,
who was reported killed, and it was not until he had
made his headquarters for the night at Somerset Court-
house that the commander-in-chief received with cor-
responding joy and thankfulness the intelligence that
his old friend and companion-in-arms,J although

t Kecollections of the Life and Character of Washington, by G. W. P.

t "The late Dr. Moses Scott, of New Brunswick, with other surgeons,
was with Gen. Mercer under the tree after the battle, and said that he
had received sixteen wounds by the bayonet, though these were not
thought by the general himself (who was a physician) to be necessarily
mortal, but that wliile lying on the ground a British soldier had struck
him on the head with his musket; ' and that,' said he, ' was a dishonor-
able act, and it will prove my death.' " ijaum's RisUyry of TreiUon.

g Mercer and Washington had been comrades and warm personal
friends in the campaigns against the French in 1765.



severely wounded, was not dead, and might recover.
At this he at once dispatched his nephew, Maj. George
Lewis, with a flag of truce and a letter to Lord Corn-
wallis, requesting that every possible attention might
be shown to the wounded generaJ, and that Maj. Lewis
might be permitted to remain to attend on and nurse
him. " To both these requests," says Custis, " His
Lordship yielded a willing assent, and ordered his
staff surgeon to attend upon Gen. Mercer. Upon an
examination of his wounds the British surgeon ob-
served that, although they were many .and severe, he
was disposed to believe they would not prove danger-
ous. Mercer, bred to the profession of an army sur-
geon in Europe, said to young Lewis, ' Raise my right
arm, George, and this gentleman will then discover
the smallest of my wounds, but which will prove the
most fatal. Yes, sir, that is the fellow that will soon
do my business.' . . . During the period that he
languished on the couch of suffering he exonerated
his enemies from the foul accusation which they not
only bore in 1777, but for half a century since, viz.,
of their having bayoneted a general officer after he
had surrendered his sword and become a prisoner of
war, declaring that he only relinquished his sword
when his arm became powerless to wield it."

The kindness and courtesy of Lord Cornwallis in so
readily and fully granting Gen. Washington's request
,^ in reference to the wounded general Mercer was as
fully and generously repaid by the consideration and
kind attention bestowed, by order of the American
commander, on one of his British prisoners, Capt.
William Leslie, of the Seventeenth Regiment, who
was mortally wounded and captured by the patriot
forces at Princeton. An account of the death of this
brave young officer is thus given by Custis :

" It waa while the commander-ln-cbief reined up his horse upon ap- proaching the spot in a plowed field where lay the gallant Col. Hazlet mortally wounded that he perceived some British soldiera supporting a wounded oiBcer, and upon inquiring his name and rank was answered, * Capt. Leslie.' Dr. Benjamin Bush, who formed a part of the general's suite, earnestly aaked, ' A son of the Earl of Leven ?' to which the soldiei-B replied in tlie aiBrmative. The doctor then addressed the geueral-in-chief : ' I beg your Excellency to permit tliie wounded officer to be placed under my care that I may return, in however small a degree, a part of the obli- gations I owe to his worthy father for the many kindnesses received at his hands while I was a student at Edinburgh.' The request was im- mediately granted, but, alas ! poor Leslie was soon ' paat all surgery.' He died the same evening, and was buried the next day at Pluckamin with the honors of war. His troops, as they lowered the remains to the soldier's last rest, shed tears over the remains of a much-loved com- mander.* "

•The following is a copy of an entry in a diary kept by Col. Bodney

who commanded a battalion of Delaware militia in Washington's army at

that time :

" Pluckamin, N. J., Jan. 6, 1777. The general continued here this day also to refresh the army. He "
ordered forty of our light infantry to attend the funeral of Col. [Capt.]
Leslie, to bury him with the honors of war. He was one of the enemy
•who fell at Princeton. They readily obeyed in payiuE due respect to
bravery, thongh in an enemy.

" Capt. Henry was now gone home, and I myself had command of the five companies of infantry, but, as I liad not paid any attention to the military funeral ceremonies, I requested Capt. Humphries to conduct it. . . . "

If Capt. Leslie died in the evening of the day on
which he received his wound, as is stated by Custis,
his death must have occurred at or near Somerset
Court-house,t where the general made his head-
quarters on the night of the 3d of January. But,
however this may have been, he was buried with mil-
itary honors, as stated, at Pluckamin, where his grave
may still be known by a plain monument erected to
his memory by his father's friend. Dr. Rush.J After
his death Gen. Washington sent his aide. Col. Fitz-
gerald, with a flag of truce to the camp of Cornwallis.
He was received at the British headquarters with great
courtesy, and upon his relating the fact of Capt. Les-
lie's death and the manner of his burial to the high
officers present, they exhibited great emotion, and one
of the generals, who had been compelled to withdraw
to a window to hide his tears, returned by the colonel
his warmest acknowledgments to the American com-
mander-in-chief for kis kindness, and the honors paid
to the dead officer.

The cannonading on the Princeton battle-field had
been heard in nearly every part of the counties of
Hunterdon and Somerset to their northern bounda-
ries,? and the people were in a state of the greatest
excitement and suspense as to what it portended.
During the latter part of the day those living along
the valley of the Millstone learned the facts by the

fOne account of Capt. Leslie's death says he was " carried to Plucka-
min and died on the porch of a small inn almost immediately on reaching
there." There is no reason to doubt that this account is correct; and if
so, then Custis M'as mistaken in saying "he died the same evening," that
is, the evening of the day of the battle. While halting at Millstone in
the nightafter the battle the soldiers having charge of the ambulance in
which Leslie waa conveyed bivouacked on a piece of woodland on, or very
near, the site of the present parsonage of the Reformed Church at that

J.The following, having reference to the last resting-place of the
gallant Leslie, is taken from Dr. Messler's " History of Somerset County"
(1876) : " Many years since, money was sent from Scotland to build astone-
wall in front, and more recently the Presbyterian church was erected
on a part of it. The following extracts will be of interest :

" ' Many persons in this country will recall with pleasure the visit to this country last year of the Hon. Koland Leslie Melville, brother of the Earl of Leven and Melville, who some time ago became a partner in London of Mr. McCulloch, ex-Secretary of the United States Treasury. While here Mr. Melville mentioned the fact that one oC his /orfeyes, a young British officer, had fallen in America during the Kevolutiouary war, and that the family had never been able to learn where he was buried. There was tradition that his remains had been deposited m a certain Trinily church-yard, but that vague description gave them little clue to the spot. Only the other day an American friend of Mr. Melville, searching our early national history with quite another object, stumbled on the story of his ancestor's death, and, finding that he fell at the battle of Princeton, Jan. 3, 1777, pursued the inquiry, and discovered his burial- place still well presex-ved. . . .' "

J The boom> of the guns ot Princeton wos also heard much farther
away thnn the remotest bounds of Hunterdon. The journal of the Mo-
ravian brethren at Bethlehem, Pa., contains entries showing that fact,
as follows: " On the first of January, 1777, Brother Bttwein made his
rounds tlirough the hospital, and wished the sufferers God's blessing on
the opening of the New Year." " Januan/ 3d. During the forenoon we
heard long-continued cannonading. Later, it wos ascertained to have
been at Princeton." The hospital referred to in the first entry was the
general hospital of the army, which had been removed to that place from
Morristown by Surg.-Gen. John Warren, under an order from Gen. Wash-
ington, Dec. 3, 1776, when the first advance of the British into New Jer-
sey made it necessary to remove it farther into the interior.



passage of the patriot forces, and on the following
day the glad news was spread farther and more
widely, till, on the morning of the 5th, there were
few of the inhabitants of either county who did not
know that Washington's army had recrossed the Ear-
itan and was in bivouac along the hillside at Pluclca-
min. "Many a horseman .during the night dashed
onward to this point to ascertain what it [the light of
the camp-fires at Pluckamin] portended, and when
the news was brought back that it was Washington
the joy was almost rapturous everywhere."*

The army arrived at Pluckamin on the evening of
the 4th of January! i^ ^ condition of extreme wear-
iness and destitution. Not only were the men worn
out by loss of sleep and the excessive fatigue of the
rapid night-march from Trenton to Princeton, the
battle at that place, and the subsequent marching to
Kingston down the valley of the Millstone, and from
the Earitan to the mountains,- but they were very
poorly supplied with food, many of them shoeless
and suffering from cold through lack of blankets and
sufficient clothing. The officers as well as the private
soldiers suffered from the same cause. Col. Eodney
said (in the diary before quoted from), in reference to
his condition during the halt at Pluckamin, " I had
nothing to cover me here but my great-coat, but luck-
ily got into a house near the mountains, where I fared
very comfortably while we stayed here.'' But there
were few even among the officers who fared as well as
he in this respect.

During the day of January 5th the main body of
the army lay quietly at Pluckamin resting and wait-
ing for detached bodies to rejoin it. J When the com-
mands had all reported, and the men had in some
degree recovered from the effects of the excessive
fatigue and exposure which they had been compelled
to endure in the marches and battles from the Assan-
pink to Pluckamin, the army moved out from its
temporary camps at the latter place and marched
leisurely to Morristown, where it went into winter
quarters in log huts. It is said that while there the
only command of which the men were in complete
uniform was Col. Eodney's battalion of Delaware
troops, which on that account was detailed for duty
as a body-guard to the commander-in-chief.J



The Marvelous Change produced by the Campaign of Trenton and
Princeton Gen. Howe's " Protections" Atrocities of the British in
Somerset and Hunterdon Counties Washington's Proclamation to tha
People Skirmish at Weston, Somerset Co. Gen. Dickinson Defeats
the British and Captures a Wagon Train Occupation of Middle-
brook by the American Forces in 1777 Letter of Gen. Heard from
Earitan" Washington Eock" Attempt to Entice Washington from
his Stronghold in the Hills The British Troops leave the State and
the American Army march through Somerset and Hunterdon to the
Delaware Washington's Letters from Coryell's Ferry- Hunterdon
and Somerset Troops at Battle of Brandywine Valley Forge Col.
Frelinghuysen's Expedition to Staten Island A Female Tory Dispatch-
Carrier The Tories Penn and Chew under Surveillance in Hunterdon
County Extracts from Minutes of the Council of Safety, Etc.
British evacuate Philadelphia and pass through New Jersey Wash-
ington's Army cross at Coryell's Battle of Monmouth, Etc. Somerset
and Hunterdon Troops behave gallantly Cantonments at Middle-
brook Gen. Washington and Wife at Somerville Five Soldiers Hung
Gen. Knox's Headquarters at Pluckamin Grand Ball and Supper
Simcoe's Raid in 1779 Burning of the Church, Court-house, Etc.
Capt. Peter G. Voorhees killed The Ladies of Hunterdon and Somer-
set Close of the War The Currency Patriotism under War Burdens
Processes against Forfeited Estates, Etc.


The glorious result of the campaign which com-
menced on the south shore of the Delaware at Mc-
Conkey's Ferry at nightfall on the evening of Christ-
mas Day, 1776, and ended when the weary and shiv-
ering soldiers of Washington entered their compara-
tively comfortable winter quarters at Morristown,
wrought a wonderful change in the aspect of affairs
in New Jersey. A few weeks before, when the slender
and constantly-decreasing columns of the American
army were crossing the State towards the Delaware in
flight before the pursuing and victorious legions of
Cornwallis, a large proportion probably a majority
of the people of the State had become discouraged,
and, despairing of a successftil issue to the struggle
for liberty, large numbers of them promptly availed
themselves of the terms offered by the proclamation
of the British commander guaranteeing pardon and
protection to such rebels and disaffected persons a&
would come forward to abandon the patriot cause and
renew their allegiance to the king.|| It is stated that

* Kev. Dr. Messier.

f Lossing (vol. i. p. 306) says that Washington, having defeated the
British at Princeton, " pursued them as far as Kingston, where he had
the bridge taken up, and, turning short to the left, crossed the Millstone
Kiver twice, and arrived at Pluckamin the same evening.'''' And again (vol.
ii. p. 239) he says, " He destroyed the bridge at Kingston, which checked
the progress of Cornwallis for some time, and having crossed the Mill-
stone twice, he reached Pluckamin that evening." But this is clearly a
mistake, as the account of Washington's bait with his army near Som-
erset Court-house during the night succeeding the battle is well authen-

X In Washington's dispatches to Congress dated at Pluckamin on that
day he says, "Our whole loss cannot be ascertained, as many who are
in pursuit of the enemy (who were chased three or four miles) are not
yet come in."

§ The iiag-staff which was used at Washington's headquarters, Morris-

town, up to the time of erecting a liberty-pole, was removed in the sum-
mer of 1880 to the residence of D. D. Craig, at Basking Kidge, in Somer-
set Co., where it was again raised.

II " The British commissioneis [Gen. William Howe and his brother.
Admiral Lord Eichard Howe] issued a proclamation commanding all
persons assembled in arms against His Majesty's government tu disband
and rett^rn to their homes, and all civil officers to desist from their trea-
sonable practices and to relinquish their usurped authority. A full par-
don was offered to all who within sixty days would appear before aa
officer of the Crown, claim the benefit of the proclamation, and subscribe
a declaration of his submission to the royal authority. Seduced by this-
proclamation, not only the ordinary people shrunk from the apparent
fate of the country in this its murkiest hour, but the vaporing patriots
who sought office and distinction at the hands of their countrymen when
danger in their service was distant now crawled into the British lines,
humbly craving the mercy of their conquerors, and whined out, as justi-



for a considerable time the daily average of persons
within the State who thus signified their adhesion to
the royal cause was more than two hundred. Scarcely
an inhabitant of the State joined the army of "Wash-
ington as he was retreating towards the Delaware, but,
on the contrary, great numbers of those who were
already in the service from this State deserted and
returned to their homes. " The two Jersey regiments
which had been forwarded by Gen. Gates, under Gen.
St. Clair, went off to a man the moment they entered
their own State. A few officers, without a single pri-
vate, were all of these regiments which St. Clair
brought to the commander-in-chief."* The most
earnest exertions of Governor Livingston to induce
the militia to oppose the invading army were fruit-
less. " Those who visited the army brought back an
unfavorable report. They secretly or openly advised
others to do nothing that would involve them in dis-
loyalty, and thus jeopardize their possessions. Old
people tell us that such was the talk with many. The
Legislature, itself defenseless, had moved from Prince-
ton to Burlington,! and there, on the 2d of December,
they adjourned, each man going home to look after
his own affairs. Until the battle of Trenton, on the
26th of that month. New Jersey might have been con-
sidered a conquered province. Even Samuel Tucker
[of Hunterdon], chairman of the Committee of Safety,
treasurer, and judge of the Supreme Court, took a
protection of the British, and thus renounced allegi-
ance to this State and vacated his offices. J Open in-
surrection against the American cause had broken
out in several counties, among which was that of
Hunterdon, where (as before noticed) the malcontents
had proceeded to violence against the Whig inhabit-
ants of that section, plundered the house of Capt.
Jones, and boldly declared their intention of joining
the British army. In Monmouth County a similar,
but even more desperate, state of affairs existed, to
suppress which it was deemed necessary to detach a
strong military force under Col. Forman. Panic, dis-
affection, and cowardly submission were found every-
where; despair had seized on all but the sturdiest
patriots ; and the conflict for liberty seemed well-nigh

But a marvelous change was wrought by the favor-
able result of the campaign of Trenton and Prince-
ton. The Christmas victory at Trenton rekindled a
bright spark of hope in the breasts of despairing pa-

triots, and the glorious event of Princeton fanned
that spark into a strong and steady flame. An imme-
diate result was a revival of hope and courage among
the Jersey militia, causing large numbers of them to
join the American army, adding materially to its ef-
fective strength. " The militia are taking spirits, and,
I am told, are coming in fast from this State," said
Gen. Washington in his dispatches to Congress writ-
ten at Pluokamin on the 5th of January, only two
days after the victory of Princeton ; and the acces-
sions from this source were much more numerous
after that time. " The militia of New Jersey, who had
hitherto behaved shamefully,? from this time forward
generally acquired high reputation, and throughout
a long and tedious war conducted themselves with
spirit and discipline scarce surpassed by the regular
troops. In small parties they now scoured the country
in every direction, seized on stragglers, in several light
skirmishes behaved exceptionally well, and collected
in such numbers as to threaten the weaker British
posts with the fate which those at Trenton and Prince-
ton had already experienced. In a few days, indeed,
the Americans had overrun the Jerseys." Among the
inhabitants, those who had maintained their unswerv-
ing devotion to the patriotic cause once more took
heart ; and even of those who, from motives of fear
and self-interest, had availed themselves of the "pro-
tection" of the British, II the greater number were re-
joiced at the successes of Washington. Gen. Howe's
protectionsl[ had proved to them a delusion. Dur-
ing the time in which the British held undisputed
control the country in all directions had been rav-
aged by their foraging-parties, composed principally
of Hessians. These mercenaries were unable to read
the English language; and so, when the "loyal"
inhabitants who had secured protection papers exhib-
ited them to the German marauders, the latter regarded
them no more than if they had been Washington's
passes, but treated their holders with contempt and
showed them no more consideration than was accor-
ded to their Whig neighbors, which was simply none

at all.

In the depredations and atrocities committed during
this period by the Hessian and British soldiery, Som-

ficatton, that, though they had united with others in seeking a constitu-
tional redress of grievances, they approved not the measures lately
adopted, and were at all times opposed to independence." Gordon's SU-
Utry of Nex Jersey, p. 223.


fThe removals of the Legislature, enforced by the advance of the
British army, were : First, from Princeton to Trenton ; then from Tren-
ton to Burlington ; from Burlington to Pittstown ; and finally, from that
place to Haddonfleld, where it was dissolved on the 2d of December, 1776.

t Mott's " FiiHt Century of Hunterdon County."

Gordon (p. 223) says, "Dr. Bamsay has given to political infamy the
names of Galloway and Allen, of Pennsylvania. He might have added
those of Tucker and others, of New Jersey."

a See Gordon's " History of New Jersey," p. 233.

I The whole number of those who, in the State of New Jersey, took
advantage of the proclamation of the brfithers Howe is said to have been
two thousand seven hundred and three.

IT Following is a copy of one of these " protection" papers, given to a
Somerset County man by that same Col. Mawhood who, a little more
than two weeks later, was defeated by Washington at Princeton :

"I do hereby Certify that the Bearer Abraham Sedham, of Middle- bush in the County of Somerset, came and subscribed the declaration specified in a certain Proclamation published at New York, on the ISth day of November last, by the Bight Honorable Lord Howe, and His Ex- cellency General Howe. Whereby he is entitled to the protection of all Officers and Soldiers serving in his Majesties' Army in America, both for himself, his family and property, and to pass and repass on his lawful business without molestation. Given under my hand this 18th day of December, 1776. "

C. Mawhood, Lt.-Col,



erset* and Hunterdon were among the four or five
counties which suffered the most severely of any in
the State. " Neither the proclamation of the commis-
sioners [General and Admiral Howe] nor protections
saved the people from plunder or insult. Their
property was taken and destroyed without distinction
of persons. They exhibited their protections, but the
Hessians could not read and would not understand
them, and the British soldiers deemed it foul disgrace
that the Hessians should be the only plunderers.
Discontents and murmurs increased every hour with
the ravages of both, which were almost sanctioned by
general orders, and which spared neither friend nor
foe. Neither age nor sex was protected from outrage.
Infants, children, old men and women, were left
naked and exposed, without a blanket to cover them
from the inclemency of winter. Furniture which
could not be carried away was wantonly destroyed,
dwellings and outhouses burned or rendered unin-
habitable, churches and other public buildings con-
sumed, and the rape of women, and even very young
girls, filled the measure of woe. Such miseries are the
usual fate of the conquered, nor were they infiicted
with less reserve that the patients were rebellious sub-
jects. But even the worm will turn upon the op-
pressor. . . . What the earnest commendations of
Congress, the zealous exertions of Governor Living-
ston and the State authorities, and the ardent suppli-
cations of Washington could not effect was produced
by the rapine and devastations of the royal forces.
The whole country became instantly hostile to the in-
vaders. Sufferers of all parties rose as one man to re-
venge their personal injuries. Those who, from age
and infirmities, were incapable of military service
kept a strict watch upon the movements of the royal
army, and from time to time communicated informa-
tion to their countrymen in arms. Those who lately
declined all opposition, though called on by the sacred
tie of honor pledged to each other in the Declaration
of Independence, cheerfully embodied when they
found submission to be unavailing for the security of
their estates. . . . Men who could not apprehend the
consequences of British taxation nor of American in-
dependence could feel the injuries inflicted by inso-
lent, cruel, and brutal soldiers. "f

Gen. Washington was not slow to avail himself of
the advantages to the American cause offered by this
situation of affairs, and on the 25th of January he
issued, from his headquarters in Morristown, a procla-
mation requiring all persons who had accepted pro-
tection from the British commissioners to repair to

* '* Somerset County lay at the mercy of the enemy, whose foraging-
parties went out from New Brunswick, where Howe had quartered his
troops, across the Millstone as far as Neshanic and the South Branch,
gathering everything they could lay their hands on, and maltreating
the inhahitanta most cruelly whenever any resistance was offered. It
seemed as if the idea that they were or might be rebels formed a suffi-
cient excuse in the minds of the soldiers for any outrage that their pas-
sions prompted them to commit." Mesaler^s History of Sovierset County.

t Gordon, pp. 232, 233.

the army headquarters, or the nearest headquarters of
any general ofllcer in the Continental service, and
there to surrender their protection papers and swear
allegiance to the .United States of America; upon
which terms they were to receive full pardon for past
offenses, provided this was done within thirty days
from the date of the proclamation. But such as should
fail to conform to these requirements within the speci-
fied time were commanded to forthwith withdraw
themselves and families within the enemy's lines, and
upon their refusal or neglect to do so they were to be
regarded and treated as adherents to the King of
Great Britain and enemies of the United States.
The effect of this proclamation was excellent. Hun-
dreds of timid inhabitants who had taken protection
now flocked to the different headquarters to surrender
them and take the required oath of allegiance. The
most inveterate and dangerous Tories were driven
within the enemy's lines, or entirely out of the State,
and the army was largely increased by volunteers and
by the return of many who had previously served in
its ranks, but had deserted and returned to their
homes during the dark days of November and De-
cember, 1776.

The main body of the army lay in quiet at Morris-
townj for nearly five months. During this time,,
although no general movements were made, small
bodies of militia and other troops were almost con-
stantly harassing the enemy, and several minor fights
occurred, one of the most important of which took
place at Weston, in Somerset County, on the 20th of
January. In consequence of the Americans having
captured and destroyed a number of boats ascending
the Baritan laden with provisions for the use of Corn-
wallis' forces at New Brunswick, the British were
compelled to forage the country with more than their
usual energy. One of their foraging-parties, about
four hundred strong,^ had been raiding on the east
side of the Millstone River, in that part of Somerset
County which is now the township of Franklin,
where they had seized a large number of cattle and
sheep, and, learning that a considerable quantity of
flour was stored in a mill at Weston, proceeded to
that place, took possession of the flour, and com-
menced loading it upon their wagons. But in the

I A detached force of several hundred men, under command of Gen. Is-
rael Putnam, was stationed at Princeton in the latter part of January to
act as a corps of observation merely, being too weak in numbers to offer
serious opposition if the enemy should appear in force. In Hageman's
History of Princeton there is related an incident illustrative of Gen.
Putnam's strategy, as follows : " A British officer, Maj.-Gen. McPherson,
who lay mortally wounded at Princeton, desired the presence of a mili-
tary comrade in his last moments. The kind-hearted Gen. Putnam could
not refuse the request, but resorted to strategy to hide his weakness
from the enemy. He sent a flag to New Brunswick in quest of the-
friend, who entered Princeton after dark. The general had arranged it
so that every unoccupied house was carefully lighted, lights gleamed in
all the college windows, and he marched and countennarched his
scanty forces to such effect that the British soldier on his return to tbfr
camp reported it at least five thousand strong, while he had only a few

g One account places its strength at six hundred men.



mean time intelligence of the movement was carried
to Gen. Philemon Dickinson, who with a small force
was stationed to hold a small earthwork at Somerset
Court-house (Millstone village), a short distance from
the mill, but on the opposite side of Millstone River.
Upon learning the facts, Gen. Dickinson, being de-
termined to attack the party, moved out with a force
of two companies of Continentals, fifty Pennsylvania
riflemen, and a small body of New Jersey militia,
in all, about four hundred and fifty men, and, pro-
ceeding to the bridge at Weston, attempted to cross
it, but failed, as the enemy held the opposite end,
with three pieces of artillery trained upon it. The
Americans then sought a fording-place below, and,
plunging into the river where the water was waist-
deep and filled with floating ice, crossed the stream
ajid attacked the British with such vigor and deter-
mination that they fled precipitately towards New
Brunswick, leaving forty-three wagons, one hundred
and four horses, one hundred and eighteen cattle,
seventy sheep, and twelve prisoners in the hands of
Gen. Dickinson, whose loss of men in the fight was
five. The total loss of the enemy was about thirty
men. Gen. Washington, in his mention of this affair,
highly commended the energy and skill of Gen. Dick-
inson, and the gallantry evinced by the force under
his command, more than half of which was composed
of raw militia.

A similar afikir occurred on or about the 1st of
Pebruary at Piscataway, in which at least thirty-six
of the enemy were killed, while the Americans lost
nine killed and fourteen wounded. The force of the
British was about one thousand, with three field-
pieces ; while the Americans were only about seven
hundred strong, and nearly or quite all militia. In
the first attack the enemy were compelled to retire,
but, receiving reinforcements, they again advanced
and drove the militia from their position. About
three weeks later, " Col. Neilson, of New Brunswick,
with a detachment of one hundred and fifty militia,
surprised and captured Maj. Stockton (one of the nu-
merous family of that name, who from his treachery
was called ' Double Dick'), at the head of fifty-nine pri-
vates, refugees, in British pay."* Two or three quite
severe fights occurred at "Spanktown" (Rahway),
one on the 6th of January, in which a thousand
bushels of salt and other stores were captured from
the British, and another on the 23d of February, be-
tween the brigade of Gen. Maxwell and the Third
British Brigade from Amboy. In the latter fight the
Americans were victorious also, and drove the enemy
through the snow all the way back to Amboy, in-
flicting on them a loss (according to British reports)
of four officers and nearly one hundred men killed and
wounded. The loss of the Americans was three killed
and twelve wounded. Encounters similar to those
above mentioned, and others of less importance, were

* Gordon, p. 233.

of frequent occurrence during the winter and spring
of 1777.

On the opening of spring, the American commander,
fi'om his position at Morristown, watched closely and
anxiously the movements of Gen. Howe's forces at
New Brunswick, for he had no doubt that the British
general was intending to make an important move-
ment, though in what direction he could not learn,
though he believed that Howe's objective-point would
be the city of Philadelphia. Early in May it was ascer-
tained by Gen. Washington that the British forces at
New Brunswick had been largely augmented, and that
they were engaged in building " a portable bridge so
constructed that it might be laid on flat-boats," in
other words, a pontoon-bridge. Regarding this as an
almost certain indication that Howe was preparing to
move forward and cross the Delaware, Washington at
once decided to move his forces to a point nearer New
Brunswick, to be within striking distance of the enemy
in case he should attempt to execute his suspected de-
sign. The point selected was the range of hills to the
northward of the village of Bound Brook, generally
mentioned as the " Heights of Middlebrook," and to
this place the army was moved from Morristown about
the 28th of May,t on which day the headquarters of the

f Detached commands ot the army had, however, been stationed at
ditferent pointB on the Millstone and Baritan Kivers prior to this,
during tlie winter and spring. Gen. Dickinson had been stationed at
Somerset Conrt-honse, as we have seen, and liad made a successful ad-
vance from that place in January against the British foraging party at
Weston. A force under Gen. Lincoln had been stationed at Bound Brook
at least as early as April. This fact is mentioned by the Rev. Dr. Mess-
ier as follows; *'Maj.-Gen. Benjamin Lincoln had his quarters at the
house yet standing at the east end of the village. It was the only house
having two stories that Bound Brook could boast. It was inhabited at
the time by Peter Williamson. Gen. Lincoln himself, when giving an
account of his retreat from this place, uses the following language:
* Being stationed at Bound Brook, on the Baritan, he had an extent of
five or six miles to guard with a force of less than five hundred men fit
for duty. On the 13th of April, 1777, owing to the negligence of his pa-
trol, he was surprised by a large parly of the enemy under Cornwallis and
Grant, who came upon him so suddenly that the general and one of his
aides had barely time to get on horseback ; the other aide was taken, as
were also a few pieces of artillery. Near this house a block -house or for-
tification had been erected commanding the crossing over Bound Brook
Creek, connected with an earthwork reaching to the banks of the river.
It stood on the ground occupied at present by the old shop which Mrs.
Giles owns. When Gen. Lincoln retreated the inhabitants all fled to the
mountain, leaving a soldier's corpse in the block-house as the only occu-
pant of the village."

Gen. Heard was also stationed on the Karitan with his brigade early in
the spring, as is shown by the following letter addressed by him to Gov-
ernor Livingston (N. J. Bevolutionary Correspondence, pp. 45, 46) :

" Headqtjaeters, Baritan, April 1st, 1777. Sib, Inclosed you have the copy of a letter I received from Col. "
Beavers, in the county of Hunterdon, by which you will see what a bad
situation the militia of that battalion are in on account of the captains
of several companies refusing to do their duty. I should be glad of your
directions how to proceed in the matter, that the men may be brought
here they being very much wanted at present, as many of the militia's
times expire this day. Likewise, should ho glad of directions to know
what is to be done with people that refuse to give up their protections, as
I have now a man under confinement that refuses to give his up. The
militia law points out no mode of what is to be done with such people.
There is a villain apprehended, with a warrant found with him to enlist
men for the British army, and now in confinement, who has informed



commander-in-chief were established at the new posi-
tion. The location of the American forces at Mid-
dlebrook is thus described :*

" We may sufficiently indicate the precise place of the encampment by saying that it was on the right of the road leading through the moun- tain-gorge in which Chimney Book is situated, just where it riaea up from the bed of the little stream and attains the level of Waahington valley. A strong earthwork waa thrown up about a quarter of a mile to the northwest, almost in the centre of the valley, as a protection to any movement approaching from Pluckamin ; and the whole of the de- file leading through the narrow mountain-valley was strongly guarded, while the brow overlooking the plain bristled with cannon. Just at the edge of the wood, east of Chimney Rock, huts were erected as quarters for the officers, and everything done which either safety or comfort de- manded in the emergency. At Bound Brook a strong redoubt was con- structed, commanding the bridge over that miry little stream, just north of the present railroad-crossing, looking to any attack to be made from the way of New Brunswick. Having taken, in this way, all possible precaution against surprise, he felt strong to abide the issue of events. The result justified his sagacity as a military tactician. ... On the apex of the Round Top, on the left of the gorge in which Chimney Rock stands, there are yet to be seen rude remains of a hut which Washington sometimes frequented during those anxious months of 1777. On the east side of the gorge, also, fronting the plain north of Middlebrook, there is a rock which has been named 'Washington Rock,' because there he often stood to gaze anxiously upon the scene it overlooks. On the moun- tain west of Plainfield, also, there is a very large rock which has received the same appellation. "

The last-named point (which is more generally
known than the other as "Washington's Eock") is on
the mountain-side, near the top, not far from and in
full sight of the railroad-station of Duaellen, in a
northeasterly direction. It is a very commanding
position, from which may be obtained an unob-
structed view of the whole valley and adjacent coun-
try for many miles. This, like the other, has received
its name from the tradition that the American gen-
eral -in-chief often visited it for purposes of observa-

The army of Washington, at the time when it
moved from Morristown to Middlebrook, was about
eight thousand four hundred strong, including cavalry
and artillery. But of these more than two thousand
were sick, and this, with other causes, reduced his ef-
fective strength to five thousand seven hundred and
thirty-eight men, rank and file. This number, how-
ever, was soon afterwards very considerably increased
by accessions from beyond the Delaware, for orders
had been issued for all troops in the field, as far
south as the Carolinas, to rendezvous in New Jersey.
When the movement to Middlebrook was made, Gen.
Sullivan, who had succeeded Gen. Putnam in com-

me there are many persons out now upon the same business, chiefly in
Sussex County. ... I should have sent after them myself, but have so
few troops now here thought proper not to spare them, but wait your

The letter from Col. Beavers referred to in the above, dated March 29,
1777, complained of certain officers of the Hunterdon battalion in this
language : " This is the second time the other fleld-ofBcers and myself
have met on the orders you have sent me, and can do nothing, as three
of the captains of this battalion refuse to act; nor have they warned a
man in their companies on either of the orders, to wit: Capt. Shenard,
Capt. Meddler, and Capt. Clioe."

* By Rev. Dr. Messier, in his History of Somerset County, p. 83.

t Hon. Ralph Voorhees, " Our Home," p. 495.

mand at Princeton, had about fifteen hundred
troops under him at that place. He subsequently
retreated to the Delaware River, but again ad-
vanced to the line of the Sourland Hills, along
the southern border of Hunterdon County, and
while in this position, waiting to co-operate with
Washington in case of an engagement, his forces
were considerably augmented by the arrival of troops
from the South, moving northward under the order
before mentioned. Gen. Benedict Arnold, command-
ing at Philadelphia, was ordered to station a force on
the New Jersey side of the Delaware, to do what
might be done to prevent the British from crossing
that river, in case they should succeed in escaping
from Washington and Sullivan.

The British army in and about New Brunswick had
been reinforced until it numbered about seventeen
thousand effective men, a force far outnumbering that
of Washington, including the corps of observation
under Sullivan. Moreover, the British force was
largely made up of veterans and was finely equipped,
while a large proportion of the American army was
composed of raw militia not well provided with
equipments and clothing. The position occupied
by Washington, however, was very strong by nature
and fortified to some extent, and his location was
such that he could at once take advantage of a move-
ment of the enemy, whether he should advance to-
wards the Delaware or retire towards the Hudson ;
for he was still in doubt as to the intention of the
British commander, whether itjiwas to move directly
on Philadelphia by land, to return his troops to Am-
boy, there to embark and proceed by sea and the Del-
aware Bay to reach the same objective-point, or to
move up the Hudson River to co-operate with Gen.
Burgoyne, who was then reported to be moving south-
ward from Canada by way of Lake Champlain.

In a little more than two weeks after Gen. Wash-
ington occupied the heights of Middlebrook the
British commander began to unmask his designs.
Leaving a force of about two thousand men under
Gen. Matthew in New Brunswick, the main body of
the British army, in two divisions, under Lord Corn-
wallis and Gen. De Heister respectively, moved out
at about midnight of the 13th of June, and marched
rapidly by two iroutes towards Middlebush and Som-
erset Court-house, which last-named place was reached
by the division of Cornwallis before sunrise in the
morning of the 14th, while De Heister, having taken
a more southerly and circuitous route, t arrived at
Middlebush at about the same time. Both divisions

t " Gen. Cornwallis, in marching with his division to Millstone, took
the Amwell road, which then came into the Princeton road but a short
distance above the Mile Run Brook near New Brunswick, which he fol-
lowed until he reached Millstone, while Gen. De Heister followed the one
running along the west bank of the Raritan for more than three miles
until he came to the Van Duyn place, where he turned to the left and
followed the road leading from thence into the Amwell road, a few yards
east of the present Middlebush church, about half a mile west of which
lie encamped with his troops." JToti. Redph Voorhea.


threw up earthworks* of considerable strength. The
object of the British general was to sever communica-
tion between Gen. Sullivan and the main body of the
American army, and, if possible, to tempt Gen.
Washington to move down from his almost impreg-
nable position and give battle to the British on ground
of their own choosing. But the American general
could not be so lured from his stronghold among the
hills. He merely advanced his forces to the south side
of the mountain, and made all preparations to fight
on that ground if he should be attacked ; but beyond
this he did not go, for the chances in a battle upon the
plain would have been too much in favor of the enemy.
At the same time, Sullivan's force lay in the neighbor-
hood of Clover Hill awaiting events and receiving
large accessions from the sources before mentioned.

The two British divisions continued to hold their
positions on the Millstone and at Middlebush for five
days, vainly defying Washington to come down and
fight them. During this time Cornwallis' men plun-
dered the inhabitants at and in the vicinity of Som-
erset Court-house, and set fire to the Presbyterian and
Dutch churches there, though the buildings were not
destroyed. A number of farm-houses were burned.

On the 19th of June, the British general having
found it impossible to entice Washington from his
stronghold in the hills, the troops of Cornwallis and
De Heister suddenly evacuated the positions they
had held during the preceding five days and moved
rapidly back to New Brunswick. " When Gen. De
Heister's army left Middlebush, tradition states that
they attempted to burn every building between that
place and New Brunswick. Some of the fires were
put out, and some buildings failed to take fire."t
Yet a very large amount of damage was done by the
retiring Hessians. Judge Voorhees, in the paper
above quoted from, gives the names of the several suf-
ferers, with their losses, as follows : Garret Voorhees,
of Middlebush, dwelling-house, six rooms, entry, and
kitchen, burned, with other property destroyed and
stolen, amounting in all to four hundred and fifty-
one pounds seventeen shillings eight pence; Peter
Eapalye, dwelling-house forty-two by thirty feet,
kitchen twenty-four by twenty-four, weave-house
fourteen by eighteen, barn forty -two by forty-eight,
burned, and other losses, aggregating three hundred
and ninety -three pounds ; John Spader, on the oppo-
site side of the Amwell road, kitchen and barn burned,
value two hundred and twenty-six pounds sixteen
shillings eight pence; Hendrick Bergen, on same
road, good frame house destroyed and other property

* " Two earthen fortifications or redoubts were tlirown up, one acroas
the Amwell road in Middlebush, a few yards west of the residence of the
present Mr. Woolsey, another, about two hundred and fifty yards south of
the first, near the railroad. Two other fortifications were erected [these
last-named by Cornwallis] on the land of the present John V. C WyckofF,
at Millstone, a few yards west of his house. They have all been leveled
by the plowshare, so that scarcely a trace of them is left." Hon. Ralph
Voorhees, in " Our Some" (1873).

t IWd., p. 495.

taken, value three hundred and seventy-one pounds
nineteen shillings three pence ; Johannes Van Liew,
near New Brunswick, house, outhouses, and barns
burned, valued at five hundred and nineteen pounds
sixteen shillings five pence. Others who sufiered
more or less severely during the stay of the Hessians
at Middlebush and on their withdrawal to New
Brunswick were John Wyckoflf, Cornelius Van Ang-
len, Peter Wyckoff, Philip Fulkerson, John Stothofi",
Abraham Van Doren, and Berdus Garretson.

Three days after Cornwallis and De Heister retired
from Hillsborough and Middlebush to New Bruns-
wick that place was evacuated (June 22d) by the
whole British army, which then commenced its retreat
towards Amboy. Anticipating this movement, Wash-
ington had made his dispositions accordingly, detach-
ing three brigades under Gen. Greene to harass their
rear, sending orders to Gen. Sullivan to move down
in all haste with his division to co-operate with
Greene, and directing Gen. Maxwell to fall on their
flank; but his plans did not succeed, for Sullivan,
having received his order at a late hour and being a
long distance away, was unable to join Greene in time
to be of service, while the orders sent to Gen. Maxwell
were not received at all by that ofiicer, the courier by
whom they were sent either having deserted or being
captured by the enemy. Morgan with his riflemen
gave the retreating troops considerable annoyance,
attacking them at sunrise on the 22d as they were
about leaving New Brunswick. Wayne came up and
joined in the attack, driving the enemy from some
redoubts on the hill west of Brunswick, after which
they crossed the Earitan and retreated rapidly, but
in good order and with great caution, to Amboy,
reaching there with very little loss, for their rear-
guard was too strong for the three brigades under
Greene to make much impression upon them. Gen.
Howe, in his report of the operations, said, in refer-
ence to the attack before referred to as having been
made by Wayne and Morgan,^

"Upon quitting the camp at Brunswick the enemy brought a few troops forward, with two or three pieces of cannon, which they fired at their utmost range without the least execution or any return from us. They also pushed some battalions into the woods to harass the rear, where Lord Cornwallis commanded, who soon dispersed them with the loss of only two men killed and thirteen wounded, the enemy having nine killed and about thirty wounded. "

The retreat of Howe's forces from New Brunswick
to Amboy is spoken of by LossingJ as a stratagem
intended only to induce Washington to withdraw his
army from its strong position in the hills at Middle-

X " Field-Book of the Revolution," vol. i. p. 331 : " Failing to draw Wash-
ington from his post by this manoeuvre [the movement of Cornwallis to
Somerset Court-house], be made a feint a few days afterwards which suc-
ceeded better. He suddenly retreated, first to New Brunswick, and then
to Amboy, and even sent some detachments over to Staten Island. Partly
deceived by these movements, and hoping to reap some advantage by
harassing the British rear, WHshington sent strong detachments after the
retreating enemy, and also advanced with his whole force to Quibbletown
(now New Market), five or six miles from Middlebrook. This was ex-
actly what Howe desired to accomplish. . . ."



trook. But Howe in his report does not support such
a belief. In reference to that part of his operations,
he says,

" On finding their [the Americans] intention to keep a position -which it would not have been prudent to attack, I determined, without loss of time, to pursue the principal objects of the campaign by withdrawing the army from Jersey, and in consequence of this determination returned to the camp at Brunswicli on the 19th, and marched from thence to Am- hoy on the 82d, intending to cross to Slaten Island, from whence the em- barkation was to take place. "

This shows that it was not his object to deceive the
American commander, but to move his army to Staten
Island for embarkation ; and it seemed evident that
Washington believed such to be the case, for soon af-
ter sending Green in pursuit and dispatching orders
to Sullivan to march down and join him he withdrew
his army from the heights of Middlebrook, and
moved it forward to Quibbletown (now New Market),
a position far weaker and more exposed than the one
which it had previously occupied.

The intelligence, that Washington had left his forti-
fied camp in the hills was brought to Gen. Howe af-
ter his troops had arrived at Amboy and part of them
had crossed to Staten Island. And then he con-
ceived the idea of making a sudden retrograde move-
ment back towards Quibbletown, hoping to surprise
Washington in his new and weaker position, to bring
on the general engagement for which he had been
manoeuvring since the 14th, and, by turning the
American left, to gain the hills of Middlebrook in
their rear. These facts are made clear by the follow-
ing extract from his report, viz. :

"The necessary preparations being finished for crossing the troops to Staten Island, intelligence was received that the enemy had moved down from the mountain [Middlebrook Heights] and taken post at Quibble- town, intending, as it was given out, to attack the rear of the army re- moving from Amboy ; thai two corps had also advanced to their left, one of three thousand men and eight pieces of cannon, under the com- mand of Lord Stirling, Gens. Maxwell and Conway, the last said to be a captain in the French service; the other corps consisted of about seven hundred men, with only one piece of cannon. In tliis situation of the enemy it was judged advisable to make a movement that might lead to an attack, which was done on the 26th, in the morning, in two columns. The right, under command of Lord Cornwallis and Maj.-Gen. Grant, Brigadiers Matthew and Leslie, and Col. Donop, took the route by Wood- bridge towards Scotch Plains; the left column, where I was, with Maj.- Gens. Sterne, Vaughan, and Grey, and Brigadiers Cleveland and Agnew marched by Metuchen Meeting-house to join the rear of the right column in the road from thence to Scotch Plains, intending to have taken sepa- rate routes, about two miles after the junction, in order to have attacked the enemy's left at Quibbletown. Tour biittalions were detached in the morning, with six pieces of cannon, to take post at Bonhamtown. The right column, having fallen in with the aforementioned corps of seven hundred men soon after passing Woodbridge, gave the alarm, by the fir- ing that ensued, to their main army at Quibbletown, which retired to the mountain with the utmost precipitation. The small corps was closely pushed by the light troops, and with diJBculty got off their piece of cannon. "

The above statement by Howe explains his retro-
grade movement and its objects pretty clearly. Hav-
ing become aware of Washington's advance, he caused
that part of the forces which had already crossed to
Staten Island to be moved back during the night of
the 25th, and early in the morning of Thursday, the
26th, marched his columns back towards New Market

in the manner stated. "But the resistance they en-
countered at every stage of their advance was dis-
heartening in the extreme. Nearly every cross-road
had its squad of pugnacious militia, which poured its
deadly volleys into the .splendid columns of the well-
equipped troops." At Woodbridge, Cornwallis fell in
with Morgan's Rangers (the American " corps of seven
hundred men, with one piece of cannon," mentioned
by Howe), and a severe skirmish ensued, in which, of
course, the Rangers were compelled to give way before
the heavy masses of the enemy. But the sound of
their fusillades was borne to the ears of Washington,
who instantly understood its meaning, and without
delay moved his main force back from Quibbletown
to its former secure position on the heights of Middle-

The British right, under Cornwallis, was soon after
engaged with the troops of Lord Stirling, which fight
was thus reported by Howe r

" Lord Cornwallis, soon after he was upon the road leading to Scotch Plains from Metuchen Meeting-house, came up with the corps com- manded by Lord Stirling, whom he found advantageously posted in a country covered with wood, and his artillery well disposed. The king's troops, vieing with each other upon this occasion, pressed forward to such close action that the enemy, though inclined to resist, could not long maintain their ground against so great impetuosity, bnt were dispereed on all sides, leaving three pieces of brass ordnance, three captains and sixty men killed, and upwards of two hundred officers and men wounded and taken. "

The latter part of this statement is without doubt
an exaggeration, as Lord Stirling, although he ad-
mitted the loss of the three guns, mentioned only a
comparatively light loss in killed, wounded, and pris-
oners. He was, however, compelled to retreat before
the heavy British force,* which pursued him over the
hills as far as Westfield.f The soldiers of both armies
were in a state of almost complete exhaustion from
the intense heat of the day, but when the British col-
umns arrived at Westfield they found that their out-
ward march was ended, for Washington had escaped
and his army was once more posted in security beyond
their reach. " Looking towards the hills, the weary
soldiers saw that Washington had made his camp
among them, having forsaken Quibbletown and all
the plain. Every movement was in view of the
American commander; for, taking his position on

* The forces encountered by Lord Stirling on this occasion were com-
posed of three regiments of Hessian grenadiers, one regiment of British
grenadiers, one British regiment of light infantry, the Hessian chassenrs,
and the Queen's Bangers. Stiriing also knew that the heavier column,
under Howe, was close in the rear and would soon reinforce Cornwallis •
in which event his (Stirling's) command must have been cut to pieces
had he attempted to hold his ground.

t ' The enemy," said Howe in his report, " was pursued as far as -West-
field with little efl-ect, the day proving so intensely hot that the soldiers
could with difflculty continue their march thither. In the mean time
It gave opportunity for those flying to escape by skulking in the thick
woods until night favored their retreat to the mouritain. The aruiy lay
that night at Westfield, returned the next day to Rahway, and the day
following to Amboy, On the 30th, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, the
troops began to cross over to Staten Island, and the rear-guard, under the
command of Lord Cornwallis, passed at two in the afternoon without the
least appearance of an enemy."



the bold bluff now so well known as ' Washington's
Rock,' he was able to distinguish any important man-
oeuvre the foe might choose to make. It was three
o'clock on Friday afternoon [June 27th] that the
English generals, seeing Washington's impregnable
position, took up their line of march from Westfield
to Amboy, assaulted flank and rear by Scott's Light-
Horse and Morgan's Rangers. They encamped that
night at Spanktown [Rahway] . The next day, har-
assed as before, they resumed their retreat and arrived
at Amboy, from which, on the last day of June, they
departed, leaving New Jersey in possession of the
American army. During the remainder of the war
the latter held Amboy, and the State was never again
BO completely overrun with marauders and British
troops, although many parties entered it for pillage
from hostile camps in adjoining States."*

When the last of the British troops had left Amboy
and crossed to Staten Island, with the evident inten-
tion of embarking on the ships of the fleet, Gen.
Washington was in great doubt, and felt no little
anxiety as to their destination, whether it was
Howe's intention to take the route by sea and the
Delaware Bay to Philadelphia, or to proceed up the
Hudson to co-operate with Burgoyne in his southward
advance down the upper valley of that river. As the
latter seemed rather the more probable, the American
army soon after evacuated its position at Middlebrook
and moved northward to Pompton Plains, where, and
at other points between there and the Hudson, it was
stationed until it was ascertained, about two weeks
later, that the British fleet, with the armyf on board,
had actually gone to sea with the apparent intention
of making a movement against Philadelphia. There-
upon the American army was again put in motion,
and proceeded by easy marchesj across the State,
through the counties of Somerset and Hunterdon, to
the Delaware River, which was reached by the heads
of his columns at three different points (Trenton,
Coryell's and Howell's Ferries) on the 28th of July.
The commander-in-chief moved with the centre col-
umn to Coryell's (Lambertville), from which place he
wrote to the president of Congress as follows :

" CJobyel's Fehrt, Jekset, July 30, 1777. « Sir, I do myself the honour to inform you that I arrived here ou the twenty-eighth, at night, with Gen. Greene's division, one brigade of which passed the river that evening, that the whole might encamp the * Daily's Woodbridge and Vicinity. t The British fleet left New Tork Bay, having on board Gen. Howe "
and thirty-six British and Hessian battalions, including light infantry
and grenadiers, with a powerful artillery, a New York corps called the
Queen's Bangers, and a regiment of light-horse. The residue of the
army was divided between New York and Rhode Island." Gordon, p.

% Washington did not move towards the Delaware by forced marches,
for he still had a suspicion that Howe's going to sea was merely a feint,
and that his real intention was to return and proceed up the Hudson, in
which case the American army would be compelled to march back again,
and, in any event, Washington knew that he had more than sufficient
time to reach Philadelphia in advance of Howe, when it should become
certain that the latter was really moving against that city.

more comraodiously. Gen. Stephen, with his own and Lincoln's division,,
also arrived a little time after at Howell's Feiry, four miles above this.

"I have' thought proper to halt the whole army at these two places and at Trenton till our knowledge of the enemy's destination becomes- more certain. If the Delaware is their object, we are now within two days' easy march of Philadelphia, and can be there in time, I trust, to make every necessary disposition for opposing them. On the other hand^ if Gen. Howe, by this expedition to sea, only means a deep feint, and should turn his attention again to the North River, we can from hence reinforce Gen. Putnam's army more expeditiously than if we were farther advanced. The importance of ray receiving the earliest intelligence of the fleet's "
arrival is apparent ; and Congress, I am certain, will direct proper meas-
ures for obtaining it, and also for transmitting it to me in the most speedy
manner. If authentic advice should be had of the fleet's coming into
Delaware at the same time that it is communicated to me, it will be
proper that an express should be sent to Lord Stirling or the command-
ing officer at Trenton, to advance with all the troops from thence.
Should this not he done, the marching of the troops there will he con-
siderably delayed.

" I have the honor to be, etc., G. W."" "

The next day he sent the following message :

" Coryel's, July 31, ten o'clock a.m. Sir, I am this mom ent honoured with yours of five o'clock this morn- "
ing, and have accordingly set the army in motion. One division had
crossed the Delaware the day before yesterday ; and I am in hopes the
whole of the troops now here will be able to reach Philadelphia to-mor-
row evening. Lord Stirling's division lies just in my rear, and will move
on with us. I propose setting off for your city as soon as I can get the
chief part of the army over.

*' I am, with the greatest respect, etc.,

G. W.?

The main body of the army struck the river at
Coryell's and Howell's Ferries, the division of Lord
Stirling forming the column which crossed at Tren-
ton. Anticipating this movement, Washington had
requested President Wharton to have accurate drafts
made of the river and its approaches. This had been
done, and boats for the passage of the army across the
stream had been collected at New Hope and points
above. Having crossed the river to the Pennsylvania
shore on the 29th and 30th at Coryell's and Howell's,
the main body of the army were put in march down
the York road in the morning of the 31st of July,
Gen. Washington starting at the same time for Phila-
delphia, where he arrived on the 2d of August. Two
or three days later he rode out from the city to Ger-
mantown, where he found the main body of the army.
At about that time information was received which
led to the belief that Howe had returned to Sandy
Hook, and upon this the army was put in motion to
retrace its steps towards Coryell's, but only reached
Hartsville, Bucks Co., Pa., when it was halted by
reason of an express having arrived with dispatches
from Congress contradicting the report of Howe's re-
turn to New York. The forces then remained en-
camped along the Neshaminy Hills for thirteen days,
when, on the morning of the 23d, on receipt of posi-
tive intelligence that the British fleet had appeared
at the head of the Chesapeake, and that the forces had
landed, or were about landing, at the head of navi-

J " Ofllcial Letters of Washington to the American Congress" (vol. ii.
pp. 123, 124), Boston, 1796. copied by special permission from the original
papers preserved in the ofBce of the Secretary of State, Philadelphia.



gation on the Elk River, tlie army was again put in
motion, and, passing through. Philadelpliia and across
the Schuylkill on the 24th, moved southward. The
movement resulted, on the 11th of September, in the
disastrous battle of the Brandywine, in which conflict
the commands of Lord Stirling and Gen. Maxwell
(containing a large number of Hunterdon and Somer-
set County men) took a prominent part.

The battle of Brandywine was followed by the ad-
journment of Congress to Lancaster, Pa., the British
occupation of Philadelphia (September 26th), and by
the battle of Germantown (October 4th), which re-
sulted in disaster to the American army, and in which,
as at Brandywine, the New Jersey troops under Stir-
ling and Maxwell fought gallantly. After that un-
fortunate battle "Washington took up a position at
Whitemarsh, from which point it was his original in-
tention to advance on Philadelphia ; but this enter-
prise was abandoned, and he soon after moved his
forces to Valley Forge, where they went into winter

Meanwhile, during the part of the year which suc-
ceeded the departure of the armies of Washington
and Howe from New Jersey, the State, though freed
from the presence of large bodies of troops, was still
the theatre of some minor military operations. AVhen
Howe embarked his army for Philadelphia he left on
Staten Island between two and three thousand men,
of whom about sixteen hundred were European troops
and nearly one thousand were loyal provincials. This
provincial force made frequent raids into New Jersey,
doing much damage, but always making a short stay,
and retreating rapidly back to the island, where they
were under the protection of the European troops.
On one of these occasions they had penetrated to
Woodbridge, and taken captive twelve persons strongly
attached to the patriot cause. On account of these
incursions, Gen. Sullivan projected an expedition to
Staten Island for the purpose of capturing this pro-
vincial force, whose camping-places were at different
points along the island shore, opposite the Jersey
coast, and so far distant from the camp of their Eu-
ropean allies that it was believed they might be taken
without alarming the foreign troops. The force de-
tailed by Sullivan, and accompanied by him in per-
son, was composed of the select troops of his division,
with a body of militia, the latter under command of
Col. Frederick Frelinghuysen. The expedition, how-
ever, m'et with quite as much of disaster as of success ;
for, having effected a crossing before daylight unper-
ceived by the enemy, it was afterwards misled by the
guides, which caused such an interference with the
preconcerted plan of attack that one entire battalion
of the enemy made its escape, and, although a num-
ber of oflBcers and men of the other commands were
taken, the alarm was given to the British regulars, a
part of whom, under Gen. Campbell, advanced to
attack Sullivan, who thereupon retreated to Kis boats,

but was compelled to leave his rear-guard as prisoners
of war in the hands of the British. According to his
report to the commander-in-chief, he brought off
eleven officers and one hundred and thirty privates
prisoners, and killed and wounded a considerable
number of the enemy ; while his own loss was stated
at three officers and ten privates killed and fifteen
wounded, and nine officers and one hundred and
twenty-seven privates taken prisoners; so that the
losses on each side appear to have been about equal.

The following letter was written by Col. Freling-
huysen* to Governor Livingston immediately after
the return of the Staten Island expedition. It is
given here, not on account of any especial mention
of that affair found in it, but because it was written
by a distinguished soldier and citizen of Somerset
County, and because it has reference to some of the
public matters of that time :

" Earitan, Aug. 25, 177T. Bear Sir, I expected yeaterday to find Tour Excellency at Morris- "
town, and am extremely sorry that Tour Excellency left the place be-
fore I arrived. I have so much to communicate, and so much to com-
plain of, that I am extremely anxious to see you, but conceive it my
duty to repair again to my station before ni^ht, which I could not
reach should I first go to Princeton. I am, besides, so much fatigued
by losing my rest for two nights past that I must necessarily choose the
shortest road.

" Ool. Middah waits upon you, and will represent to Your Excellency several things concerning which I have not time to write. In par- ticular, the colonel will acquaint you with the circumstances of the affair on Staten Island; for I suppose my letter on that subject, having been sent to Morris, is not received. The principal matter on which I am BO desirous of conversing with Your Excellency is the unhappy con- dition of our State. The Continental troops are to march towards PhilS/- delphia. The militia who have turned out are a trifling number, the enemy are encouraged and irritated. The consequences, I fear, will be fatal to that county, nay, I have reason to believe the enemy will not lay idle aftar the removal of the Coutinental troops. Is it not in Tour Excellency's power to prevail upon Gen. Sulhvan to leave one of the Jersey regiments ? If so, it is the only means, I believe, which can be used for the salvation of that county [Monmouth]. I must certainly fall a prey to the enemy with my little party if the enemy choose to come down and we attempt to drive them back, I fear much the loss of character, but I am most concerned for the poor inhabitants and their property. I am, however, determined to exert my utmost abilities for the defense of this State, and I trust I shall not be blamed for any of my future conduct by those who are unacquainted with my situation. I must inform Tour Excellency that I have four prisoners who were taken up as spies, having been with the enemy all winter, and are now making their appearance among us ; I shall send them on with the two before apprehended. Your Excellency's directions respecting such meas- ures as Col. Middah will mention I hope will he immediately forwarded, especially with reference to the procuring of ammunition. I must not forget to congratulate Tour Excellency on the great loyalty of Hunter- don County. On Saturday arrived at Blizahethtown Lieut.-Col. Houghton, with "
one private, a baggage-wagon, and two horees.f The colonel says It is
occasioned by a report having been industriously spread among the in-
habitants that Gen. Dickinson advised them by no means to go, there
being no need of any militia; that their being called upon was solely
owing to a ivhimsical notion of Gen. Hinds. Something, doubtless,
must be done immediately upon my arrival at Elizabethtowu. I shall
order Col. Houghton to return and wait upon Your Excellency. I dare

* New Jersey Rev. Correspondence, p. 94.

t The inference is that all the rest of the regiment or battalion had
deserted. Perhaps this is the incident referred to by Gen. Putnam when,
in mentioning the desertions occurring during the summer succeeding
the battle of Princeton, be said that the militia deserted in bodies, and
that in one case an entire command ran away, except one officer and a
lame man.



Ba^the account of Gen. Sullivan's conduct in the affair of Staten Island
will cause some uneasy sensations. I wish I may be wrong in my
opiuion, but I seriously believe that, upon inquiry, nothing but the
most unpardonable neglect will be found the cause of our loss. I send
by Col. M. three letters which I received last night.
'* I am Your Excellency's most obedient and most honorable servant.

" FrEDK. rRELINQHTJYSEN. *'Hi8 Excellency Gov. Livingston. "

About three weeks after the afifair at Staten Island
the disaster on the Brandywine made it necessary that
the Jersey militia, as well as the militia of other States,
should be sent to reinforce Gen. Washington's army.
The request of Congress to this effect was transmitted
by its president, John Hancock, on the 12th of Sep-
tember, to Governor Livingston, who immediately
ordered the militia forward under command of Gen.
Armstrong. The number asked for by Congress was
four thousand from New Jersey, and, although the
entire quota was not filled, all the militia companies
which were available at the time (less than a thousand
men) crossed the Delaware and joined Washington
in Pennsylvania. At the same time a column of
American troops which had been stationed at Peeks-
kill-on-the-Hudson, moving from that point, entered
and crossed the State of New Jersey, marching through
Somerset and Hunterdon Counties, and reported to
Washington about the 1st of October.

Soon after the battle of Germantown the New Jer-
sey militia were sent back to their own State, where
their presence was thought to be necessary on account
of the threatening attitude of Sir Henry Clinton, the
British commander in New York, who early in Sep-
tember had invaded the State with three thousand
men in two columns, one moving by way of Eliza-
bethtown Point and the other by Fort Lee, and unit-
ing at New Bridge, above Hackensack. He remained
in the State but a few days, but his presence and his
threatening attitude after his withdrawal created a
general alarm, which continued through the fall and
succeeding winter. In this connection the following
extract from the Minutes of the Council of Safety of
New Jersey is given, viz. :

" MONDAT, 17th Nov., 17V7. The Council met at Princeton. . . . His Excellency produced to the "
Board a letter from the Eevii M' Caldwell to Maj' Gen' Dickinson dated
the 22 October last, containing his report to Gen' Dickinson who had been
requested by the Board to inform of the most proper place to fix beacons,
and appoint alarm posts, by which it appears to this Board most expe-
dient to remove the piece of Cannon* now lying at Princeton to the
mountain that nearly divides the space between Elizabeth and Morris-
town, to be put under Guard of the Man who lives where the said Can-
non is to be fixed, and a few of his neighbors, who ought to be exempted
from Military Duty. That it would further be proper to erect a pile on
the Hill where M^ M<=Gee formerly lived, whence the Guard from the
said Mountain may see the fire or smoke, and by that means know that
the Suns fired at Elizabeth Town are intended for an alarm & upon that
signal fire the Cannon on the Mountain. The Council hereupon agreed

* Probably the cannon which Count Donop had mounted on his earth-
work at Princeton, captured by Washington on the 3d of January, and
afterwards left there by the British on their withdrawal from the place,
supposed to be the same gun which is still in existence on the college
campus in that town, having been brought back there many years after
being used as above indicated.

That M' Caldwell be desired to carry the above Plan into execution, and
to transmit to the Board an account of the expenses attending the

About the 18th of October the welcome intelligence
was received in New Jersey of the surrender of Bur-
goyne to Gen. Gates at Saratoga.f When the news
came to Gen. Washington he at once issued orders to
all outlying detachments to stop all stragglers from
making their way to the enemy, who then had pos-
session of Philadelphia. An official dispatch from
Burgoyne to Gen. Howe had come as far as Basking
Ridge, in Somerset County, where (as it was feared it
might he captured by the Americans if it proceeded
any farther in charge of the male messenger) it was
intrusted to a woman, doubtless the wife of one of
the Tories of that vicinity, who took it and pro-
ceeded on horseback towards Philadelphia ; but she
had not passed over a great part of the distance when
she was halted by Capt. Craig, of the American
army, and on taking off her bonnet (which operation
she resisted most energetically) the dispatch was dis-
covered ; but after an examination of its contents she
was remounted, the dispatch given back to her, and
she was allowed to proceed on her journey towards
Gen. Howe's headquarters, the captain bidding her
godspeed with the remark that "if she had such news
to take to the British commander, she might be off as
soon as she pleased."!

During the month of September in that year two
distinguished Tories of Pennsylvania, Messrs. Penn
and Chew, respectively the royalist Governor and
chief justice of that State, were removed thence by
the Continental authorities and placed under surveil-
lance in Hunterdon County. The dissatisfaction cre-
ated in New Jersey by this proceeding is shown by
the proceedings of the Council of Safety and by a let-
ter from the Executive, given below. The following
is from the Minutes of the council :

" Satdrdat, 4th October, 1777. Present His Excellency W"" Livingston, Mr. Condict, Mr. Scudder, "
M' Paterson, M"^ Camp, Mr. Elmer. ... It being represented to the
President & Council of Safety : That the late Gov Penn, of Pennsylvania,
and Benj'n Chew, Esq', late C. Justice of the same State, have been per-
mitted by the Hon'Ji'' Board of War to reside at or near the Umon,§ in
the C" of Hunterdon: Agreed, That a letter be written to the Honbi"
Congress, informing them of the impropriety of suffering disaffected per-

f In a letter written by William Paterson to Governor Livingston,
dated Morristown, Oct. 18, 1777, is found the following : " . . . Glorious
news I Glorious news I Gen. Burgoyne has surrendered himself and his
whole army prisoners of war to Gen. Gates. I believe this intelligence
may be depended upon ; it comes quite direct. The bearer will inform
Your Excellency more particularly." New Jersey Revolviionary Corre-
ejpondeit£e,p. 109.

X PMladelphia Bullelitt.

g " This Union was the iron-works within a few miles of the home of
Cols. Stewart and Johnston. Near the furnaces was the house occupied
by Blr. Taylor, the superintendent. He was a patriot. In this house,
which now forms a part of the residence of Lewis H. Taylor [at High
Bridge], Penn and the attorney-general. Chew, were confined six months
as prisoners of war, in charge of Mr. Taylor. Tradition reports that they
brought their servants with them, and an Indian fiddler to beguile the
hours of their captivity. Governor Penn presented Mr. Taylor with a
copy of Dalrymple's * Memoirs,' with his autograph upon the title-page.'*
MoWb Rimterdon County.



Enemy ; or if it be suffered, That the above persons be removed from
their present situation to some more secure & better affected part of the
State; and that the Executive Depart"^* of this State have the disjjosal
of them, so far as respects the place of their residence."

In conformity to this resolution of the council,
Governor Livingston wrote the President of Congress
.as follows :

" Princeton, October 4, 1777. Sir, The council a few days ago was informed, but not oflBcially so, "
"that Mr. Penu, late Grovernor, and Mr. Chew, late chief Justice, of Penn- sylvania, with some others, had been removed to the Union, in the county of Hunterdon, by oi'der of the Hon. Board of War. We are extremely sorry that persons of their political caste and rank in life should have been sent into this State, which is nearly encircled by the enemy, to say nothing of our domestic foes. Wherever the enemy go, thej' never fail to make friends and abettors, or at least to call up such into active life in their favor as during their absence remained in a sort of inactivity. We have suffered extremely from persons under parole. A course of experi- ence has fully convinced us that they have always tinctured the neigh- borhood in which they have been fixed with Toryism and disaffection. There is hardly a county in this State which is not at present exposed to the incursions of the enemy; and therefore we submit it, whether it be proper to send any suspected persons into it. They have an impercepti- ble and baleful influence even upon the well 'affected. We request, therefore, that the above gentlemen may be removed into some other State as soon as possible. Of all Jersey, the spot in which they are at present is the very spot in which they ought not to be.* It has always been considerably disaffected, and still continues so not- withstanding all our efforts, owing, we imagine, in part, to the inter- ests, connections, and influence of Mr. John Allen, brother-in-law of Mr. Penn, who is now with the enemy. Of this the Board of War must have been entirely ignorant, otherwise they would not have made such an order of removal. And we are willing to ascribe it to the hurry and multiplicity of their business that either the honorable the Congress or the Board of War should have selected any part of New Jersej' as a prison for malcontents without first notifying the same to the executive power of the State. Nor can we persuade oui-selves that they will have Any objection against our removing the before-mentioned prisoners out of thi^ State to such other parts of the country as Congress may think most fit for their Safety; or, if they must remain in this State, to leave it to our direction in what particular locality they are likely to do the least mischief.f *' I am your ob't and hum. ser't Will : Livingston. "
" His Excellency John Hancock, Preset of Congress."" "

The request of the Council of Safety and the Gov-
ernor was acceded to, and it was ordered to remove
Penn and Chew from Hunterdon County to the State
of Massachusetts. Following are given extracts from
the Minutes of the Council of Safety having reference
to their removal :

" MoNDiT, 24th November, 1777. The Council met at Princeton. . . . Agreed That the officer who is to "
conduct John Penn & Benjamin Chew to Wooster [Worcester, Mass.] be
directed to purchase in some of the New England States, for the use of
this State, 20,000 Flints."

* The Governor's letter and the resolution of the council, above quoted,
imply that Toryism was more rampant in Hunterdon than in other por-
tions of the State. But it is proper to remark that, while it is undoubt-
edly true that there existed among the inhabitants of Hunterdon more
disaffection than was found among those of any other county (with per-
haps the exception of Monmouth), yet there were among its people a very
great number who maintained sentiments of the most unadulterated and
exalted patriotism throughout the entire Revolutionary sti-uggle, and
that it was excelled by no county in New Jersey in the number and gal-
lantry of the troops which it sent to the flold.

fN. J. Eev. Corr., pp. 101, 102.

" Wednesday, 26th Nov. The Council met at Princeton. . . . Agreed : That there be ad- "
vanced to Col Chamberlain for purchasing 20,000 Flints in New England,
and for defraying his expenses to Wooster in the Massachusetts Bay,
whither be is to conduct Mesr^ Penn & Cliew, the sum of £200."

That Col. Chamberlain made purchase of the flints
as directed is shown by the following extract from the
Minutes of the council, viz. :

" March 17, 1778. The Council met at Trenton. . . . Agreed that Co^ Hathaway receive "
from Mr Ogden at Boontown the 20,000 flints sent or to be sent into this
State by M^ Archibald Mercer from Boston (first paying to Ogden at
Boontown for the cartage), & to be accountable for them when properly
called upon."

During the fall and winter of 1777 the Council of
Safety held two sessions at different places in what is
now the county of Hunterdon, viz., at Pittstown,
where it convened on the 16th of October and re-
mained in session from day to day until the 24th,
guarded by a detachment of soldiers under Lieut.
Henry Young,J and at Ringo's from the 26th of De-
cember to the 1st of January, 1778, when it adjourned
to meet at Springfield.

"When the news of the surrender of Burgoyne with his entire army reached Paris, on the 4th of December, 1777, and was at once transmitted to Versailles, the king informed the American commissioners, through M. Gerard, one of his secretaries of state, that the in- dependence of the United States would be acknowl- edged by France, and that the treaty of alliance and commerce between the two countries would be concluded. In accordance with the assurance given by the monarch, that treaty was finally ratified on the 6th of February, 1778, but it was not until the 1st of the following May that the glad intelligence reached Gen. Washington in his squalid winter quarters at Valley Forge. On the 7th of that month it was offi- cially announced in general orders by the commander- in-chief to the army amid great rejoicings, which were followed by religious observances in the sev-eral commands. Washington, with his lady and suite, "
Lord Stirling and his lady, with other general officers
and ladies, attended the religious services of the
Jersey brigade [Maxwell's], when the Rev. Mr.
Hunter delivered a discourse. Afterwards all the
officers of the army assembled and partook of a col-
lation provided by the commander-in-chief. When
he took his leave there was universal huzzaing :
'Long live General Washington P The huzzas con-
tinued until the general had proceeded a quarter of a
mile, and a thousand hats were tossed in the air.
Washington with his retinue turned round and huz-
zaed several times."^ This event marked the coming
of almost the first ray of hope which pierced the
gloom of Valley Forge, and it was not long after-
wards that the campaign commenced which ended in
glory and victory on the field of Monmouth.

X Minutes of the Council, pp. 147-251 § Lossing, vol. ii. p. 346.



On the 11th of May, Sir Henry Clinton took com-
mand of the British army in Philadelphia as successor
of Gen. Howe. His instructions from England were
to evacuate Philadelphia, and this he determined
on doing on the 23d of May,* it being his in-
tention to proceed with the troops by water to New
York. But, as he considered the probability that the
fleet might be delayed by head-winds, thus enabling
Washington to reach New York before him, he
changed his plan, and decided to move his army to
that city by land across the State of New Jersey. In
pursuance of that plan he evacuated Philadelphia be-
fore daylight in the morning of the 18th of June, and
by ten o'clock in the forenoon his entire army had
crossed the Delaware and landed at Gloucester Point.
In the evening of the same day his forces encamped
at and near Haddonfield, on the south side of Cooper's
Creek, five miles southeast of Camden. From that
place they moved on the following morning, march-
ing up the Delaware, and nearly parallel with it.
They moved in three divisions, one by way of Mount
Holly, one through Columbus, and one by Borden-
town. This last division, when near the mouth of
Crosswick's Creek, was attacked by three regiments
of New Jersey militia, under Col. Frederick Freling-
huysen, Col. Van Dyke, and Col. Webster. It was
but a skirmish, resulting in a loss to the British of
four killed and a greater number wounded. They
then moved to Crosswick's, where they were again
attacked by the militia while they were attempting to
repair the bridge over the stream. This they finally
succeeded in doing, and moved on towards Allentown.
Maxwell's Jersey brigade had been detached from the
main body of the American army, and was now co-
operating with the forces of Gen. Philemon Dickin-
son to obstruct and harass the British columns as
much as possible, but they were too weak to interfere
with their march otherwise than by destroying bridges
and obstructing roads before them. Clinton did not
attempt to move rapidly, but seemed rather to invite
an attack. On the 24th of June his column reached

Washington had suspected the design of the Brit-
ish commander, to move his forces by land to New
York, but it was not until Clinton's army was safely
across the Delaware that he became certain that such
would be the movement. As soon as positive intel-
ligence of the evacuation reached him he sent Arnold
with a small force to occupy Philadelphia, and in the
afternoon of the 18th (the same day on which the
British crossed into New Jersey), six brigades, com-
prising the divisions of Greene and Wayne, forming
a corps which was under command of Ge n. Lee,t moved

* Egle'B " History of the Commonwealth of PennsylTaoia" says (p.
185) the council of war waB held on the 24th.

t Gen Charles Lee, who was captured, as already noticed, at Basking
Eidge, in December, 1776, hy the British under Col. Harcourt, was ex-
changed in May, 1778. for Gen. Prescott. He joined the army at Valley
rorge, and was reinstated in his old position sa second in command
nnder Washington.

towards the Delaware in pursuit. Passing through
Doylestown, Lee reached the river at Coryell's Ferry,
and crossed into New Jersey at that point in the night
of the 20th. On the same night Washington, who
followed with the remainder of the forces, encamped
at Doylestown, and, resuming the march on the fol-
lowing day, crossed at Coryell's on the 22d.t From
Coryell's the army moved over the highlands to Hope-
well, where Washington remained during the 23d.
At that point he detached six hundred riflemen, under
Morgan, to annoy the right flank of the enemy, while
Maxwell and Dickinson were engaged in the same
duty on his left. Lee's column had moved by a more
southern route, by way of Pennington, and thence to
Princeton. Washington's column, moving from Hope-
well, also passed Princeton, and the entire forces con-
centrated at Kingston. It had been the intention of
the British general to move to the Earitan and embark
his troops at New Brunswick or Amboy, but when he
found Washington almost in his front at Kingston, he
turned to the right, taking the road leading to Free-
hold and Sandy Hook.

Of the battle and victory of Monmouth, which re-
sulted from the movements above mentioned, it is not
intended to give a detailed description, for it is a mat-
ter of general history, and as such well known to all
readers. On the morning of June 28th the British
army, under Clinton, occupied a strong position near
Monmouth Court-house, and Gen. Washington was
approaching it. When within some six miles of Clin-
ton he learned that the latter had abandoned his po-
sition and was moving towards the coast. On re-
ceipt of this intelligence he ordered the army to
move on with rapidity, and sent directions to Lee, who
had the advance with about five thousand men, to use
all possible speed to come up with the enemy, and
on doing so to attack him "unless there are very
powerful reasons to the contrary," assuring him, at
the same time, that the main body would come up
as rapidly as possible to his support. Washington
then pressed on with the rear division of the army,
but after marching some five miles learned, to his
surprise and alarm, that Lee, having only delivered
a single volley into the ranks of the enemy, was al-
ready retreating with precipitation directly on the
rear division, thereby causing imminent danger of a
general panic among the forces. Putting spurs to his
horse, the general-in-chief hastened towards the scene
of disorder, and, meeting Lee, he sternly and severely

X Washington wrote to the American Congress as follows :

" Headquarters near Coryel's, June 22, 1778. Sir, I have the honour to inform you that I am now in Jersey, and "
that the troops are passing the river at Coryel's, and are mostly over. . . .
As soon as we have cleaned the arms and can get matters in train, we pro-
pose moving towards Princeton, in order to avail ourselves of any favor-
able occasions that may present themselves of attacking or annoying the

" I have the honour to be, etc., G. W."" "



reprimanded him* for his shameful conduct and or-
dered him instantly to turn back. He then dashed
among the flying troops and succeeded in rallying
them, and induced them to re-form and face the en-
emy. This occurred between twelve and one o'clock
in the day, and it was the turning-point in the con-
flict. Other troops soon came up ; Greene and Stir-
ling and "Mad Anthony" Wayne interposed their
divisions and became fiercely engaged; and during
the remaining hours of that hot and sultry Sabbath
afternoon the battle raged at intervals with great fury
and with varying success, but in general favoring the
Americans, until darkness closed over Monmouth
Plain and ended the strife. The wearied soldiers of
Washington and Clinton rested on their arms, appa-
rently waiting for the light of a new day to recom-
mence the struggle. But at about midnight the Brit-
ish columns moved away in the darkness, so silently
that their flight was not detected by the Americans
until hours afterwards. " With silent steps column
after column left the camp and hurried towards Sandy
Hook. So secret was the movement, and so deep the
sleep of the patriots, that the troops of Gen. Poor,
lying close by the enemy, were ignorant of their de-
parture until at dawn they saw the deserted camp of
the enemy. They had been gone more than three
hours. Washington, considering the distance they
had gained, the fatigue of his men, the extreme heat
of the weather, and the deep sandy country, with but
little water, deemed pursuit fruitless, and Sir Henry
Clinton escaped. . . . The British army reached
Sandy Hook on the 30th, where Lord Howe's fleet,
having come round from the Delaware, was in readi-
ness to convey them to New York."t

The battle of Monmouth was one of the most se-
verely contested of the conflicts of the Revolution, and
in its result has always been regarded as a victoryt
for the American arms. This view is sustained by the
fact that the British army stole away in the darkness.

* Lee answered Washington in a defiant manner, and after the battle
used very disrespectful language to him in two letters (dated June 29th
and 30th). For this disrespect to the commander-in-chief, aa also on two
other charges, viz., " Disobedience of orders in not attacking the enemy
on -the 28th of June, agreeably to repeated instructions," and " Misbe-
havior before the enemy on the same day, by making an unnecessary,
disorderly, and shameful retreat," he was tried by a court-martial con-
vened on the 4th of July at New Brunswick. It consisted of Maj.-Gen.
Lord Stirling (who was the president), four brigadiers, and eight colonels.
On the 8th of August their decision was rendered, finding him guilty on
all the charges, and sentencing him to be suspended from any and all
command in any of the armies of the United States for the terra of
twelve months. This finding was approved by Congress, and thereupon
Gen. Lee left the army and removed to Philadelphia, where he died four
years afterwards, never being again called into service.

f LoBsing.

X That Washington so regarded it is shown by the following extract
from his general order dated at Freehold on the morning after the
battle : " The commander-in-chief congratulates the army on the victory
obtained over the arms of His Britannic Majesty, and thanks most
sincerely the gallant ofScers and men who distinguished themselves
upon this occasion, and such others as, by their good order and coolness,
gave the happiest presage of what might have been expected had they
come to action."

leaving Washington master of the field. Lossing
remarks? that the result might have been a complete
defeat for the British, and probably a surrender of
their army, if Washington had brought into the battle
the corps of riflemen under the redoubtable Morgan.
" For hours the latter was at Richmond Mills, three miles below Monmouth, awaiting orders, in an agony of desire to engage in the battle, for he was within sound of its fearful tumult. To and fro he strode, uncertain what course to pursue, and, like a hound iu the leash, panting to be away to action. ... It appears probable that had he fallen on the British rear with his fresh troops at the close of the day, Sir Henry Clinton and his army might have shared the fate of the British at Saratoga. "

The New Jersey troops in the commands of Lord
Stirling and Gens. Dickinson and Maxwell (in which
were found nearly all the soldiers from Somerset and
Hunterdon Counties) behaved most gallantly at Mon-
mouth. Dickinson (who was in command of the Jer-
sey militia, including the battalion of Col. Freling-
huysen) displayed the greatest bravery. He and the
troops under him were commended by Gen. Wash-
ington in his general order, of the day after the battle,
in these words :

"Gen. Dickinson and the militia of this State are also thanked for their nobleness in opposing the enemy on their march from Phila- delphia, and for the aid which they have given in embarra.ssing and impeding their motions so as to allow the Continental troops to come up with them. "

Maxwell commanded the Jersey Brigade of Conti-
nentals, which behaved with great gallantry during
the battle, and performed excellent service in annoy-
ing the enemy in his retreat to Sandy Hook, this bri-
gade, with Morgan's corps of riflemen, being sent for-
ward on this last-named duty on the morning of the
29th when the enemy's absence was discovered.

The departure of Clinton's army from Sandy Hook
left New Jersey free from the presence of armed ene-
mies upon her soil, and the militiamen of the State
were then allowed to return to their homes, to re-
main until some other exigency should require them
to be again called to the field. The army of Wash-
ington was moved from Monmouth to and across the
Hudson River, and took position in Westchester Co.,
N. Y., awaiting developments as to the intentions of
the British commander, who was quartered in New
York City. The headquarters of Washington were at
White Plains, from which point he narrowly watched
Gen. Clinton, suspecting it to be the design of the
latter to move into the New England States. " Sir
Henry gave currency to the reports that such were his
intentions until Washington moved his headquarters
to Fredericksburg, near the Connecticut line, and
turned his attention decidedly to the protection of the
eastern coast. Clinton then sent foraging-parties into-

I " Field-Book of the Eevolution," vol. ii. p. 364.



New Jersey, and ravaged the whole country from the
Hudson to the Raritan and heyond."*

Finally, being convinced that the enemy had no
designs on New England, Washington resolved to
place his army in winter quarters at different points
and in the most advantageous positions. This was done
in December, 1778. The dispositions were made as
follows : Five brigades were cantoned on the east side
of the Hudson ; one brigade at West Point ; one at
Smith's Cove, near Haverstraw; one at Elizabeth-
town ; and seven brigades at and in the vicinity of
Middlebrook, Somerset Co. ; the reserve artillery was
quartered at Pluckamin. What has usually been
termed the " camp at Middlebrook" was composed of
three distinct cantonments. On the south side of the
Raritan River, west of the Millstone road, and south
of the residence of the late John Garretson, was
located the encampment of the First, Second, and
Seventeenth Regiments of Pennsylvania troops, form-
ing the division of Gen. Anthony Wayne. A smaller
cantonment was established along the hillside east of
the gorge in which Chimney Rock stands. It is not
clear as to who were the occupants of this encamp-
ment. One account states that they were nearly or
quite all officers of the several brigades, but this is
improbable. The largest body of troops, in which
was included the division of Gen. Greene, occupied a
camping-ground on the northeast slope of Mount
Pleasant, on lands of Derick Van Veghten, between
Chimney Rock and the site of the present village of
Somerville. The ground on which the encampment
was located was then covered with a very heavy
growth of timber, which is probably the reason why
it was selected, for the forest would furnish fire-wood
and logs for the erection of huts for the soldiers, while
such part of it as was not felled for these purposes
would form a very desirable protection against the
winter winds.

For nearly two months after the arrival of the army
at this place the soldiers had only tents to shelter
them, but they were soon set at work building cabins,
which does not appear to have been accomplished by
them with as much rapidity as similar work was
done by the armies in the recent war of the Rebellion,
for it was not until February that they were completed
and occupied, as appears by the following extract
from Thatcher's " Military Journal," viz. :

" Fehrwiry [1779.] Having continued to live under cover of canvas tentB most of the winter, we have suffered severely from exposure to cold and storms. Our soldiers have been employed six or eight weeks in constructing log huts, which at length are completed ; and both offi- cers and soldiers are now under comfortable covering for the remainder of the winter. Log houses are constructed with the trunks of trees cut into various lengths, according to the size intended, and are firmly con- nected by notches cut at their extremities in the manner of dovetailing. The vacancies between the logs are filled in with plastering consisting of mud and clay. The roof is formed of similar pieces of timber and covered with hewn slabs. The chimney, situated at one end of the house, is made of similar but smaller timbers, and both the inner and outer sides are covered with clay plaster to defend the wood against the * Lossing. fire. The door and windows are formed by sawing away a part of the logs of a proper size, and move on wooden hinges. In this manner have our soldiers without nails, and almost without tools except the axe and saw, provided for theij- oflQcers and for themselves convenient and com- fortable quarters with little or no expense to the public. The huts are arranged in straight lines, forming a regular, uniform, compact village. The officers' huts are situated in front of the line, according to their rank, the kitchens in the rear, and the whole is similar in form to a tent encampment. The ground, for a considerable distance, in front of the soldiers' line of huts is cleared of wood, stumps, and rubbish, and is every morning swept clean for the purpose of a parade-ground and roll- call of the respective regiments. The officers' huts are in general di- vided into two apartments, and are occupied by three or four ofiBcere, who compose one mess. Those for the soldiers have but one room, and contain ten or twelve men, with their cabins placed one above the other against the walls and filled with straw, and one blanket for each man. I now occupy a hut with our field-ofl&cers. Col. Gibson, Lieut.-Col. Brent, and Maj. Meriweatber. "

In Washington Valley, says Dr. Messier, "just
east of the road as it rises up from the gorge below to
the level of the surrounding country, artillery was
placed, and a fort erected a few hundred yards to the
northwest, to defend their position from any attack
by way of the opening of the valley at Pluckamin.
The remains of this earthwork are still visible in some
degree. There was also along the old Raritan road,
east of the road which crosses the old bridge over the
Raritan River, a number of mechanic-shops, where
repairing of ambulances, shoeing of horses, and such
other operations as are necessary in connection with
an army and a military encampment were done.
These shops, as well as the camp-ground on Mount
Pleasant, were on the land of Derick Van Veghten,
and of course he suffered more damage in his property
than any other individual in the vicinity. His wood-
land was cut down for building the huts ; it was used
for fuel, and for any other objects connected with the
comfort of the troops ; but he bore the damage like a
patriot. That he ever received any compensation is
nowhere affirmed in any document, or even in any
traditions coming down to us from the remembrances
of these times. . . . The old Abraham Staats house,
just below Bound Brook, on the east side of the turn-
pike and near the river, in which Baron Steuben had
his winter quarters in 1778-79, stands yet in a com-
fortable state of preservation. Here that noble Prus-
sian, whose love of liberty induced him to give the
aid of his personal influence to our almost fainting
cause, slept and thought and planned during those
long winter nights when hope had hardly yet dawned
upon the struggling efforts for American liberty."

During the time that the army remained at Middle-
brook, Gen. Washington and his lady occupied apart-
ments which had been especially fitted up for their
use in the then unfinished house of Caleb Miller,
which is still standing and in good repair in the west
part of the village of Somerville, near the place where
the railroad crosses the road leading to Raritan vil-
lage. The room occupied at that time by the com-
mander-in-chief now remains in precisely the same
condition in which it was when he left it. It was from
this house that all his orders and dispatches dated



Headquarters, Middlebrook were issued during the
winter and spring of 1778-79, and it was also in this
house that he conceived and matured the plans for
the expedition which, under command of Gen. Sulli-
van, moved from Easton, Pa., by way of Tioga Point,
into the country of the Six Nations in 1779, and in-
flicted summary punishment on those tribes for their
share in the atrocities of Wyoming and Cherry Valley.
One of the orders issued by the commander-in-chief
from these headquarters, and bearing date Feb. 6,
1779, was as follows :

"The commander-in-chief approves the order issued by Major-Gen. Lord Stirling* during his command at the camp, and thanks him for the endeavor to preserve order and discipline, and the property of the farm- ers in the vicinity of the camp. He douhts not but the officers of every rank, from a just sense of the importance of securing to others the bless- ings they themselves are contending for, will use their utmost vigilance to maintain those privileges and prevent abuses, and nothing can redound more to their personal honor and the reputation of their respective corps. Alexander Scammil, "

But neither general orders nor the efforts of the
officers proved effectual in preventing the depreda-
tions of the soldiery on the inhabitants, until finally
the sternest repressive measures became necessary,
and were adopted, as is shown by the following ex-
tract from Thatcher's " Military Journal," it being an
account of a military execution which took place
within the lines at this place for the crimes indicated,
viz. :

"AprU 20^^ [1779]. Five soldiers were conducted to the gallows, ac- cording to their sentence, for the crimes of desertion and robbing the inhabitants. A detachment of troops and a concourse of people formed a circle around the gallows, and the criminals were brought in a cart sit- ting on their coffins and halteiB about their necks. While in this awful situation, trembling on the verge of eternity, three of them received a pardon from the commander-in-chief, who is always tenderly disposed to spare the lives of his soldiers. They acknowledged the justice of their sentence and expressed their warmest thankfulness and gratitude for their merciful pardon. The two others were obliged to submit to their fate. One of them was accompanied to the fatal spot by an affectionate brother, which rendered the scene uncommonly distressing and forced tears of compassion from the eyes of numerous spectators. They repeatedly em- braced and kissed each other with all the fervor of brotherly love, and would not be separated until the executioner was obliged to perform bis duty; when, with a flood of tears and mournful lamentations, they bade each other an eternal adieu, the criminal trembling under the horrors of an untimely and disgraceful death, and the brother overwhelmed with sorrow and anguish for one whom he held most dear. "

The camp of the artillery brigade was located, as
has been already mentioned, at Pluckamin, which was
also the headquarters of Gen. Knox ; and there, on
the 18th of February, was given, under the auspices
of that general and his subordinate officers of the ar-
tillery, a grand ball and supper, in celebration of the
first anniversary of the signi,ng of the treaty of alli-
ance between France and the United States. The
affair, which appears to have been a brilliant one, was

* Having reference to an order which had been previously issued by
Lord Stirling directing that strict attention be paid to a certain resolution
of Congress : " That all officers in the army of the United States be hereby
strictly enjoined to see that the good and wholesome rules provided for
the discontinuance of prolaneness and vice and the preservation uf morals
among the soldiers are duly and punctually observed."

thus noticed in one of the public journals of the
time :

" The anniversary of our alliance with France was celebrated on the 18th ultimo at Pluckamin at a very elegant entertainment and display of fireworks given by Gen. Knox and the officers of the corps of artil- lery. It was postponed to this late dayt on account of the commander- in-chief being absent from the camp. Gen. Washington, the principal officers of the army, with Mrs. Washington, Mrs. Greene, Mrs. Knox, and the ladies and gentlemen of a large circuit round the camp, were of the company. Besides these, there was a vast concourse of spectators from every part of the Jerseys. The barracks of the artillery are at a small distance from Pluckamin, "
on a piece of rising ground, which shows them to great advantage. The
entertainment and ball were held at the academyj of the park. About
four o'clock in the afteruoon the celebration of the alliance was announced
by the discharge of thirteen cannon, when the company assembled to a
very elegant dinner. The room was spacious and the tables were prettily
disposed, both as to prospect and convenience. The festivity was uni-
versal and the toasts descriptive of the happy event which had given
certainty to our liberties, empire, and independence. In the evening was
exhibited a very fine set of fireworks, conducted by Col. Stevens, ar-
ranged on the point of a temple one hundred feet in length and propor-
tionately high. The temple showed thirteen arches, each displaying an
illuminated painting. The centre arch was ornamented with a pediment
larger than the others, and the whole edifice supported by a colonnade
of the Corinthian order. [Here follows a description of the thirteen
illuminated paintings, with their accompanying mottoes.]

" When the fireworks were finished, the company returned to the academy and concluded the celebration by a very splendid ball. The whole was conducted in a style and manner that reflects great honor on the task of the managers. "

Thus, with something of festivity, but far more of
privation, if not of actual suffering, the officers and
men of the patriot army passed about six months of
winter and spring in their encampments near Middle-
brook and Pluckamin. That they remained there
until June, 1779, is shown by a letter^ written by Gen.
Washington to Governor Livingston, dated in that
month (but without day), at "Headquarters, Middle-
brook." The army, however, left its winter quarters
about the first of that month, and reached the Hudson
on the 7th. II Gen. Wayne moved from his encamp-
ment, south of the Earitan, to the Hudson, where, on
the 15th of July, he stormed and captured the British
fortifications at Stony Point. " From this time," says
Dr. Messier, " Somerset County ceased to be the rest-
ing-place of armies fighting in the cause of liberty ;
and the foot of a British soldier trod it no more except
in one hasty visit (Col. Simcoe's raid in 1779), which
is to be related." The succeeding operations of the
American army during that year were carried on along
the Hudson Eiver above New York.

f The treaty of alliance was concluded on the 6th of February, 1778,
which was of course the day on which the anniversary celebration would
have taken place but for the absence of the commander-in-chief.

t " The exact locality of the ' academy' tradition fixes on the east side
of the village street, a short distance north of the late Boylan residence,
and the edge of the wood on the farm of the late Dr. Henry Vander-
veer," Dr. Measler. i

§ N. J. Kev. Corr., p. 172,

II " As soon as Washington was advised of this movement (the passage
of the British fleet up the Hudson for the supposed purpose of attacking
the forts in the Highlands), he drew his troops from their cantonments
in New Jersey, and by rapid marches reached the Clove on the 7th, with
five brigades and two Carolina regiments. He pressed forward to Smith's
Clove, whence tliere were moonlaiii-passes to the forts in the Higlilanda,
and there he encamped." Lossmy'a Field-Book, vol. ii. p. 212.



In the latter part of October, 1779, a party of British
troops made a foray into Somerset County, penetrating
as far as Millstone, doing a considerable amount of
damage, and partially accomplishing the object for
which they came. This expedition is usually men-
tioned as " Simcoe's raid," because the exploit was
performed by a force of men under command of Lieut.-
Col. Simcoe, of the British army. The account of it
given below is drawn partly from Simcoe's own report,
and partly from a narrative of the aifair written by
the late Hon. Ralph Voorhees.

The force under command of Col. Simcoe on this
expedition consisted of men belonging to a somewhat
celebrated corps known as the " Queen's Rangers,"
which was mostly made up of native Americans,
Tories, enlisted into the corps in Westchester Co.,
N. Y., and in neighboring portions of Connecticut.
Col. Simcoe had assumed command of this body in
1777, and afterwards brought it up to a condition of
excellent discipline and great efficiency. The strength
of the force detailed from the " Rangers" for this par-
ticular service was about eighty men, who, embarking
at Billop's Point in the night of the 25th of October,
were landed at Elizabethtown Point at about three
o'clock in the morning of the 26th, when, the column
having formed and moved out a short distance on the
road, Simcoe announced to his officers the object of
the expedition, which was to proceed swiftly to Van
Veghten's bridge over the Raritan (near the present
railway-station of Finderne), there to destroy a
number of flat-boats which Washington had left in the
river at that point,* and, having done this, to cross
the river and proceed to Millstone, take the Amwell
road, and follow it till they came to a house at a corner
of a road diverging from it to the south and leading
into the Princeton road running from that place to
New Brunswick. Their object was thus to make a
circuit around New Brunswick, so as to avoid contact
with any American troops that might be stationed in
the vicinity of that town; but after passing New
Brunswick, and having arrived at the heights on
which stood the " Grenadier Redoubt" (which had
been built by the British during their occupancy of
the place in 1776 and 1777), they were "to discover
themselves" to the American militia for the purpose
of inducing the latter to follow them, in which case
they were to retreat to South River Bridge, which they
were not to destroy or to cross, but to form an ambush
near its western approach (in which they were to be
supported by a body of British infantry which had
been ordered to that place, under command of Maj.
Armstrong), for the purpose of entrapping and, if
possible, capturing their American pursuers. This,
in brief, was the general plan of the expedition.

* Fifty boats had been built, by Waahington's orders, on the Delaware,
and hauled across the country on wheels to Van Veghten's bridge on the
Baritan. They were intended to be used for crossing to New Tork, and
were capable of carrying seventy men each. About one-third of tbem
now remained at the bridge.

Setting out from Elizabethtown, the raiders pro-
ceeded to Quibbletown (afterwards known as New
Market) without any notable incident except the cap-
ture of a prisoner. " Capt. Sanford's men formed the
advance-guard, the hussars followed, andStewart'sraen
were in the rear, making, in the whole, about eighty.
A Justice Crow was soon overtaken ; Lieut.-Col.
Simcoe accosted him roughly, called him ' Tory,' nor
seemed to believe his excuse when, in the American
idiom for courtship, he said ' he had only been a-spark-
ing,' but sent him to the rear-guard, who, being
Americana, easily comprehended their instructions
and kept up the justice's belief that the party was a
detachment from Washington's army. Many planta-
tions were now passed by, the inhabitants of which
were up, and whom the party accosted with friendly
salutations. At Quibbletown, Lieut.-Col. Simcoe
had just quitted the advance-guard to speak to Lieut.
Stewart,! when, from a public-house on the turn of
the road, some people came out with knapsacks on
their shoulders, bearing the appearance of a rebel
guard. Capt. Sanford did not see them till he had
passed by, when, checking his horse to give notice,
the hussars were reduced to a momentary halt oppo-
site the house. Perceiving the supposed guard, they
threw themselves off their horses, sword in hand, and
entered the house. Lieut.-Col. Simcoe instantly made
them remount, but they failed to discover some thou-
sand pounds of paper money which had been taken
from a passenger, the master of a privateer, nor could
he stay to search for it. He told the man ' that he
would be answerable to give him his money that
night at Brunswick, where he should quarter,' ex-
claimed aloud to his party, ' that these were not the
Tories they were in search of, although they had
knapsacks,' and told the country people who were as-
sembling around ' that a party of Tories had made
their escape from Sullivan's army, and were trying to
get into Staten Island, as HiS (who had been defeated
near this very spot, taken, and executed) had formerly
done, and that he was sent to intercept them.' The
sight of Justice Crow would probably have aided in
deceiving the inhabitants ; but, unfortunately, a man
personally knew Lieut.-Col. Simcoe, and an express
was sent to Governor Livingston, then at Brunswick,
as soon as the party marched.

" The party was now conducted by a country lad whom they fell in with, and to whom Capt. Sanford (being dressed in red and without his cloak) had been introduced as a French officer. He gave information that the greater part of the boats had been sent on to Washington's camp, but that eighteen were at Van Vacter's [Van Veghten's] bridge, and that their horses were at a farm about a mile from it. He led the party to an old camp of Washington's, above t Lient. Stewart was a native of Somerset County, a partisan royalist, "
and extensively known as ' Tory Jim.' If he had been recognized any-
where about Bound Brook or Earitan, it would not have been well for
him." Dr. Messier.



Bound Brook* Lieut.-Col. Simcoe's instructions
were to burn these huts, if possible, in order to give
as wide an alarm to the Jerseys as he could. He
found it impracticable to do so, they not being joined
in ranges, nor built of very combustible materials.
He proceeded without delay to Bound Brook, whence
he intended to carry off Col. Moyland ; but he was
not at Mr. Van Horn's.f Two officers who had been
ill were there; their paroles were taken, and they
ordered to mark ' sick quarters' over the room-door
they inhabited, which was done ; and Mr. Van Horn
was informed that the party was the advance-guard
of the left column of the army which was commanded
by Gen. Birch, who meant to quarter that night at his
house, and that Sir Henry Clinton was in full march
for Morristown with the army."

From Bound Brook the raiders proceeded rapidly
to Van Veghten's bridge, where " Lieut.-Col. Simcoe
found eighteen new flat-boats upon carriages; they
were full of water. He was determined efiectually to
destroy them. Combustibles had been applied for,
and he received in consequence a few port-fires ;
every hussar had a hand-grenade, and several hatchets
were brought with the party. The timbers of the
boats were cut through, they were filled with straw
and railing, and, some grenades being fastened in
them, they were set on fire. Forty minutes were em-
ployed in this business. The country began to as-
semble in their rear, and, as Lieut.-Col. Simcoe went
to the ' Dutch meeting,' where the harness and some
stores were reported to be, a rifle-shot was fired at
him from the opposite bank of the river." The dis-
patch which had been sent to Governor Livingston at
New Brunswick had had the desired efiect. The
Governor had sent out express-riders to alarm the
country, and the people were preparing to give the
marauders a warm reception.

The " Dutch meeting" mentioned in Simcoe's nar-
rative was the old edifice of the church of Raritan,
built in 1721. It stood on the north side of the river,
about six hundred yards below the bridge. This
church-building they burned, together with a few
military stores which it contained. They then re-
turned, crossed the bridge, went to Millstone, and
there burned the Somerset County court-housej with
its contents. That building stood about twelve rods
west of the present Millstone bridge. They burned
also a house and shop belonging to Cornelius Lott
(valued at six hundred and twenty pounds ten shil-
lings and eleven pence), and at the same time a house
and kitchen belonging to William Cox. From thence
the troopers followed the Amwell road towards New
Brunswick, intending, when they should come to the
house above mentioned as (supposed to be) standing

* One of the encampments of Washington's army during the preceding
winter ; situated on the hillside east of Chimney Kock.

t Col. Moyland had married a daughter of Philip Van Horn, and il was
supposed he might be found there on a visit to his wife.

t October 27, 1779.

at the corner of the junction of the Amwell road with
the highway leading to the Princeton road, to take to
the right. The house they were looking for was that
of Garret Voorhees, which had stood at the place
named, but had been burned two years before by the
British. The guide which they had impressed at
Quibbletown supposed he knew the place perfectly
well, but he was ignorant of the fact that the house
had been burned, and he therefore unwittingly led
them astray. So they continued, in consequence of
this mistake, to follow the Amwell road until they
came within two miles of New Brunswick.

" Alarm-guns were now heard, and some shots were fired at the rear, particularly by one person, who, as it afterwards appeared, being out a shooting, and hearing of the incursion, had sent word to Governor Livingston, who was at Brunswick, that he would follow the party at a distance and then give a shot, that he might know which way they directed their march. Passing by some houses, Lieut.-Col. Simcoe told the women to inform four or five people who were pursuing the rear ' that if they fired another shot he would burn every house which he passed.' A man or two were now slightly wounded. As the party approached Brunswick, Lieut.-Col. Simcoe began to be anxious for the cross-road diverging from it into the Princeton road which he meant to pursue, and which having once arrived at, he himself knew the by-ways to the heights he wished to attain, where, having frequently done duty, he was minutely ac- quainted with every advantage and circumstance of the ground. His guide was perfectly confident that he was not yet arrived at it; and Lieut.-Col. Simcoe was in earnest conversation with him, and making the necessary inquiries, when a shot, at some little distance, discovered there was a party in front. He immediately galloped thither, and he sent back Wright, his orderly sergeant, to acquaint Capt. San- ford ' that the shot had not been fired at the party,' when on the right at some distance he saw the rail- fence (which was very high on both sides of the nar- row road between two woods) somewhat broken down and a man or two near it, when, putting his horse on the canter, he joined the advance men of the hussars, determining to pass through this opening, so as to avoid every ambuscade that might be laid for him, or attack, upon more equal terms. Col. Lee (whom 'he understood to be in the neighborhood, and appre- hended might be opposed to him), or any other party, when he saw some men concealed behind logs and bushes between him and the opening he meant to pass through, and he heard the words ' Now, now !' and found himself, when he recovered his 'senses, prisoner with the Americans, his horse being killed with five bullets, and himself stunned by the violence of his fall. "

An American party under command of Capt. Guest
had formed an ambuscade, near De Mott's tavern two
miles west of New Brunswick, and upon the advance



of the British Rangers had fired upon them, killing
the colonel's horse and taking Simcoe himself prisoner
in the manner above stated. The remainder of the
party were pursued by the Americans, one of whom,
Capt. Peter G. Voorhees, in his zeal advanced ahead
of his men, and in attempting to leap a fence at
George's road, at the head of Town lane, his horse
became entangled, and the British, on coming up,
fell upon him and hacked him most terribly with their
sabres. He was taken to New Brunswick, and died
there a few hours afterwards. He was a brother-in-
law of Col. John Neilson, and was a young man most
highly esteemed. He was a brave officer in the regu-
lar army, having entered it at the commencement of
the war. At the time of his death he was a captain
in the First Eeginient of New Jersey Continental
troops, commanded by Col. Ogden.

Col. Simcoe was concealed, during the night suc-
ceeding his capture, in a store-house in New Bruns-
wick to prevent the enraged people from killing him
in revenge for the cruel treatment which Voorhees
had received at the hands of the British troops. He
was removed from thence to Burlington, where he re-
mained a prisoner until exchanged.*

After Simcoe was taken prisoner his demoralized
command made all haste to reach the appointed ren-
dezvous at South River bridge, where they found the
infantry, under Maj. Armstrong, who had come
promptly up, as agreed, and had taken two American
prisoners, Dr. Ryker and Mr. John Polhemus. The
advantages they had gained by the expedition were
hardly great enough to outweigh the loss of their
leader, a result which came from their guide's ig-
norance of the fact of the previous burning of Garret
Voorhees' house. Otherwise they would have taken
the circuitous route intended by them, would have
probably arrived at South River in safety with their
commander at their head, and might have succeeded
in drawing the Americans into their ambush and
capturing them, as contemplated in the original plan.

In the memoirs of Col. Lee (the celebrated " Light-
Horse Harry") the following opinion is expressed in

* "When Col. Simcoe'e horse was shot under him and he himself thrown
violently to the gronnd and rendered insensible, James Schureman, of
New Brunswick, saved his life by thrusting aside the bayonet of a sol-
dier of the militia who attempted to stah him ; he was braced up against
a tree, and Dr. Jonathan Ford Morris, afterwards of Somerville, then a
student of medicine in New Brunswick, bled him, and administered such
restoratives as could be ohtaioed. ^He was then taken to New Brunswick
and properly cared for. He recovered and was exclianged, entered on his
command again, and was present with his corps, the Queen's Bangers, at
Spencer's Ordinary, on James River, July, 1781, at King's Bridge, Janu-
ary, 1778, and at Oyster Bay, Long Island, 1778-79, where there was liter-
ally a 'nest of Tories,' of whom William Franklin, late Governor of New
Jersey, was chief. He became, after the Revolution, Governor of Upper
Canada, and wrote to inquire for the young man who had so kindly and
humanely assisted him at X>e Mott's tavern, and again, a second time,
to Dr. Morris himself, thanking him for his attentions, and offering him
advancement and active assistance provided he would visit him in
Canada, which Dr. Morris saw reasons to decline. Simcoe died in Eng-
land in 1806, and has a mural monument with several sculptured figures
in Exeter Cathedral, executed by Flaxman, the famous English sculp-
tor." Dr. Abraham Meaaler.

reference to the Simcoe expedition, and the manner of
its execution :

" This enterprise was considered by both armies as among the hand- somest exploits of the war. Simcoe executed completely his object (then deemed very important), and traversed the country from Elizabethtown Point to South Amboy, flfty-flve miles, in the course of the night and morning, passing through a most hostile region of armed citizens, neces- sarily skirmishing Brunswick, a military station, proceeding not more than eight or nine miles from the legion of Lee, his last point of danger, and which became increased from the debilitated condition to which his troops were reduced by previous fatigue. What is very extraordinary, Lieut.-Col. Simcoe, being obliged to feed [his horses] once in the course of the night, stopped at a depot of forage collected for the Continental army, assumed the character of Lee's cavalfy, waked up the commissary about midnight, drew the customary allowance of forage, and gave the usual vouchers, signing the name of the legion quartermaster without being discovered by the Ainerican forage commissary or his assistants. The dress of both corps was thesame, green coatees and leather breeches, yet the success of the stratagem was astonishing. "

About the 20th of December, 1779, the army went
into winter quarters, the northern division, under
command of Gen. Heath, locating on the east side of
the Hudson below West Point, and the main body,
with the commander-in-chief, at Morristown. No
events of importance pertinent to the history of Som-
erset and Hunterdon Counties occurred in the year
which succeeded. The dispatches and orders of Wash-
ington during that time were dated from " Head-
quarters Morristown," "Headquarters Springfield,''
Headquarters Rockaway, " Headquarters Rama-
paugh," " Headquarters Orangetown," " Headquarters
near the Liberty Pole," and from several other places.
Many of these mention great scarcity of supplies
for the army, the slowness with which new troops
were furnished by New Jersey, the necessity of im-
mediate drafting, the hardships endured by officers
of the army on account of the depreciation of
the currency, which rendered their pay insufficient
for their barest necessities, the alarming condition of
the affairs of the country, and other similar subjects.
During the year (in January, 1870) Lord Stirling
commanded a partially successful expedition to Staten
Island ; a British force of about five thousand men,
under Gen. Knyphausen, crossed (June 6th) from
Staten Island to Elizabethtown Point, and advanced
towards the interior, but was driven back to the Point ;
again, on the 23d of June, a larger force, under Sir
Henry Clinton, advanced from the same place to
Springfield and burned the town, but, being resolutely
met by the Continental troops and the Jersey militia,
deemed it prudent to retire, which he did the same
day, and crossed back to Staten Island. On the 4th
of July the ladies of Trenton met in that town " for
the purpose of promoting a subscription for the relief
and encouragement of those brave men in the Conti-
nental army who, stimulated by example and regard-
less of danger, have so repeatedly suffered, fought, and
bled in the cause of virtue and their oppressed coun-
try, and, taking into consideration the scattered situ-
ation of the well disposed throughout the State who
would wish to contribute to so laudable an undertak-
ing, for the purpose of the convenience of such and



the more effectually to carry their scheme into execu-
tion, unanimously appointed Mrs. Cox, Mrs. Dickin-
son, Mrs. Forman, and Miss Cadwallader a commit-
tee whose duty it was immediately to open a subscrip-
tion and correspond with the ladies, hereinafter named,
of the different counties throughout the State, request-
ing their aid and influence in the several districts,"
the ladies so named to form a committee to promote
subscriptions. The committee for Hunterdon County
were Mrs. Vice-President Stevens, Mrs. Judge Smith,
Mrs. Charles Cox, Mrs. E. Stevens, Mrs. Hanna, Mrs.
Lowery, Mrs. I. Sexton, Mrs. B. Van Cleve, Mrs.
Col. Berry, Mrs. Dr. Barnes ; county of Somerset,
Lady Stirling, Mrs. Gen. Morris, Mrs. Col. Martin,
Mrs. Attorney-Gen. Paterson, Mrs. E. Stockton.

In the same month (June, 1780) a large force
of French troops arrived, under Gen. Count Eo-
chambeau, to take the field as auxiliaries of the
Americans, and to operate under the orders of Wash-
ington, who thereupon projected a joint attack
on the British in New York, but afterwards aban-
doned the project. On the Hudson the most notable
events of the year were the culmination of Arnold's
treason and the capture of the unfortunate Maj.
Andre. Early in December the American army went
into winter quarters.

In the summer of 1781 the American army and its
French allies concentrated on the Hudson Elver, for
the purpose, as it was understood, of making a com-
bined attack on the British in the city of New York.
They remained in the vicinity of Dobbs' Ferry for
about six weeks, during which time Washington aban-
doned the project (if he ever entertained it seriously)
of attacking the city, and resolved instead to move
the armies to Virginia to operate against Cornwallis.
He, however, concealed his new plan, and wrote letters
containing details of his pretended object to move
against the city, intending that these should fall into
the hands of Sir Henry Clinton. The result was as
he had intended it to be. The letters were intercepted
and taken to Clinton, who was completely deceived by
them, and, continuing to watch the American force on
the Hudson, failed to reinforce Cornwallis, as the latter
had requested him to do. Meanwhile, Washington
completed his preparations, and in the latter part of
August crossed the Hudson at Verplanck's Point with
the American and French armies, and marched rap-
idly across New Jersey to Trenton, some of the troops
passing through the Eamapo valley and Morristown,
and others passing the Eingwood Iron-Works. The
French forces took the route by the Hackensack val-
ley to Newark and Perth Amboy, at which place they
built ovens, constructed boats, collected forage, and
made other movements indicating an intention to
move on New York; but these were suddenly aban-
doned, and the march was resumed to Trenton, where
all the forces arrived before Clinton was aware of the
significance of the movement. The American columns
which took the upper route must haTe moved throuo-h

Somerset and Hunterdon, though the points which
they passed in their march through these counties are
not precisely known.

Crossing the Delaware at Trenton and the neigh-
boring ferries in the morning of September 1st, the
armies marched on towards Philadelphia, which city
they passed through on the 2d, and on the 14th of
September reached Williamsburg, Va., from which
point Washington and Eochambeau went on board
the French flag-ship the " Ville de Paris," in the York
Eiver, and there, with the French admiral, Count de
Grasse, concerted the plan of the campaign which
ended in the surrender of Lord Cornwallis with his
army at Yorktown on the 19th of October.

The march of Washington's forces from the Hudson
on their way to Yorktown in August, 1781, was the
last movement of an army across the territory of Som-
erset and Hunterdon Counties during the Eevolution-
ary conflict, unless we may count as such the return
of the New England and New Jersey troops, a few
months later, after the surrender of Cornwallis ren-
dered their presence in Virginia no longer necessary.
The commander-in-chief, however, passed this way
several times afterwards before the close of the war,
the most memorable of these visits being made in the
autumn of 1783, under the following-named circum-
stances: The preliminary articles of the treaty of
peace between the United States and Great Britain
were signed on the 30th of November, 1782, the treaty
to take effect on the 20th of January following. The
cessation of hostilities was formally proclaimed on the
19th of April. Then arose the question of how the
army could be disbanded in safety, for Congress was
without means to pay the soldiers, and there was, on
that account, a general dissatisfaction among both ofli-
cers and men, and this was accompanied, in some
quarters, by open threats of mutiny and violence. A
band of Pennsylvania troops who had been discharged
at the expiration of their term of service without re-
ceiving their full arrears of pay became violent and
insubordinate, and in spite of the remonstrances of
their officers a body of them marched from Lancaster
to Philadelphia with the avowed purpose of forcing
from the Continental Congress (which was then in ses-
sion in that city) or from the Executive Council of the
State a redress of their grievances. There were only
about eighty of the malcontents, but on their arrival
in Philadelphia, on the 20th of June, they were joined
by other soldiers in the barracks of the city, by which
means the whole number was increased to about three
hundred, and with this augmented force they moved
to the State-House, where both the Congress and the
Council of the State were assembled. They proceeded
at once to place guards at every door, and their leaders
sent in a written message to the president and Council
of Pennsylvania, to the effect that if their demands
were not acceded to within twenty minutes the infuri-
ated soldiery would be marched into the building and



let loose upon both bodies. Tbe threat was not, how-
ever, carried into execution, and the mutiny was finally
quelled. It was more the State Council than Congress
that was the object of their resentment, hut the mem-
bers of Congress considered that their body had been
grossly insulted, rhaving been kept under duress for
more than three hours, and they at once resolved to
adjourn from Philadelphia to Princeton, N. J. This
was accordingly done, and in pursuance of the resolu-
tion they convened in the library-room of Nassau
Hall, at Princeton, on the 26th of the same month,
and continued there during the remainder of the ses-
sion. Some time after the removal to Princeton the
president of Congress wrote to Gen. Washington, at
Newburg-on-the-Hudson, asking his attendance be-
fore that body to consult on the arrangements for
peace, the disbandment of the army, and other public
concerns. Leaving the army on the Hudson in com-
mand of Gen. Knox, he at once repaired to Princeton
and reported to Congress, when he was addressed by
the president, who congratulated him on the success
of the war in which he had acted so prominent and
brilliant a part. In this address he said,

" In other natione many have performed eminent services for which they have deserved the thanksof the public. But to you, sir, peculiar praise is due. Tour servicea have been essential in acquiring and estab- lishing the freedom and independence of your country. They deserve the grateful acknowledgmenta of a free and independent nation. "

To this address the general made a brief and
modest reply, and then retired.

Washington remained in attendance upon Congress
until. the early part of November,* and during this
tiroe he occupied as headquarters a house which had
been provided for his use at Rocky Hill, in Somerset
County, some three or four miles from Princeton.f
It was the residence of Judge John Berrien, located
on elevated ground about a quarter of a mile east of
the river, on the right hand of the road as it ascends
from Rocky Hill village to the top of the hill towards
Kingston. It is still standing, in much the same con-
dition that it was in the days of the Revolution, ex-
cepting that a veranda which formerly extended along
the entire south side of the building has since been
demolished. It belonged to the estate of the late
William Cruser for many years, and is now owned by
David J. Mount, Esq. The room occupied by Wash-
ington as his headquarters and oflce remains just as
he left it, and ia kept for inspection by visitors. It
was in this room that he received the committees,
members of Congress, and other dignitaries in con-
ferences on public affairs, and it was also in this room
that he wrote his farewell orders and address to the
armies of the United States. In that address, which

• When he returned to Newburg, and thence, upon the evacuation of
New York by the British (November 25th), moved his headquarters to
that city.

t " We have it from tradition that there was assigned to Gen. Wash-
ington while he was in the village [Princeton], attending upon Congress,
a room in A. L. Martin's present residence." Hoffeman's EUlori/ of

was issued from the headquarters at Rocky Hill on
the 2d of November, 1783, he referred to the procla-
mation of Congress of the 18th of October applaud-
ing the armies for their virtue, fortitude, and magna-
nimity, giving them the thanks of the country for
their long and faithful services, and ordering their
discharge from service after the 3d of November, and

" It only remains for the commander-in-chief to address himself once more, and that for the last time, to the armies of the United States (how- ever widely dispersed the individuals who composed them may be), and to bid them an affectionate, a long, farewell. But before the commander-in- cliief takes his final leave of those he holds most dear, he wishes to indulge himself a few moments in calling to mind a slight review of the past ; he will then take the liberty of exploring with his military friends their fu- ture prospects, of advising the general line of conduct which, in his opin- ion, ought to be pursued ; and he will conclude the address by expressing the obligation he feels himselfunder for the spirited and able assistance he "
has experienced from them in the performance of an arduous office. . . .
And, being now to conclude these his last public orders, to take his ultimate
leave in a short time of the military character, and to bid a final adiea
to the armies lie has so long had the honor to command, he can only
again offer in their behalf his recommendation to their grateful country
and his prayers to the God of armies. May ample justice be done them here,
and may the choicest of Heaven's favors, both here and hereafter, attend
those who, under the Divine auspices, have secured innumerable bless-
ings for others 1 With these wishes, and this benediction, the com-
mander-in-chief is about to retire from the service. The curtain of sep-
aration will soonlje drawn, and the military scene, to him, will he closed

The currency had become largely depreciated. The
dollar which in 1777 was worth seven shillings and
sixpence, in 1780 passed for only threepence. We
have had the use of an old list made as a memoran-
dum of this progress of the downfall of the circulating
medium, and append it as a curiosity. September,
1777, the Continental dollars passed for seven shil-
lings and sixpence ; October, ten shillings ; Novem-
ber, six shillings and threepence; December, five
shillings and eightpence ; January, 1778, five shil-
lings and twopence; February, four shillings and
eightpence; March, four shillings and threepence;
April, three shillings and ninepence; May, three
shillings and threepence; June, two shillings and
tenpence ; July, two shillings and sixpence; August,
two shillings and twopence ; September, one shilling
and ten and one-halfpence; October, one shilling
and seven and one-half pence ; November, one shil-
ling and fourpence ; December, one shilling and two-
pence; January, 1779, one shilling; February, ten
and one-half pence ; March, ninepence ; AprU, eight-
pence; May, seven and one-half pence; June, six
and one-third pence; July, sixpence; August, five
and one-half pence ; September, fivepence ; October,
four and one-half pence ; November, fourpence ; De-
cember, three and one-half pence; January, 1780,
threepence ; February, threepence ; March, two and
one-half pence ; and up to the 18th of May, 1780, two
and one-tenth pence, and then nothing. How the
people managed, in such a state of things, to sell or
traffic at all is a mystery, and how the armies were
kept in the field is almost a miracle. It is only an-



other confirmation of the adage, " what is to be done
will be done." Robert Morris' immense fortune was
often the only confidence which floated the Conti-
nental currency and kept the armies in the field.


The following minutes of a public meeting at Mill-
stone, about July, 1779, are interesting as evidence of
the pressure of the burdens of the war, and the patri-
otic spirit in which it was proposed to meet them :

"At a meeting of the electors of the County of Somerset, pursuant to notice by advertisement on Thursday, 3d Inst., at the Court-House of said county, The buBineas of the meeting being introduced and iliscussed, the fol- "
lowing resolutions were adopted :

" Whereas, The concurrance of a variety of causes, the bills of credit emitted under authority of the United States in Congress assembled, have greatly depreciated in their value, and in addition to the quantity circu- lating will tend to increase such depreciation ; therefore Besolved^ That a petition be presented to the Legislature, requesting "
them to make application to Congress on behalf of this State, that the
emission of bills of credit be henceforth discontinued.

" Resolved, That the Legislature be requested to make application aa aforesaid, that a plau be adopted and recommended for a general limita- tion of prices throughout the United States, according to which such prices may be diminished slowly from the present time or at stated pe- riods and by small differences, until the quantity of money be reduced by taxation to what is necessary for a circulating medium. *'Aiid whereas, Taxation is the most natural and beneficial source from which to derive the supplies necessary for supporting the army and carrying on the war, Resolved, That the Legislature be requested to make application as "
aforesaid that requisitions of taxes be henceforward made on the States
for the above purposes; and that to avoid as far as possible the expense
of purchasing in the modes hitherto practiced, and the necessity of such
large circulations of money through the public treasury, a just quota of
provisions, forage, and other necesaariea for the army be laid upon each
State in such kind as they are severally suited to produce, to be paid in
the way of tax at regulated prices by those who raise them, while those
who do not, pay a fair proportion in money.

"Resolved, That it be expressed to the Legislature as the sense of this meeting that on levying all future taxes and aids for the use of the State and Union in general, the assessments be made according to the value of all property possessed by each individual, it being reasonable that persons should be taxed for their money, their income, the faculty and means of acquiring property, or for any estate whatsoever. *' Whereas, There is great reason to believe that many persons em- ployed in various branches of the public department of the United States are guilty of mismanagement and fraud in the execution of their trust and applying the public money, and there being no ready and regular mode presented by public authority, of which such as are disposed may avail themselves, to furnish the necessary information to those who have the power to correct such abuses and thereby prevent unnecessary in- crease of the pubhc burdens, Resolved, That the Legislature be requested to direct some conve- "
nient and adequate means of collecting and transmitting to Congress, or
to such Board or Committee by them appointed as may be adequate in
point of jurisdiction, or to the executive power of the State in cases
where that is competent, all such authentic evidences and documents as
can be procured, that the guilty may be punished and the faithful ser-
vants of the public may be rescued from that indiscriminate censure
which the bad and unworthy bring upon all, and that we will exert our
utmost endeavors for effecting so laudable a purpose.

•' Wliereas, Virtue and good morals are notonly productive of individual
happiness, but have a great and extensive good effect upon the political
state of every government when they are cultivated,

"Resolved, That we will by our example and influence endeavor to promote these, and will look upon it as the course of duty to support and strengthen the arm of the civil authority in detecting and bringing to deserved punishment all such as are guilty of profanity, immorality, ex- travagance, idleness and dissipation, of extortion, sharping and oppres- sion, and of all such practices as tend to the unjust advantage of individ- uals and detriment of the community. Ordered, That a representation and petition to the Legislature be "
drawn up pursuant to these resolutions and signed by the chainnan, and
that the representatives of this county be requested to lay the same be-
fore the respective house.
" Extracted from the minutes of proceedings and published by order. Wm. C. Haston, "




The following is but a sample of many of the in-
quisitions of the courts of both Hunterdon and Som-
erset Counties during the Revolutionary period :

"Somerset, to wU. The State of New Jersey to Jacob Berger, Frederick Frelinghuysen, and Hendrick Willson, commissioners duly appointed for said county on the part and behalf of the said State to take and dis- pose of for the use and benefit of the same, the estates of certain fugitives and offenders in the said county, or to any two or more of them, greet- ing: Whereas, Lately, that is to say of the term of January, in the year of "
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-nine, in the Court of
Common Pleas held at Hillsborough, in and for said county of Somerset,
before the judges of the same court, find judgment was had and entered
in favour of the said State of New Jereey, pursuant to Law, against Rich-
ard Compton, Junior, late of the county of Somerset, on an inquisition
found against the said Richard Compton for joining the army of the
King of Great Britain & returned to the said court, as may fully ap-
pear of record; you are therefore commanded and enjoined to sell and
dispose of all and singular the lands, tenements, & Hereditaments held in
fee or for term of life, and generally all the estate real, of what nature or
kind soever, belonging or lately belonging to the said Richard Compton,
within the said county of Somerset, according to the direction of an Act
for forfeiting to and vesting in the State of New Jersqy the real estate
of certain Fugitives & Offenders, made and passed the eleventh day of
December, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and

" Witness, Peter Schenk, Esq', Judge of the said Court, at Hillsbor- ough, the first Tuesday of January, in the year of our Lord [one thou- sand]* seven hundred & seventy-nine. By the court, "

" Frelinghtjtsen, Ctk. "

Recorded April 1, 1779.


THE BEVOLUTIOIsr (Continued).

Continental Troops, First Establishment Second Establishment The
Jersey Line Recruiting-Officers and Muster-Masters Regiments
raised, and Their Officers Militia The Quotas of the Two Counties
" Minute-Men" Roster of Field- and Staff-OiBcers- Roster of Rev-
olutionary Soldiers from these (bounties, who served in the State Mili-
tia, and Continental Army.


The first Continental troops of the "Jersey Line,"
raised in 1775, were two battalions, designated the
Eastern and Western, and subsequently the First and
Second, Battalions. The First was commanded by
Col. William Alexander (Lord Stirling), and, after
his promotion to be brigadier-general, by Lieut.-Col.
William Winds, who was raised to the rank of colo-

* A clerical eiTor.



nel ; the Second by Col. William Maxwell. The
following year a third battalion was added, which was
placed under the command of Col. Elias Dayton. In
the fall of this year (1776) a " second establishment"
of troops from New Jersey for the Continental army
was made, embracing four battalions, commanded by
Cols. Silas Newcomb (succeeded by Col. Matthias Og-
den), Isaac Shreve, Elias Dayton, and Ephraim Mar-
tin. These formed " Maxwell's Brigade," commanded
by Gen. (late colonel) William Maxwell.

A new arrangement of the American army was ef-
fected in 1778, under which, and during the campaign
of 1779, the " Jersey Line" embraced three battalions.
Feb. 9, 1780, Congress called upon this State for six-
teen hundred and twenty men to supply the defi-
ciency, in which volunteers were called for, large
bounties offered, and recruiting-officers appointed for
the several counties, those for Hunterdon and Som-
erset being Capt. John Mott and Capt. Nathaniel
Porter, the quota of Hunterdon being eighty-four, and
of Somerset fifty-four men. The "muster-masters"
were Maj. Joseph Brearley for Hunterdon County,
and Col. Frederick Frelinghuysen for Somerset. The
three regiments thus raised were commanded by Cols.
Matthias Ogden, Isaac Shreve, and Elias Dayton, re-
spectively. Each regiment contained six companies,
and they were commanded as follows :

First Megiment. Capts. Jonathan Forman, John
Flahaven, Giles Mead, Alexander Mitchell, Peter G.
Voorhees, and John Holmes.

/Second Regiment. Capts. John Hollingshead, John
N. Cumming, Samuel Reading, Nathaniel Bowman,
Jonathan Phillips, and William Helms.

Third Regiment. Capts. John Ross, William Gif-
ford, Richard Cox, Jeremiah Ballard, Joseph I. An-
derson, and Bateman Lloyd:

Gen. Maxwell continued to command the Jersey
Brigade until July, 1780, when he resigned, and was
succeeded by Col. Elias Dayton, as senior officer, who
commanded the same until the close of the war.

The news of the cessation of hostilities was an-
nounced in the camp of the brigade April 19, 1783,
and the Jersey Line was discharged November 3d of
that year.


At various times during the war New Jersey, by
reason of its being continually exposed to the incur-
sions of the British and the ravages of refugees and
Indians, found it necessary to embody, as occasion
required, a certain quota of volunteers from the mili-
tia of the different counties. These men were held
liable to duty when needed, not only in this but in
adjoining States. These organizations were called
New Jersey Levies, " Five Months' Levies," but
most generally designated as " State Troops." Hun-
terdon and Somerset Counties furnished the follow-

Under the act, passed Nov. 27, 1776, for the raising

of four battalions, Somerset sent two companies, Hun-
terdon four. Of the battalion, comprising these six
companies and two from Sussex, David Chambers
was colonel, Jacob West lieutenant-colonel, and Enos
Kelsey major.

Under the call of Oct. 9, 1779, for four thousand
volunteers to continue in service until Dec. 20, 1779,
one regiment of ten companies was raised in Somer-
set, Sussex, Morris, and Bergen, and another regiment
of equal size in Hunterdon and Burlington Counties.
Other calls were made, viz., June 7th and 14th, for
six hundred and twenty-four men each, whose term
was to expire Jan. 1, 1781 ; and Dec. 26, 1780, for
eight hundred and twenty-four men, whose term was
to expire Jan. 1, 1782 ; Dec. 29, 1781, four hundred
and twenty-two men, for service until Dec. 15, 1782.

On June 3, 1775, the Provincial Congress of New
Jersey passed an act providing a " plan for regulating
the militia of the colony." This plan was still further
considered and amended Aug. 16, 1775. After that
date all officers were ordered to be commissioned by
the Provincial Congress or the Committee of Safety.
In the assignment then ordered Hunterdon had four
and Somerset two regiments. " Minute-men" having
been raised in Somerset and two other counties, in
obedience to the recommendation of Continental Con-
gress, this ordinance [of Aug. 16, 1775] ordered the
several counties to furnish them, ranging from one to
eight companies each, the assignment for Somerset
being five, and for Hunterdon eight companies, being
one-sixth of the number raised in the whole State.
These companies of " minute-men" were " held in
constant readiness, on the shortest notice, to march to
any place where assistance might be required, for the
defense of this or any neighboring colony." They
were to continue in service four months. Their uni-
form was a hunting-frock, similar to that of the rifle-
men in the Continental service.

In February, 1776, the Committee of Safety of New
York called upon the Provincial Congress for a de-
tachment of militia to assist in arresting Tories in
Queens Co., L. I., and Staten Island, N. Y. Of the
seven hundred men ordered out for that purpose, Som-
erset County furnished one hundred. Another de-
tachment of minute-men was ordered, Feb. 15, 1776,
to proceed to New York. This was commanded by
Charles Stewart, colonel ; Mark Thompson, lieuten-
ant-colonel ; Frederick Frelinghuysen, first major ;
and Thomas Henderson, second major. Feb. 29, 1776,
the remnants of the minute-men were incorporated in
the militia of the districts where they resided.

June 3, 1776, the Continental Congress called for
thirteen thousand eight hundred militia, the quota
of New Jersey being three thousand three hundred.
Hunterdon and Somerset furnished one of the five
battalions required, in the proportion of five compa-
nies from the first-named and three companies from
the last-named county. The battalion was com-
manded by Stephen Hunt, colonel ; Philip Johnson,



lieutenant-colonel; Joseph. Phillips, major; and Cor-
nelius Baldwin, surgeon.*

July 16, 1776, Congress requested the Convention
of New Jersey to supply with militia the places of
two thousand men of Gen. "Washington's army who
had been ordered into New Jersey to form the Flying
Camp. Of the thirty companies of sixty-four men
each, furnished under this call, Somerset provided
two and Hunterdon four companies, which, with two
from Sussex, comprised one of the four battalions, and
its officers were Mark Thompson, colonel ; Abraham
Bonnell, lieutenant-colonel; Enos Kelsey, major;
and Jacob Jennings, surgeon.

April 14, 1778, the militia was divided into two
brigades, that of Somerset being in the first and that
of Hunterdon in the second. Jan. 8, 1781, it was
formed into three brigades. During the war several
companies of artillery and troops of horse were raised.
" The good service performed by the militia is fully recorded in history. At the fights at Quinton's Bridge, Hancock's Bridge, Three Elvers, Connecticut Farms, and Van Neste's Mills they bore an active part, while at the battles of Long Island, Trenton, Assanpink, Princeton, Germantown, Springfield, and Monmouth they performed efficient service in sup- porting the Continental Line.t "

The field- and stafi'-officers of the militia regiments
of these counties were as follows :


Col. Isaac Smith.

Col. (promoted from first major) Joseph Phillips.

Lieut. -Col. Abraham Hnnt.

Lieut.-Col. (promoted from captain) Jacob Houghton.

First Maj. Ephraim Anderson.

First Maj. (promoted from captain) Joseph Brearley.

Second Maj. Isaac De Cou.

Second Maj. (pro. from first lieut. and captain) Benjamin Van CleTe.

Second Maj. (promoted from captain) Henry Phillips.

Adjt. Elias Phillips.

Col. Nathaniel Hunt.
Col. Joseph Beavers.
Lieut.-Col. Abraham Bonnell.
Lieut-Col. William Chamberlain.
First Maj. Nathaniel Pettit.
FirBt Maj. Cornelius Stout.

First Maj. (promoted from second major) David Bishop.
Second Maj. Garret Albertson.
Second Maj. David Jones.
Second Maj. Cornelius Carhart.

Second Maj. (promoted from captain) Samuel Growendyck.
A^t. John Schank.
Quartermaster Reading Howell.
Surgeon Gersbom Craven.J

Col. David Chambers.

Col. (promoted from lieuteuant-colonel) Thomas Lowrey.
Col. (promoted from lieutenant-colonel) George Ely.
First Maj. (promoted from second major) Cornelius Stout.

* Col. Hunt resigned, and Lieut.-Col. Johnson was promoted to colonel
and subsequently killed, when Lieut.-Col. Phillips (promoted from major)
became colonel, and Capt. Piatt Bayles was promoted to be major.

t " Officers and Men of New Jersey in the Revolutionary War," W. S.
Stryker, p. 338.

Second Maj. Daniel McDonald.

Second Maj. (promoted from first lieutenant and captain) George Hol-

A^jt. David Bishop.

Col. John Mehelm.
Col. (promoted from captain, second major, and lieutenant-colonel) John

Lieut. -Col. (promoted from captain and first major) John Tenbroofc.
First Maj. (promoted from second major) John Stevens, Jr.
First Maj. (promoted from captain) Godfrey Rinehart.
Second Maj. (promoted from captain) Ebenezer Berry.
Surgeon Oliver Barnet.J


Col. William Alexander (Lord Stirling).
Col. (promoted from captain) Stephen Hunt.
Col. (promoted from captain) Frederick Frelinghuyaen.
Col. (promoted from lieutenant-colonel) Abraham Ten Eyck.
Lieut.-Col. (promoted from second major) Derrick Middah.
First Maj. (promoted from captain) James Linn.
Second Maj. (promoted from captain) Richard McDonald.
Second Maj. (promoted from captain) Thomas Hall.

Col. Abraham Quick.
Col. Hendrick Van Dike.

Lieut.-Col. (promoted from first major) Benjamin Baird.
Lieut.-Col. (promoted from first major) Peter D. Vroom.
First Maj. (promoted from second major) William Verbryck.
First Maj. (promoted from captain) William Baird.
Second Maj. Enos Kelsey.
Second Maj. (pro. from captain) Abraham Neviua.

The following is a list of those from the county of

Hunterdon who served either in the Continental army,

State troops, or militia during the Revolutionary

war: J

Joseph Beavers, colonel Second Regiment.

David Chambers, colonel Third Regiment, June 19, 1Y76 ; colonel bat-
talion State troops, Nov. 27, 1776 ; colonel Second Regiment, Sept
9, 1777 ; resigned May 28, 1779.

George Ely, captain Second Regiment ; lieutenant-colonel Third Regi-
ment, June 21, 1781 ; also colonel.

Nathaniel Hunt, colonel Second Regiment; resigned; also paymaster

Thomas Lowrey, lieutenant-colonel Third Regiment, June 19, 1776 ; also
colonel Third Regiment.

John Mehelm, quartermaster and paymaster statT Brig. -Gen. Dickinson ;
colonel Fourth Regiment; resigned May 15, 1777 ; colonel and quar-
termaster-general, staff Maj .-Gen. Dickinson.

Joseph Phillips, major Col. Hunt's battalion, " Heard's brigade," Juno
14, 1776 ; lieutenant-colonel Johnson's battalion, Aug. 1, 1776 ; col-
onel ditto. Sept, 20, 1776 ; first major First Regiment; colonel ditto,
March 16, 1777.

Isaac Smith, colonel First Regiment; resigned, Feb. 16, 1777, to accept
appointment as justice of the Supreme Court of New Jersey.

Charles Stewart, colonel battalion "Minute-Men," Fob. 16, 1776; also

John Taylor, captain Col. Neilson's battalion, "Minute-Men;" captain
Fourth Regim ent ; second major ditto, Oct. 28, 1776 ; major Road's

X See sketch in medical chapter.

g These rosters have been carefully compiled from the " Official Reg-
ister of the Officers and Men of New Jersey in the Revolutionary War "
by Adjt.-Gen. William S. Stryker, published by authority of the Legisla-
ture, in 1872. In its preparation the pension-lists of the goTernmont,
the Minutes of the Congress of the United States, and of the Legislature
and Council of Safety of New Jersey, records of the War Department
as well as original manuscripts, rolls of companies of Continental troops,
dianes of ofBcers, paymasters' memoranda, quartermasters' reports,
treasurers receipts, "returns" to the commander-in-chief, etc., were
faithfully examined and compared. It is the only extensive and well-
authenticated record of the kind that has yet been published.



battalion of State troops, Nov. 27, 1776 ; lieutenantKJolonel Fourth
Kegiment, Feb. 17, 1777; colonel ditto, May 23,1777; colonel regi-
ment of State troops, Oot. 9, 1779.
Abraham Bonnell, lieutenant-colonel Third Regiment; lieutenant-col-
onel Thompson'fl battalion " Detached Militia," Jaly 18, 1776.
William Chamberlain, lieutenant-colonel Second Regiment, Sept. 9, 1777 ;

cashiered May 14, 1781.
Joab Houghton, captain First Regiment; lieutenant-colonel ditto, March
15, 1777 ; lieutenant-colonel Taylor's regiment, State troops, Oct. 9,
Abraliam Hunt, lieutenant-colonel First Regiment ; resigned.
Philip Johnston, lieutenant-colonel ; pro. to colonel Aug. 1, L776 ; killed

at battle of Long Island.
John Teubrook, captain " Minute-Men ;" firet major Fourth Regiment,

Feb. 1, 1777 ; lieuteuant-colonel ditto.
Garret Albertson, second major Second Regiment ; com. cancelled ; re-
moved from county.
Ephraim Anderson, first major First Regiment ; resigned, Oct. 28, 1775,
to accept commission as adjutant Second Battalion, First Establish-
ment, Continental Line.

Ebenezer Berry, captain Fourth Regiment; second major ditto, April 25,

David Bishop, adjutant Third Regiment; second major Second Regi-
ment; first major ditto.

Joseph Brearley, captain "Minute-Men;" first major First Regiment;
captain Continental army.

Cornelius Carhart, captain Third Regiment ; second major Second Regi-
ment, April 20, 1778.

Isaac Be Cou, second major First Regiment; resigned July 6, 1776.

Peter Gordon, captain First Regiment ; captain Forman's battalion,
Heard's brigade, June 14, 1776 ; brigadier-major ditto, July 25, 1776 ;
also major and quartermaster Quartermaster-GeneiuPs Department.

Samuel Growendyck, captain Second Regiment ; second major ditto, Oct.
7, 1778; major State troops.

George Holcomb, first lieutenant Phillips' company, Third Regiment ; pro.
to captain; pro. to major, June 21, 1781.

David Jones, ensign Third Regiment; pro. to captain; second major
Second Regiment.

Daniel McDonald, second major Third Regiment; resigned July 24,

l^athaniel Fettit, first major Second Regiment ; com. cancelled ; removed
from county.

Henry Phillips, captain First Regiment, May 10,1777; second major,
KoT. 13, 1777.

Godfrey Einehart, captain Fourth Regiment; pro. to first major, Oct. 7,
1778; resigned, Nov. 6, 1779, to become member of Asaembly.

John Stevens, Jr., second major Fourth Regiment, Feb. 1, 1777 ; pro. to
first major; resigned April 18, 1778.

Cornelius Stout, second major Third Regiment, June 19, 1776 ; first major
Second Regiment, Sept. 19, 1777; first major Third Regiment, June
10, 1779 ; cashiered May 14, 1781.

Benjamin Van Cleve, first lieutenant First Regiment ; pro. to captain
ditto, Capt. Johnson's battalion, Heard's brigade, June 14, 1776;
second major First Regiment, March 15, 1777; resigned, Nov. 13,
1777, to become a member of Awembly.

Elias Phillips, adjutant First Regiment.

John Schanck, adjutant Second Regiment, Feb. 6, 1777,

Reading Howell, quartermaster Second Regiment.

Oliver Bamet, surgeon Fourth Regiment, Feb. 14, 1776.

Gershom Craven, surgeon Second Regiment.

Jacob Anderson, lieutenant; pro. to captain.

John Anderson, captain Capt. Johnson's battalion, June 14, 1776; also
captain in Continental army.

Jacob Beatson, captain.

Daniel Bray, lieutenant Second Regiment; pro. to captain ditto.

Nathaniel Gamp, captain.

Jacob Carhart, captain Second Regiment.

Israel Carle, captain troop light-hoi-se, Oct, 6, 1777.

Cline, captain Second Kegiment.

Joseph Clunn, ensign Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment, June 19,
1776; pro. to second lieutenant, May 10, 1777; pro. to captain; also
captain State troops.

Jonathan Combs, captain.

Josepli Corshon, captain Second Regiment.

Joshua Corshon, captain Third Regiment; resigned Feb. 17, 1776, dis-

George Coryell, captain.

William Covenhoven, captain.

Doremus, captain.

Emmons, captain Fourth Regiment.

Peter Ent, ensign Third Regiment; pro. to captain ditto.

Moses Esty, captain ; also captain in State troops.

Jacob Gearhart, sergeant Second Regiment ; pro. to ensign and captain.

William Gearhart, captain Second Regiment.

Jacob Glashart, ensign Third Regiment; pro. to captain, ditto.

James Gray, captain Second Regiment; prisoner of war.

George Green, captain First Regiment.

Ralph Guild, captain First Regiment, May 10, 1777.

Henry Gulick, captain Second Regiment.

Hall, captain Fourth Regiment.

Charles Harrison, captain; resigned July 8, 1776.
Adam Hope, captain Second Regiment.
Cornelius Hoppock, captain Third Regiment.
Joseph Howard, captain.

Hull, captain Fourth Regiment.

John Hunt, captain First Regiment, June 17, 1776.

William E. Imlay, captain Third Regiment; also captain Continental

Christopher Johnson, captain Third Regiment.
Cornelius Johnson, captain Second Regiment.
David Johnson, captain.
James Johnson, captain.
Francis Kruser, captain.
Cornelius Lane, captain Fourth Regiment.

Lucas, captain.

Maitland, captain.

- Medler, captain Third Regiment.
John Mott, captain First Regiment; also captain Continental army;

guide to Washington at battle of Trenton.
Albert Opdycke, captain Second Regiment.
John Peck, captain; also lieutenant Continental army,
Henry Phillips, captain First Regiment.
John Phillips, captain Third Regiment.
Jonathan Phillips, captain Fourth Regiment; also captain Continental

Philip Phillips, captain First Regiment, May 10, 1777.
Charles Reading, lieutenant Third Regiment; pro. to captain; captain.

First Regiment.
John Reed, captain Fourth Regiment; also ensign Continental Army.
Andrew Reeder, private Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment; pro. to

ensign, and captain.
David Schamp, lieutenant Fourth Regiment; pro. to captain.
John Schenck, lieutenant Third Regiment; pro. to captain.
John Sherrard, captain Third Regiment.
Rynear Smock, captain.

Philip Snook, captain First Regiment; wounded in the thigh at the bat-
tle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778 ; captain Third Regiment
William Snowden, captain Third Regiment.

Stanton, captain.

Richard Stilwell, captain Fourth Regiment.

James Stout, lieutenaut Capt. Maxwell's company. Second Regiment;

captain Third Regiment.
Nathan Stout, captain (died March 10, 1826, aged seventy-eight years).
Samuel Stout, captain Third Regiment.
Joseph Thatcher, captain Second Regiment.
Timothy Titus, second lieutenant Capt. Henry Phillips* company, First

Regiment, May 10, 1777 ; pro. to captain.
William Tucker, captain First Regiment, June 19, 1776; also captain

Second Regiment.
Albert Updike, captain Second Regiment.
Edward Wilmot, Jr., captain Fourth Regiment, Feb. 14, 1778.
Isaiah Yard, second lieutenant Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment,

June 19, 1776; pro. to first lieutenant, May 10, 1777; pro. to captain.
H. Bailey, lieutenant Second Regiment.

Barton, lieutenant Second Regiment. ]

Isaac Basset, lieutenant Third Regiment.

Zebulon Burroughs, ensign First Regiment, May 10, 1777 ; pro. to lieu-
Thomas Carter, lieutenant Capt. Johnson's company. Third Regiment,

Nov. 5, 1781.
Elihu Chadwick, ensign Second Regiment; pro, to lieutenant.
Richard Corwine, lieutenant Capt. Phillips' company. Third Regiment.
James Crawford, lieutenant Fourth Regiment,
Stephen Dunham, lieutenant Third Regiment.



Gordon, lieutenant Second Kegiment.
Hayman, lieutenant.

Abraham Hogeland, lieutenant Capt. Growendyck'e company, Second

John Hogeland, lieutenant Tbird Regiment; resigned.

Jacob Holcomb, lieutenant Capt. Hoppock's company, Third Regiment.

Jacob Johnston, private Third Regiment ; pro. to lieutenant.

John Matthews, lieutenant Capt. Harrison's company,

Joseph Mattison, liexitenant Third Regiment.

Robert Maxwell, lieutenant Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regi-

Cornelius Plahames, lieutenant Third Regiment.

Abram Post, lieutenant.

John Prall, lieutenant Capt. Stout's company, Third Regiment.

Palmer Roberts, lieutenant Second Regiment.

Philip Row, lieutenant.

Garret Scbanck, sergeant Capt. Stout's company, Third Regiment ; pro.
to lieutenant ; discharged April 6, 1777.

Philip Serviss, lieutenant Third Regiment.

Robert Taylor, lieutenant.

Thomas Thomson, lieutenant Fourth Regiment.

Xhomae Tobin, lieutenant "Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse," Oct. 6,

Jacob Vanderbelt, lieutenant Third Regiment.

John Vanderbelt, lieutenant Third Regiment.

John Williamson, ensign Capt. Stout's company, Third Regiment; pro.
to lieutenant.

John Clifford, first lieutenant Capt. Carliart's company, Second Regi-

John Kitch, first lieutenant Capt. Tucker's company. First Regiment,
June 19, 1776.

George Holcomb, first lieutenant Capt. John Phillips' company. Third
Regiment, Oct. 20, 1777.

Nathaniel Hunt, first lieutenant Capt. Henry Philips' company, Third
Regiment, May 10, 1777.

Andrew Johnson, first lieutenant Capt. Philip Phillips' company, First

Ralph Jones, first lieutenant Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment, May
10, 1777.

Bernice Kirkhoff, first lieutenant Fourth Regiment, Feb. 14, 1778.

Henry Mershon, first lieutenant Capt. Hunt's company, First Regiment,
June 17, 1776.

Moses Moore, first lieutenant Capt. Hunt's company, First Regiment,
May 10, 1777.

"William Parke, first lieutenant Capt. Guild's company, First Regiment, May 10, 1777. Zebulon Barton, cornet Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse,"" Oct. 6, 1777.''= "

Stephen Burrowes (Burroughs), second lieutenant Capt. Hunt's company.
First Regiment, May 10, 1777.

John Drake, second lieutenant Capt. Guild's company, First Regiment,
May 10, 1777.

James Egbert, second lieutenalit Fourth Regiment, Feb. 14, 1778.

James Hallet, second lieutenant, and second lieutenant " Heard's bri-
gade," June 14, 1776 ; also first lieutenant Continental army.

EUet Howell, second lieutenant First Regiment, June 12, 1776; also as-
sistant quartermaster in Quartermaster's Department.

Elias Hunt, second lieutenant First Begiment.

Ralph Lanning, second lieutenant First Begiment, June 17, 1776 ; scout
and guide to Gen. Washington.

Jacob Bunk, second lieutenant Capt. John Phillips' company. Third
Begiment, Oct. 20, 1777.

Nathaniel Temple, second lieutenant Capt. Mott's company. First Regi-
ment, May 10, 1777.

Thomas Ackers, ensign Capt. John Phillips' company, Oct. 20, 1777.

Henry Baker, ensign Third Regiment.

Samuel Beakes, ensign Capt. Hunt's company. First Regiment, May 10,

James Biles, ensign Capt. P. Phillips' company, First Regiment ; also in
Capt. Bonnel's company. State troops.

Timothy Brush, Jr., ensign Capt. Guild's company. First Regiment, May
10, 1777.

David Chambers, private Capt. Tucker's company. First Regiment; pro.
to ensign.

John Coudrick, ensign Third Regiment.

* See also Somerset list, second lieutenants.

Abraham Covert, ensign Third Regiment.

Samuel Everett, ensign Capt. Growendyck's company, Second Begiment

Henry Low, ensign Fourth Regiment, Feb. 14, 1778.

James Maehatt, ensign Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment, May 10,

Eli Moore, ensign Capt. Hunt's company, First Begiment, June 17,

Luther Opdyke, ensign Capt. C. Johnson's company, Third Regiment,
Nov. 5, 1781.

John Reed, sergeant State troops ; sergeant Capt. Opdyke's company.
Second Regiment; ensign Capt. Opdyke's company.

Peter Bockafellow, sergeant Capt John Phillips' company, Third Regi-
ment ; pro. to ensign ; also ensign State troops.

Amos Scudder, private Capt Mott's company, First Regiment; ensign,
May 10, 1777.

Shanks, ensign Second Regiment

Amos Starke, sergeant ; pro. to ensign. ,

Moses Stout, sergeant Capt Stout's company ; pro. to ensign.

Hendrick Suydam, ensign "Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse."

Alexander Thompson, ensign Third Regiment.

OakeVorehase, ensign Third Regiment; resigned.

Samuel Smith, sergeant Capt Philip Phillips' company ; also quarter-

John Burroughs, sergeant Capt. Mott's company, Firfit Regiment

William Cannion, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company. First Begiment.

Henry Cliambers, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company. First Begiment;
sergeant of artillery.

David Davis, sergeant Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Begiment

John Dougherty, sergeant Capt Tucker's company; wounded in hand
by accidental discharge of musket, Sept. 2, 1776.

Benjamin Hendrickson, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company, First Regi-

Azariah Higgins, sergeant Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Begiment

Peter Hulet, sergeant Capt. Tucker's company.

Jonathan Hunt, sergeant Capt. Philip Phillips' company; disch. Sept
20, 1777.

Cornelius Johnson, sergeant Capt. Gi-owendyck's company.

Joseph Justice, sergeant Capt Tucker's company. First Regiment.

Roger Larison, sergeant Capt. Henry Phillips' company, First Regi-

William Larison, sergeant Capt, Tucker's company, First Regiment

Thomas Leonard, private Capt. Tucker's company ; pro. to corporal and

James McCoy, sergeant Capt. Philip Phillips' company; also private
Continental army.

McCue, sergeant Hunterdon militia.

William McGalliard, private Capt. P. Phillips' company ; pro. sergeant.

John Moore, private Capt Mott's company ; pro. sergeant, Sept. 29, 1777.

Nathan Moore, sergeant Capt H. Phillips' company, First Regiment

Nathaniel Moore, sergeant Capt Hoppock's company, Third Regiment

Samuel Morrow, private Third Regiment; pro. sergeant; also sergeant
Capt Johnson's company. State troops.

Palmer Phillips, sergeant Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Christian Sholster, sergeant Capt Tucker's company.

Jediah Stout, sergeant Capt. Stout's company, Third Regiment

Joseph Tindall, sergeant Capt Mott's company.

Johnson Titus, sergeant Capt Tucker's company.

Andrew Van Sickell, sergeant militia.

Henry Wambaugh, sergeant Capt. Stout's company. Third Begiment.

Jonas Wood, sergeant Capt Henry Phillips' company.

George Wyckoflf, sergeant Capt. Lucas' company.

William Akers, private Capt. Tucker's company; corporal Capt John
Phillips' company.

Mathew Bevans, corporal First Regiment; also private Continental

Philip Bevin, private Capt Tucker's company. First Regiment ; private
Capt Gray's company. Second Regiment; private Capt. Snook's
company, Third Regiment; corporal Capt. Yard's company. First

Henry Burrows, corporal Capt. Heniy Phillips' company, First Regi-

John Campbell, corporal Capt Growendyck's company. Second Regiment

George Corwine, corporal First Regiment; also corporal in Continental

Jacob Decker, corporal Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Ralph Hart, corporal Capt Mott's company. First Regiment

William Hart, corporal Capt. Philip Phillips' company, First Regiment



David Hunt, corporal Capt. Tucker^s company. First Regiment
James Kark, corporal Capt. Maxwell's company. Second Regiment.
Henry Moore, corporal Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.
Joseph Phillips, corporal Capt. Mott's company, Oct 6, IITJ.
John Rosa, corporal Capt Hoppock's company. Third Regiment
Amns Smith, corporal Capt. Henry Phillips' company, Oct. 1, 1777 ; pro.

from private.
Benjamin Van Kirk, corporal Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment
Silas Warters, corporal Capt Philip Phillips' company.
Peter Young, corporal Capt Maxwell's company.
Charles Asford, mudcian Capt Tucker's company, Firat Regiment
Henry Merahou, musician Capt Tucker's company ; also in Capt Mott's

William Morris, musician Capt. Tucker's company.
Jonathan Smith, musician Capt. Plulip Phillips' company.
William Smith, musician Capt. Tucker's company.
Wilson Stout musician Capt Henry Phillips' company.
Amos Smith, drummer Capt Mott's company; also Capt Tucker's


Abbott, John, Capt. John Phillips' company, Third Regiment
Abbott Richard, also in the Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's com-
Abbott William, Sr., Capt. John Phillips' company, Third Regiment
Abbott William, Jr., Capt John Phillips' company, Third Regiment.
Abel, Jonathan, Capt. John Phillips' company. Third Regiment
Adam£, John,
Adams, Mathew, Capt. Stillwell's company ; also in Continental army, in

Capt Luce's company.
Adams, PanL
Adams, Samuel.
Adams, William.
Aimes, John, First Regiment ; also in State troops, and in Continental

army, in Capt. Phillips' company.
Akers, Amos, Capt. John Phillips' company, Third Regiment
Akers, Amos, First Regiment; also in State troops, and in Continental

army, in Capt Phillips' company.
Akers, Daniel, Third Regiment in Capt. John Phillips' company.
Akers, John, Third Regiment Capt John Phillips' company.
Akers, Jonathan, Third Regiment Capt John Phillips' company.
Akers, Obadiah, Third Regiment Capt John Phillips' company.
Alden, Thomas, First Regiment; also in State troops, and in Continental

army, in Second Battalion, Second Establishment
Aljon, John.
AUcut John, First Regiment ; also in State troops, and Continental army,

in Capt Van Anglen's company.
Allen, John, Third Regiment »^ Capt. John Phillips' company.
Allen, William.

Allent John, First Regiment; also in State troops.
Anderson, John (1), Capt. Tucker's company.
Anderson, John (2), Capt. Tucker's company.
Anderson, Moses, Capt John Phillips' company.
Andrews, Herbert
Andrews, John.
Angleman, Jacob.
Applegate, Williajn, Capt. Bray's company, Second Regiment; also State

troops, and Continental army.
AppletoD, Samuel, Capt Tacker's company, First Regiment
Armitage, Enoch, Capt Tucker's company, First'Regiment
ArmstroDg. Rev. James F., Capt. P. Gordon's company. First Regiment ;

also chaplain Continental army.
Armstrong, John, Capt Maxwell's company, Second Regiment
Array, James, Capt Stillwell's company, Fourth Regiment ; also State

troops, and Continental army.
Asten, John, Capt. John Phillips' company. Third Regiment
Atchley, Thomas. Capt Henry Phillips' company. First Rpgiment
Auble, Andrew.

Axford, James, Capt. Tucker's company. First Regiment.
Bainbridge, John, First Regiment ; also in State troops, and Continental

Bake, George, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.
Bake, Henry, Third Regiment Capt. John Phillips' company.
Bake, John, Third Regiment Capt John Phillips' company.
Bake, Peter, Third Regiment Capt John Phillips' company.
Baker, Joseph, First Regiment, Capt. Philip Phillips' company; disch.

Sept 23, 1777.

Baker, Samuel, First Regiment Capt. Philip Phillips' company.
Baker, Timothy, First Regiment Capt Tucker's company; also in

Carle's Troop Light-Horse.
Barcalow, Gilbert also in the Continental army, Capt Anderson's com-
Bardin, John, Third Regiment s.nd also in State troops.
Bans, John, Second Regiment, Capt Maxwell's company.
Barkelow, Cornelius, Second Regiment Capt. Cornelius Johnson's com-
pany; also in State troops.
Barkelow, Hunterdon, Second Regiment; also in State troops,
Barkelow, John, Second Regiment, Capt Growendyck's company.
Bamet William.
Barrell, William, First Regiment in companies of Capta. Tucker and

Henry Phillips.
Bartholomew, DanieL
Beam, John.
Beam, Lewis.
Beard, Moses.
Beemer, John.

Bell, William, Third Regiment; also in the State troops.
BelUs, John, Third Regiment ; also in the State troops and Continental

Belloes, Andrew, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Bennett, John, First Regiment Capt Philip Phillips' company.
Bennett Nehemiah, Capt. Tucker's company ; also in Stat« troops and

Continental army.
Bennett Thomas, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment
Bercan, Peter.
Binge, William, First Regiment Capt P. Phillips' company ; also in State

Bird, Peter.

Bethe, Archibald, First Regiment; also in State troops and Continental

Blackford, Anthony, also in the Continental army.

Blackwell, Beniami, " Capt Carle's Troop Light-Horse*'*

Blackwell, Benjamin, " Capt Carle's Troop Light^Horse."

Blackwell, Elijah, troop light-horse and infantry; also commissary of

Blackwell, Stephen, " Capt Carle's Troop Light-Horse."

Blaine, Benjamin.

Blaine, John.

Blair, Benjamin.

Blair, William.

Blane, Benjamin.

Boden, James, Capt. Tucker's company ; also in artillery and Continental

Bogart Adam.

Boiles, Benjamin, Capt. Philip Phillips' company. First Regiment

Bond, Samuel, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Bonham, John.

Bonham, Levi, First Regiment Capt. Tucker's company.

Bonham, Zedekiah.

Boss, Abram.

Boughner, Sebastian.

Boys, John, Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment

Bray, Andrew, Capt Stillwell's company; also State troops and Conti-
nental army.

Breese, Henry, Capt. StillweU's company; also State troops and Conti-
nental army.

Breis, Daniel, Capt. John PhiUips' company. Third Regiment

Breis, John, Capt. John Phillips' company, Third Regiment

Brewer, Henry.

Brittain, James.

Brittain, William, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Broadhurst Joseph, Capt John Phillips' company.

Broadtrees, William, Capt John Phillips' company.

Brokaw, Abram.

Brokaw, Peter, also in the Continental army.

Brown, George, Capt. Stillwell's company; also State troops and Conti-
nental army.

Brown, James, First Regiment; also State troops and Continental army.

Brown, Joseph.

Brown, Timothy, Capt. Stillwell's company, Fourth Regiment; State
troops and Continental army.

Bruner, Jacob.

Brust, Israel, Capt Tucker's company; also Continental army, Capt Pol-
hem us' company.



BruBt, Israel. Fourth Regiment ; also State troops.

Buchanan, Alexander, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.

Buckley, Cornelius, Third Regiment; also State troops and Continental
army, Capt. Anderson's company,

Bunn, Jonathan, Capt. Henry Phillips' company, and Capt. Tucker's com-

Bunn, Joseph, Capt. Growendyck's company, Second Regiment.

Burns, Daniel, also in Continental army.

Burnside, Patrick, Capt. Philip Phillips' company,

Burrougbs, Anthony, Capt. Mott's company.

Burroughs, Edon.

Burroughs, Jonathan.

Burroughs, Stephen.

Burrows, Israel, Capt Henry Phillips' company.

Burrows, James, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.

Burrows, John, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.

Burrows, Joseph, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.

Burtes, John, Capt. Mott's company.

Burwell, Thomas, Third Regiment; also State troops.

Bussingburg, William.

Butler, John.

Butts, Alexander, Capt. Gulick's company, Second Regiment; also State
troops and Continental army.

Cahoon, Jacob, First Regiment; also State troops and Continental army,
Second Regiment.

Gaidar, Ninian, Second Regiment: also State troops and Continental
army, Capt. Ross' company.

Campbell, Daniel, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Campbell, William, Second Regiment, Capt. Bray's company ; also in Con-
tinental army and State troops.

Careck, James, Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment.

Carhart, Richard.

Carhart, Robert.

Carlisle, Ebenezer, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.

Carpenter, Henry, Capt. Tucker's company.

Carpenter, Hope, Capt. Mott's company. First Regiment.

Carpenter, John, Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment.

Carpenter, Richard, Capt Tucker's company. First Regiment.

Carr, James, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Carr, William, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Case, Samuel, Capt. Hoppock's company, Third Regiment.

Caee, Thomas, in Third Regiment and First Regiment, and State troops

also in Continental army.
Case, Tunis.

Casey, William, Capt Maxwell's company.

Catrell, Wm., also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Chamberlain, Clayton.
Chamberlain, David, Capt. Jacob Carhart's company. Second Regiment;

and Continental army, in Capt. Johnson's company.
Chamberlain, Godfrey, Capt Henry Phillips' company.
Chamberlain, John, Capt Henry Phillips' company.
Chamberlain, Lewis, Capt Johnson's company ; also in State troops, and

Continental army.
Chamberlain, Seth, Capt Opdycke's company. Second Regiment
Chamberlain, William.

Chambers, Alexander, Capt, Tucker's company.

Cherol, James, also in Continental army, in Captain Martin's company.
Chew, Richard, also in Continental army, in Second Battalion, Second

Christopher, Daniel, Capt. Tucker's company.
Christopher, Jesse, Capt. Carle's troop of light-horae.
Churles, John.

Clark, Joseph, Capt. Stout's company.
Clark, Joshua, Capt Maxwell's company.
Clark, Thomas, Capt Maxwell's company.
Clayton, Job D., miUtia.
Clemens, John, Capt Mott's company.
Clover, Peter, Capt Stout's company.
Coghran, Tobias, militia.
Coleman, John, Capt Growendyck's company; killed at Tan Nest's

Coleman, Samuel, Capt Carle's troop of light-horse.
Comner, John, Capt. Gearhart's company ; also in State troops.
Conger, Daniel, Capt StUlwell's company ; also in State troops, and

Continental army.
Conner, Edward, Capt. Growendyck's company, Capt. Brink's company
in State troops, and Continental army. '

Conselyea, Andrew, Capt Still well's company. Fourth Regiment; also la

State troops, and Continental army.
Contraman, John.

Cook, Henry, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.
Cook, Jonathan, Capt. Mott's company.

Coolbaugh, William, Capt Bray's company, Capt. Growendyck's com-
pany ; also State troops.
Cooper, John, also in Continental army, and in State troops.
Cooper, Michael.
Cooper, William.
Corhart, Cornelius,

Cornell, John, Capt Tucker's company.
Cornell, Nathaniel, Capt, Tucker's company.
Cornell, William.
Correll, Joseph.

Corwiue, John, Third Regiment; also in Stat-e troops.
Corwine, Samuel, Third Regiment; also in State troops.
Coryell, Abram, Capt. John Phillips' company.
Coryell, John, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Covenhoven, Albert, Third Regiment; also in State troops; and in Conti-
nental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Co well, Isaac.
Crab, James.
Craig, John.
Crammer, Peter.
Cray, James.
Creesey, James. Third Regiment; also Capt. Johnson's company, State

Critser, Leonard, Second Regiment; also State troops; and Continental

army, Capt Ross' company.
Curren, Richard, Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment.
Dallemar, Robert, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's com-
Dane, James, Fourth Regiment; also in the State troops.
Dangwell, John.

Davis, William, Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment.
Day, Thomas, also in Continental army, Fourth Battalion, Second Es-
Dayley, Joseph, First Regiment, Capt Tucker's company, and in Capt

P. Phillips' company.
Dean, John, Second Regiment, Capt Opdycke's company; also in State

Deare, James, Fourth Regiment, Capt Stillwell's company; also in

Continental army.
Decker, John.

Deemer, Joseph, First Regiment; also in State troops; and in the Conti-
nental army, Capt. Longstreth's company.
Demund, William.
Denman, John.

Dennis, Eiios, Second Regiment, Capt. Carhart's company; also in State
troops; and in Continental army, Third Battalion, Second Establish-
Devotee, John.

Devore, John, Fourth Regiment, Capt Stillwell's company; also in Con-
tinental army, and State troops.
Dils, Peter.

Dilts, Jacob, Second Regiment, Capt Maxwell's company.
Dingwell, John.
Ditmars, John.

Dohedra, John, also in Continental army, Capt Anderson's company.
Drake, Enoch, First Regiment, Capt Tucker's company.
Drake, James, First Regiment, Capt Tucker's company.
Drake, John, " Capt Carle's Troop Light-Horse," also express-rider.
Drake, Nicholas, First Regiment ; also State troops and Continental army,

in Capt. Polhemus' company.
Drake, William, First Regiment, Capt Tucker's company ; disch. Oct..

30, 1777.
Dunbar, Lott, First Regiment, Capt Tucker's company.
Dunham, David.
Dunster, John.
Dusenberry, Henry.
Dusenberry, Samuel.
Dusenberry, William.

Elvis, Jacob, First Regiment, Capt Philip Phillips' company.
Emmons, Jacob.

Emmons, Job, First Regiment, Capt. Tuckei's company.
Emmons, John.



Ennis (or lunifi), Robert, Second Begiment, Capts Brink's company ; also
in State truops ; also Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's com-
Ent, Daniel, Sr.
Ent, Daniel, Jr.

Ent, Valentine, Third Regiment, Capt. Hoppock's company.
Erwine, Robert, Second Regiment, Capt. 0. Johnson's company; also

State troops.
Evans, John, Fourth Regiment, Capt. Stillwell's company; also State

troops ; also sergeant in Continental army, Capt. Luce's company.
Erans, Obadiah, First Regiment ; also State troops ; and Continental army,

Capt. Anderson's company.
Felty, George, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.
Ferrat, Cornelius.

Ferrel, Absalom, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. First Regiment.
Fidler, John, Capt. Henry Phillips' company. First Regiment.
Field, Seth, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Fink, Nicholas, Capt. Cornelius Johnson's company; also State troops.
Finley, John, militia; also corporal in Continental army.
Fish, Joseph, Capt. Mott's company. First Regiment ; also in artillery.
Fisher, Christopher, Third Regiment ; also State troops, and Continental

Fisher, Jacob, Third Regiment ; also State troops, and Continental army.
Fisher, John, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.
Fisher, Moses, Third Regiment; also State troops, and Continental

Fisher, Peter, Third Regiment, Capt. Stout's company.
Fitch, "William, Capt. Brink's company; State troops; and Continental

Fleet, Jasper.

Foster, Jeremiah, Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment.
Fongh or (Vought), Peter, Third Regiment ; State troops ; Continental

army, in Capt. Anderson's company.
French, Daniel, Third Regiment ; State troops ; Continental army, Fourth

Battalion, Second Establishment.
French, Jeremiah.
Frits, Peter.

Fullmore, John, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Furman, Joshua, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company ; also State

Furman, Nathaniel, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company; also

Ganen, William, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Ganno, Daniel, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Ganno, Isaac.
Garrison, Matthias.
Gaven, John, First Regiment ; State troops ; also sergeant in Continental

army. First Battalion, Second Establishment.
Ghulick, Ferdinand, Second Regiment, Capt. Growendyck's company.
Ghnlick, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Growendyck's company.
Ghulick, Nicholas, Second Regiment, Capt. Growendyck's company.
Ghulick, Samuel, Second Regiment, Capt. Growendyck's company.
Gillespie, William, Capt. Opdyke's company ; State troops ; and Conti-

' nental army, in Capt. Polhemus' company.
Godown, John, Third Regiment, Capt. Hoppock's company.
Grordon, Bemardus, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Gosling, Levi.

Goulder, Elias, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Groulder, Jacob, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Goulder, William, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Grant, John, Third Regiment, State troops; also Continental army.

Fourth Battalion, Second Establishment.
Grant, Robert, Third Regiment, Capt, Hoppock's company.
Gray, Abram.
Green, "William.
Grim^ Sheppard, First Regiment ; also State troops, and Continental

army, Capt. Phillips' company.
Grindle, Jonathan, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson^s company.
Guild, John, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Guion, John.

Gwinop, George, Capt. Neil's Eastern company artillery, [State troops;
discharged March 1, 1777; Capt. Philip Phillips' company, First
Hagin, David.

Hagxn, James, Third Regiment, Capt, Stout's company.
Hall, Cbailes, also in Continental army, in Capt. Martin's company.
Hall, Jacob, Second Regiment, Capt. Growendyck's company.

Hankinson, Joseph, died in Readington, Nov. 30, 1825, aged eighty-one

Hanner, George, also in Continental army, Capt. Martin's company.
Harden (or Harder), William, Third Regiment; also in State troops.
Harr, James.

Harrington (or Herrington), William.
Harris, William, " Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse."
Harrison, William, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Hart, Absalom, Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment.
Hart, Asa, Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment.
Hart, Asher, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.
Hart, Frederick, also in the Continental army. Fourth Battalion, Second

Hart, John, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company.
Hart, Joseph, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Hart, Nathaniel, Capt. Henry Phillips' company ; disch. disability.
Hart, Philip, Capt. Mott's company.
Hart, Samuel, Capt. Mott's company.
Hart, Stephen, Capt. Tucker's company.
Hart, Titus, Capt. Henry Phillips' company,
Hauu, William.
Heath, Andrew.
Heath, David.
Helmes, Joseph.
Hendershot, Abram,

Hendrickson, Thomas, Capt. Mott's company; wiigoner ditto,
Hepburn, William, Capt. Tucker's company.
Hervey, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company,
Hice, Jacob, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Hice, Jasper, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Hickson, Matthew, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Hill, Samuel, Capt, Mott's company.
Himeon, Adam, Capt, Maxwell's company.
Hixon, Abner, Third Regiment; also in State troops.
Hixon, James, Third Regiment; also in State troops; and Continental

army, in Capt. Ballard's company.
Hixon, Jediah, Third Regiment, Capt. Stout's company.
Hixon, John, Third Regiment; also in Continental army, Capt. Ballard's

Hixon, Joseph, Third Regiment; also in Continental army ; and State

Hoagland, Amos, Capt, Growendyck's company, Second Regiment.
Hoagland, Derrick.

Hoagland, John, Capt, Growendyck's company.
Hockenberry, John, Third Regiment; also State troops; and Continental

army, Capt, Ballard's company.
Hoff, Abel, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.
Holcomb, Elijah, Third Regiment, Capt. Hoppock's company ; also in

State troops ; and Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Holden, Benjamin, Second Regiment, Capt. Jacob Carhart's company;

also State troops, and Continental army.
Holden, Benjamin, Third Regiment, Hunterdon; also Continental army.
Hooper, James, Capt. Tucker's company ; also in artillery .-f*
Hooper, Robert, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company,
Horn, Ralph, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Home, Joseph, Third Regiment ; also in Capt. Johnson's company, State

Horner, Samuel, Third Regiment, in Capt. Stout's company.
Hottenbury, John. [See John Hockenberry.]
Howard, John, Capt, John Phillips' company,
Howell, Absalom, Capt. Mott's company,
Howell, Arthur, militia.
Howell, Ezekiel, Capt. Mott's company.
Howell, Israel, Capt, Mott's company.
Howell, John, Capt. Tucker's company.
Howell, Thomas, Capt. Jacob Carhart's company ; also State troops ; and

Continental army, Capt. Polhemus' company.
Howell, William, " Capt, Carle's Troop Light-Horse,"
Hubbs, James, Capt, Tucker's company, First Regiment.
Huff, Andrew, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Huff, Thomas, Capt. Tucker's company.

Hughes, John, Capt, Hoppock's company; also in State troops.
Hughy, Will, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Humphries, John, Capt. Tucker's company.

* Hunterdon Gazette, Dec, 15, 1826.

j- Died near Trenton, March 31, 1827, aged eighty-five years.


Hunt, Benjamin, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Hunt, Daniel, Capt. Tucker's company.

Hunt, Israel, Capt. Tucker's company.

Hunt, Jesse, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Hunt, John, Jr., Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Hunt, John, Sr., Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Hunt, Jonathan, "Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horee."

Hunt, Samuel, Capt. Henry Phillips' company, First Regiment*

Hunter, Harman, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.

Hunter, James.

Hutchinson, William, Second Regiment, Capt. Bray's company; also in
State troops, and Continental army.

Inslee, Joseph, First Kegiment.

Irwin, James, First Begiraent; also in State troops ; and in Continental
army, Capt. Phillips' company. ^

James, Ellas.

James, Robert, First Regiment, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Jenkins, Joseph, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Johnson, Abner.

Johnson, Daniel, Third Regiment; also in Capt. Johnson's company,
State troops.

Johnson, Enoch, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Johnson, John (1), Second Regiment, Capt. Johnson's company ; also in
State troops.

Johnson, John (2), in Hunterdon militia; also in State troops; and Con-
tinental army, Capt. Phillips' company.

Johnson, Matthew, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Johnson, Samuel, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Johnson, William, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Johnson, William, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Johnston, Andrew.

Johnston, Daniel

Johnston, David, Second Regiment ; also forage-master.

Johnston, Jacob, Third Regiment, Capt. Stout's company.

Johnston, Samuel, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Jones, Israel, First Regiment, Capt. Mott'e company.

Jones, Joshua, Second Regiment, Capt. Jacob Carhart's company; also
in State troops ; and Continental army.

Jordan, Felix, First Regiment; also in State troops; and Continental
army, Capt. Phillips' company.

Kallender (or Killenar), Philip, Third Regiment, Capt. Johnson's com-
pany ; State troops.

Kellison, William.

Ketch am, Levi.

Kibler, Matthias, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Kirkendall, Andrew.

Knowles, Jesse, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company, and
Capt. Tucker's company.

Kuleman, Johannes, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Labaw, Charles.

Lafferty, John.

Lahey, John, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.

Lain, Daniel, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Lake, Isaac, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Lake, Thomas, Second Regiment, Capt. Bray's company ; also in State

Lamb, Patrick, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Lambert, Jeremiah, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Lambert, Lott, also in Continental army, Capt. Martin's company.

Lancaster, Joseph, First Regiment, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Lane, Comeliue, Fourth Regiment, Capt. Lane's company ; killed at
Allentown, June 27, 1778.

Lane, Gilbert.

Lane, John.

Lanning, Daniel, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Lanning, David, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company; scout.

Lanning, Elijah, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company; also wagoner.

Lanning, .Tohn.

Lanning, Robert, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Large, Jonathan, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Larrison, John, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Latimer, John, First Regiment, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Latourette, Peter, also in Continental ai-my.

Lee, Charles.

Iree~, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

* Died June 25, 1825, vide Hunterdon Gazette, 1825.

Leford, Vincent, First Regiment ; also State troops, and Continental

Leigh, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Growendyck's company.

Leonard, Nathaniel, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Leonard, Samuel, Fourth Regiment, Capt. Stillwell's company; State
troops, and Continental army.

Lobdell, Thomas.

Lockade, James, Second Regiment, Capt. Jacob Carhart's company; also
in State troops, and Continental army.

Long, George, also in State troops, and Continental army, First Battal-
ion, Second Establishment.

Long, Henry, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Loratt, Cornelius.

Loratt, Peter.

Lott, Abraham, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's Company.

Lyon, Henry, Fourth Regiment, Capt. Stillwell's company ; State troops
and Continental army.

Lyons, Elias, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.

Mac Andrew, Andrew, Second Regiment.

MacLick, Leonard.

MacLick, Peter.

Malaby, Cornelius, also in Capt. Anderson's company, Col. Johnson's
battalion " Levies" ; died while prisoner, Dec. 28, 1776.

Malat, Peter.

Malcolm, John, First Regiment ; also in State troops, and in Continental

Manners, John, Sr., Third Regiment, Capt, Stout's company.

Mapes, Joseph.

Marlatt, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Johnson's company ; also in Con-
tinental army.

Marlatt, Peter, Second Regiment, Capt. Peter Stillwell's company, Fourth
Regiment; also in Continental army.

Marcelles, Eden, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Marsh, John.

Marts, William, Third Regimemt; also in State troops.

Martin, Reuben, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Matthews, Henry, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Matthews, Pearae, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Matthews, Robert.

McCafFerty, Joseph, Second Regiment, Capt. Opdyck's company; also
State troops; and Continental army, Capt. Ross' company.

McCain, John, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company,

McClellan, James, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

McCollem, Duncan, Second Regiment, Capt, Maxwell's company.

McCollom, John, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's com-

McConnally, Patrick, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's

McConnell, Hugh, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company,

McCoy, Daniel, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company. •

McDaniel, Edward, Second Regiment, Capt. Gearhart's company ; also in
State troops.

McDonel, John, Second Regiment, Capt, Maxwell's company.

McGonigal. John, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

McKinney, Mordecai.

McKinstry, John, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

McKinstry, Matthias.

McLure, Andrew, also sergeant in Continental army. First Battalion,
Second Establishment.

McLure, James, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's com-

McMahan, David, also in State troops ; and in Continental army, Capt.
Phillips' company.

McNeal, Henry, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's com-

McSperry, Matthew, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's com-

Meloby, Thomas, Third Regiment; also in State troops; and Continental
army, in Capt. Anderson's company.

Merlett, John, Second Regiment (probably same as John Marlatt).

Merrell, Benjamin, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Merrell, David, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Mershon, Asher, First Reyiment, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Mershon, Benjamin, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Mershon, Timothy, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Milburn, Timothy, First Regiment, Capt. H. Phillips' company: disoh.
Oct. a, 1777.



Miller, lEVancie. First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Miller, Malaher, also in the Continental army, Capt. Anderson's com-
Miller, Prime, First Re^ment, Capt. Mott's company.
Mitchell, William, alao in the Continental army, Capt, Anderson's com-
Monfort, Isaac, Fourth Kegiment, Capt. StillwelFs company; State troops ;

and Continental army, Capt. Luce's company.
Montgomery, William, Second Regiment, Capt Maxwell's company.
Moore, Abijah, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Moore, Henry, First Kegiment; also in State troops and Continental

army, First Battalion, Second Establishment.
Moore, Israel, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company ; also wagoner.
Moore, James, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Moore, Jesse, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company.
Moore, John, First Regiment, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.
Moore, Loammix, First Regiment, Capt, Henry Phillips' company.
Moore, Moses, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.
Moore, Philip, First Regiment, Capt. Tncker's company.
Moore, Sackett, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company.
Moore, Samuel, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's compiiny.
Moore, Stephen, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.
Moore, William, First Regiment, Capt, Tucker's company.
Moorehead, George, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Mcrrgan, Anthony, First Regiment, also in State troops and in Conti-
nental army.
Mount, Elijah, Third Regiment, Capt. Stout's company.
Mount, Ezekiel, Third Regiment, Capt. Stout's company.
Mow, William.

Muirhead, John, CaptH. Phillips' company ; also State troops; and Con-
tinental army, Capt. Ballard's company.
Muirheid, William, Capt. John Phillips' company, Third Regiment.
Munjoy, James, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's- company.
Murray, James, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Naylor, Amos, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Neal, Thomas.
Nebbard, Eliphalet, also'in Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's com<

pany. Fourth Battalion, Second Establishment.
Nevius, John.

Nice, Richard, First Regiment, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.
Nicebauk, John, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.
Noe, Lewis, also in Continental army, io Capt. Anderson's company.
Nun, John, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.
Oliver, Allen, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.
Osbum, Joseph, also in Continental army, First Battalion, Second Estab-
lishment; Capt. Dayton's company, Third Regiment.
Osman, John, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Palmer, Edmund, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Palmer, William, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company.
PeArson, Daniel, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Pearson, Timothy, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company, and Capt

Mott's company.
Peigant, Robert, also in Continental army, Capt Anderson's company.
Penwell, David.
PeiTine, John.

Peters, John, Second Regiment, Capt Growendyck's company.
Peterson, Samuel, Fourth Regiment, Capt. Stillwell's company; also
State troops ; and Continental army, in Capt. Luce's company, Second
Battalion, Second Kstablishment
Pettit, Jesse, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Pliilhower, Christopher.

Phillips, John, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Phillips. John, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company.
Phillips, Lott, Sr., First Regiment, Capt Henry Phillips' company.
Phillips, Lott, Jr., First Regiment, Capt Henry Phillips' company, and

Capt. Tucker's company.
Phillips, Theo., First Regiment, Capt Tucker's company.
Phillips, Thomas, Third Regiment, Capt John Phillips' company.
Pidcock, Charles, Third Regiment, Capt John Phillips' company.
Pidcock, Jonathan, Third Regiment, Capt. Jobn Phillips' company.
Pinkney, William, First Regiment ; also State troops ; and Continental

army, in Capt. Longstreth's company.
Pittson, Andrew.

Puwers, George, also in Continental army. First Battalion, Second Estab-
Prall, Jolin, Second Regiment; wounded Jan. 20, 1777.
Pratt, Cornelius, also in Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's company.


Price, Benj., Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company ; alao in Conti-
nental army.
Price, Joseph, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company.
Price, Rice.
Quick, Henry.
Quick, Samuel.
Quick, William, Third Regiment; State troops; and Continental army,

Capt. Anderson's company.
Race, Andrew, Third Regiment ; State troops; and Continental army,

Capt. Anderson's company.
Racy, Philip, Third Regiment, Capt Hoppock's company.
Randel, John, also Continental army, in Capt. Martin's company.
Rap, Conrad, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Read, George, Third Regiment ; also State troops ; and Continental army,

Capt. Ballard's company.
Reader, William.

Recey, Philip, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Reed, Benjamin, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Reed (or Read), Ephraim, First Regiment ; State troops ; and Continental

army, in Capt. Polhemus' company.
Reed, Isaac, First Regiment, Capt Mott's company.
Reed, Joshua, First Regiment, Capt Mott's company.
Reed, Richard, First Regiment, Capt Mott's company.
Reed, Thomas.

Reeder, Isaac, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Reeder, John, Firat Regiment, Capt Tucker's company, and Capt Mott's

Reeves, John, Second Regiment, , Capt. Bray's company; also in State

troops; and in Continental army.
Reid, Ephraim, Third Regiment, Capt Stout's company.
Reynolds, John.
Reynolds, William.

Ridler, WiUiam, First Regiment, Capt. Mott's company ; also in artillery.
Riffner, Adam, Second Regiment, Capt Gulick's company ; also in State

troops and Continental army, Capt Anderson's company.
Roberts, Edmund.

Robertson, John, First Regiment, Capt, Philip Phillips' company,
Robeson, William, First Regiment, Capt Tucker's company.
Rockefellow, Christ, Third Regiment, Capt John Phillips' company.
Roof, Adam, Second Regiment, Capt Maxwell's company.
Rorits, William, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Rosbrook, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Rose, Charles, Third Regiment, Capt John Phillips' company.
Rose, Ezekiel, First Regiment, Capt Tucker's company.
Rose, Jonathan, Second Regiment, Capt. Growendyck's company.
Rose, Jonathan, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.
Ross, Joseph, also in Continental army, in Fourth Battalion, Second

Roy, Patrick, Second Regiment, Capt Gulick's company; also State
troops; also in Continental army, in Capt. Polhemus' company, First
Battalion, First Establishment.
Ruckman, John, Third Regiment, Capt. Stout's company ; also in State

Runk, William, Tliird Regupent, Capt John Phillips' company.
Runnolds, John, Third Regiment; also in Capt Johnson's company,

State troops.
Ryall, George, First Regiment, Capt Mott's company.
Ryan, Timothy, also in the Continental army, Fourth Battalion, Second

Byon, John, Third Regiment; also in State troops; and in Continental

army, in Capt Anderson's company.
Sackville, Peter, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Saxton, Charles, Capt. H. Phillips' company, First Regiment, and " Capt

Carle's Troop Light-Horse."
Scott, Israel, Capt. P. PliilUps' and Capt. Tucker's companies. First Regi-
Scott, Martin, Capt Tucker's company, First Regiment.
Scudder, Jedediah, First Regiment, Capt Mott's company.
Search, James, Capt. Bray's company, Second Regiment; also State

troops; also Continental army.
Search, Lott, Capt. Bray's company. Second Regiment; also State troops.
Sergeant, Joseph.

Seymour, Jacob, also in Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's company.
Shannon, Daniel, Capt. Opdyck's company, Second Regiment; also in

State troops.
Sheridan, John, Capt. Opdyck's company, Second Regiment ; also in Con-
tinental army.



Shildol, (Jodfrey.

Shoulder, Andrew.

Shubert, John, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company, and Con-
tinental army, Mret Battalion, Second Establishment.

Shusts, Matthias, also in Continental army, Capt. Martin's company,
Fourth Battahon.

Sigler, Henry, Second Regiment, Capt. MaxwelPs company.

Simons, Henry, First Regiment, Capt. Heni*y Phillips' company.

Simpson, John.

Sinclair, Peter, Capt, Maxwell's company. Second Regiment.

Slack, Daniel, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.

Slack, Uriah, Capt. Mott's company, First Regiment.

Slingsland, Henry, Capt. StiUwell's company, Fourth Regiment ; also
State troops ; and Continental army, in Capt. Voorhees' company,
First Battalion, Second Establishment.

Small, ^Villiam, Capt. Opdyck's company, Second Regiment; also State
troops, and Continental army.

Smith, Andrew, Fii-st Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Smith, Benjamin, Third Regiment, Capt. Stout's company.

Smith, Burroughs (also spelled " Burrowes").

Smith, Abijah, " Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse."

Smith, Hugh, First Regiment; also Continental army.

Smith, Jacob, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Smith, James, Capt. Henry Phillips' company, First Regiment; also Con-
tinental army.

Smith, Jasper, " Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse."

Smith, Jeiemiah, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Smith, John, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Smith, John (1), Third Regiment ; also in the State troops.

Smith, John (2), Third Regiment; State troops; also in Continental

Smith, Jonathan, Jr., Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Smith, Jonathan, Sr., Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Smith, Joseph (1), Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Smith, Joseph (2), Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Smith, Joseph, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Smith, Joseph, " Capt. Carle's Troop of Light-Horse."

Smith, Philip, in companies of Capts. Tucker and Philip Phillips.

Smith, Thaddeus, Third Regiment, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Smock, Matthias.

Smyth, Joseph.

Snedeker, James,

Snider, Henry, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Snyder, Henry, Capt. Bray's company, Second Regiment; also State

Snyder, M'illiiim, Capt. Growendyck's company, Second Regiment.

Sowere, John.

Spicer, John, also in Continental army. First Battalion, Second Estab-

Starker, Aaron.

Stephens, Prince, Capt, Maxwell's company. Second Regiment.

Stevens, Benjamin, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Stevens, John, Capt. Carle's troop.

Stevenson, Augustus, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Stiger, Adam.

Stiger, Baltus.

Stilhvell, Jeremiah, Capt. John Phillips' company, Third Re"-iment.

Stillwell, John, Capt. Tucker's company, Firet Regiment; also ai-tillery.

Stockbridge, John, Capt. Maxwell's company,

Stockton, John, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.

Stout, Andrew, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Stout, Benjamin, Capt. John Phillips' company'.

Stout, James, First Regiment; State troops, and Continental army.

Stout, John, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment; disch. Oct. 30

Stout, John (tailor), Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.

Stout, Joseph, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Stout, Sin, Capt. Tucker's company.

Stout, Timothy, Capt. Stout's company. Third Regiment.

Stuart, John, Capt, Maxwell's company.

Sullivan, Daniel, Capt. Gearhart's company, Second Regiment- also in
State troops.

Sullivan, William.

Sutphen, James.

Sutton, Amos, Third Regiment; also in State troops,
Sutton, Joseph, Third Regiment; also in State troops.
Swallow, Jacob, Third Regiment, Capt. Hoppock's company.

Target, John, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.

Tarret, Cornelius.

Taylor, Elisha.

Taylor, Henry,

Taylor, Isaac.

Taylor, Thomas.

Tedrick, George, also in the Continental army.

Terry, Abraham, Capt. Tucker's company, First Regiment.

Thatcher, Elijah.

Thimpel, John, Capt, Tucker's company.

Thomas, John, First Regiment ; also State troops, and Continental army.

Thomas, Robert.

Thompson, George, First Regiment; also State troops, and Continental

Thompson, James, Capt. Blaxwell 's company.

Thompson, John, Third Regiment; also in State troops,

Thompson, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Johnson's company; also in
State troops; and in Continental army, Capt. Phillips' company.

Tidd, William. (See William Todd, evidently the same person.)

TindaU, Joshua, Capt. Mott's company.,

Titus, Asa, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.

Titus, Benjamin, Capt. Mott's company.

Titus, Jesse, Capt. Henry Phillips' company; also in Capt. Van Cleve's

company, Col. Johnson's battalion, Heard's brigade.
Titus, John, Capt. Tucker's company.
Titus, John H., Capt. Henry Phillips' company ; also in Continental

army, Capt. Phillips' company.
Titus, Joseph, Fii-st Regiment, Capt. Henry Pliillips' company.
Titus, Samuel, First Regiment, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Titus, Uriah, Firat Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company,
Tobin, Peter, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Todd, William, Capt. StiUwell's company, Fourth Regiment ; also State

troops and Continental army, in Capt. Luce's company.
Treazey, John, Second Regiment, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Troy, Samuel, Second Regiment, Capt. Gearhart's company; also State

Tucker, Samuel, First Regiment, Capt. Tucker's company.
Turner, Nathan, First Regiment ; also State troops ; in Continental army,
First Battalion, Second Establishment, and Capt. Phillips' com-
pany, Second Regiment.
Tustin, Samuel, Capt. Tucker's company.
Tway, Timothy, also in Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's company ;

later in Capt. Dayton's company.
Ulph, Jacob.

Utt, John, Capt. Stout's company, Third Regiment.

Tan Arsdale, John, Capt. StiUwell's company ; State troops; and Conti-
nental army, in Capt. Luce's company.
Van Atta, John, Capt, Maxwell's company. Second Regiment.
Van Black, Arthur; also in Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's

Van Cleve, Isba, Capt. Henry Phillips' company, First Regiment.
Van Derveer, James.

Van Devort, Charles, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Van Devort, John, Capt. Maxwell's company.

Van Fleet, Abraham, Capt. StillweU's company; .State troops, and Conti-
nental army.
Van Gorden, William.

Van Gorden, , Capt. Maxwell's company, Second Regiment.

Van Kirk, John, Capt. Tucker's company.

Van Kirk, William.

Van Neulen, James, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Van NoUer, Coruelius,Capt. Philip Phillips' company: disch Sept '9

Van Norden, David, Capt. Tucker's company.
Van Noy, Anderson, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Van Noy, John, Capt. Philip Phillips' company.
Van Pelt, John.
Van Reid, Cornelius, First Regiment; State troops, also Continental

army, Capt. Phillips' company.
Van Sickle, Andrew.
Van Sickle, Garret.

Van Sickle, William, Capt. Stout's company.
Van Tyle, Abram.
Van Tyle, John.

Vaught, Peter, Capt. Stout's company. Third Regiment. (See F9ugh.)
Veal, William, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Vint, Juhn, First Regiment, Continental army, Capt. Phillips' company.



Yoorhees, Albert, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Yoorheese, John.

Warman (or Warner), "William, Capt. Johnson's company; State troops;
and Continental Army, in Capt. Koss' company. Third Battalion,
Second Establishment.
Waterson, Thomas, Third Regiment; State troops; a'.so Continental

army, Capt. Mitchell's company.
Welch, Hugh, Capt. Tucker's company.
Welden, Alexander, Capt. Tucker's company.
Welling, John, Capt. P. Phillips' company.
Weser, Jacob.
Westbrook, Cornelius.
Westbrook, James.

Wetherhawk, Johannes, Capt. Maxwell's company.
White, John, Capt. Stout's company.
Whiteal, Nathan.

Wliitehead, John, Capl Stout's company.
Wickoff, Garret, Capt. John Phillips' company.
Wickoff, John.
Willabee, Wm., Capt. Cornelius Carhart's company; State troops; and

Continental army, in Capt. Ross' company.
Wilhelm, Henry, Capt. Gulick's company; also in Continental army, in

Capt. Anderson's company.
Wilkinson, Wm., also in Continental army, in Capt. Anderson's com-
pany ; died Jan. 23, 1777.
Williams, James, Capt. Mott's company.

Williams, John, also in Continental army, Capt. Pothemus' company.
Williams, Owen, also in Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Williams, Samuel.

Williamson, Abram, Capt. Stout's company.
Williamson, Bar, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Williamson, Jaxxib, Capt. Henry Phillips' company.
Williamson, Jacob, Capt. Stout's company; State troops; also in Conti-
nental army, Capt. Ballard's company.
Wilson, Daniel.

Wilson, Francis, Capt. John Phillips' company.

Wilson, James, Capt. Hem^ Phillips' company ; also Continental army,
'First Battalion, Second Establishment, and Capt. Mitchell's company,
First Regiment.
Wilson, John, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Wilson, John, Capt. John Phillips' company. Third Regiment.
Wilson, Thomaa, Capt. John Phillips' company, Third Regiment.
Wilson, William, Capt. John Phillips' company. Third Regiment.
Wiucoop, Cornelius;

Winfield, Matthew, also Continental army, Capt, Anderson's company.
Wood, Aaron, Capt. Bray's company. Second Regiment; also in State

Wood, Daniel, Capt. Gulick's company, Second Regiment ; also in State

troops; and Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Wood, Hezekiah (Ezekiah), Capt. Growendyck's company.
Wood, Michael, First Regiment; State troops; Continental army, in

Capt. Phillips' company.
Wood, William, also Continental army, Capt. Anderson's company.
Woodruff, Samuel.

Woolsey, Ephraim, Capt, Mott's company.
Worth, James, " Capt. Carle's Troop Light-Horse,'*
Wright, Jacob, First Regiment; State troops; Continental army, Capt.

Polhenms' company.
Yard, Elijah. Capt. Tucker's company.
Yard, Samuel, Capt. Tucker's company,
Yawger, Peter, Capt. Stout's company.
Young, Hezekiah, Capt. Mott's company.
Young, James, Capt. P. Phillips' company, First Regiment, and Capt.

Opdyke's company, Second Regiment ; also in State troops.
Young, Philip, Capt. Maxwell's company.
Young, Powell.

The following are those from Somerset County who
served in the Revolution :

William Alexander (Lord Stirling), colonel First Battalion ; also m^jor-

general of Continental army,
Frederick Frelinghuysen, first major Stewart's battalion Minute-

men^ Fob. 15, 1776 ; captain Eastern Company of Artillery, March

1,1776; colonel First Battalion, Feb. 28, 1777; resigned to accept

appointment as delegate to Congress.

Stephen Hunt, captain artillery; colonel First Battalion, Feb. 3, 1776 ;
colonel battalion, Heard's brigade, June 14, 1776; resigned July
12, 1776 ; disability.
Abrsiham Quick, colonel Second Battalion; resigned Sept. 9, 1777.
Abraham Ten Eyck, lieutenant-colonel First Battalion, Feb. 3, 1776;

colonel ditto.
Henry Vandike, colonel Second Battalion, Sept. 9, 1777; colonel regi-
ment State troops, Oct. 9, 1779.
Benjamin Baird, first major Second Battalion, April 5, 1777; lieutenant-
colonel ditto, Sept. 9, 1777 ; died.
Derrick Middah, second major First Battalion, Feb. 3, 1776 ; lieutenant-
colonel ditto, Feb. 28, 1777.
Peter D. Vroom, captain Second Battalion ; first major ditto, June 6,

1777 ; lieutenant-colonel ditto, Sept. 9, 1777.
William Baird, captain Second Battalion; first major ditto, Nov. 6, 1777.
Thomas Hall, captain First Battalion ; second major ditto, Feb. 28, 1777.
Enos Kelsey, second major Second Battalion ; major Thompson's battal-
ion, *' Detached Militia," July 18, 1776 ; major Chambers' battalion,
State troops, Nov. 17, 1776 ; resigned June 10, 1779, to accept oflace of
State Clothier.
James Linn, captain First Battalion; pro. to first major, Feb. 3, 1776;

resigned Juue 28, 1781.
Richard McDonald, captain First Battalion ; pro. to second major, Feb.

28. 1777.
Abraham Nevius, lieutenant Second Battalion; pro. to captain ; pro. to

major, Nov. 6, 1777.
John Vliet, major First Battalion.

William Verbryck, captain ; second major Second Battalion, June 6, 1777 ;
pro. to first major Sept. 9, 1777 ; resigned Nov. 6, 1777 ; also paymas-
ter Somerset and Hunterdon State troops.
Edward Bunn, paymaster; also paymaster State troops.
Joseph Gaston, paymaster.
Joseph Babcock, captain Second Battalion,

John Baird, sergeant Second Battalion ; pro. to captain Second Battalion.
John Carr (or Kerr), captain Second Battalion.
Benjamin Corey, captain First Battalion.
John Craig, captain First Battalion ; captain State troops.
David De Groot, captain First Battalion July 27, 1776.
Peter Dumont, captain Second Battalion.
Simon Duryea, captain First Battalion.
Philip Fulkerson, captain Second Battalion.
William C. Houston, captain Second Battalion, Feb. 28, 1776 ; resigned

Aug. 17, 1776.
William Jones, captain Second Battalion.
Andrew Kirkpatrick, captain First Battalion.

Francis Lock, captain First Battalion ; killed Sept. 16, 1777, Elizabeth-
town, N. J.
William Logan, captain First Battalion.

Cornelius Lott, first lieutenant Capt. Ten Eyck's company, Second Bat-

Lowe, captain.

Garen McCoy, captain First Battalion.

William Moffatt, captain First Battalion.

James Moore, captain Second Battalion, April 28, 1777.

John Parker, captain First Battalion.

Nathaniel Porter, lieutenant First Battalion ; captain First Battalion,

March 7, 1777.
Hendrick Probasco, captain Second Battalion.
Peter Pumyea, captain Second Battalion.
Jacobus Quick, captain Second Battalion,
James Quick, captain Second Battalion,
Israel Rickey, captain,
Peter Schenck, captain First Battalion.
John Sebring, lieutenant First Battalion; pro. to captain.
Rulofi" Sebring, captain First Battalion.

David Smalley, ensign Col. Hunt's Battalion, Heard's brigade, July 5,
1776 • ensign Col. Thompson's Battalion, " Detached Militia," July
18, 1776 ; also captain First Battalion.
Rynear Staats, lieutenant Second Battalion ; wounded at battle of Ger-

mantown. Pa., Oct. 4, 1777 ; pro. to captain.
Richard Stite*, captniu First Battalion, Feb. 9, 1776; captain Col. Hunt's
Battalion, July 5, 1776 ; resigned July, 1776 ; captain Col. Thompson's
John Stryker, captain troop light-horse of Somerset; also captain of

"troopers'' in State aei-vice. Buloff Sutfin, first Ueutenant Capt. Porter's company, First Battalion, March 7, 1777; pro. to captain; wounded August, 1779. 92 HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY. Coonrad Ten Eyck, eergeant Second BattaUon; pro. to captain Second Battalion. Jacob Ten Eyck, lieutenant First Battalion ; pro. to captain First Bat- talion. Coi-neliuB Tunieon, private Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, Firat Bat- talion; pro. to sergeant, to lieutenant, to captain, Philip Van Arsdalen, captain First Battalion. Abraham Yan Nest, ensign Second BattaUon ; pro. to captain. Eynear Teghte, lieutenant Second Battalion ; pro. to captain. John Toorhees, ensign Capt. Duryea'a company, Firat Begiment; pro. to captain. Peter G. (Van) Voorheea, second lieutenant. Continental army, Nov. 29, 1775; first lieutenant ditto, Sept. 18, 1776 ; captain First Battalion, Second Establishment, Nov. 1, 1777 ; also captain First Begiment; captured and killed by Tories near New Brunswick, Oct. 26, 1779. Daniel Wentzel, ensign State troops; pro. to captain, also captain Fii-st Battalion. David Wentzel, ensign State troops ; also captain. James Wheeler, ensign Capt. Ten Eyck's company, Second Battalion ; pro. to captain. Nathan All, lieutenant Capt. Duryea'a company, First Battalion. Peter Allen, lieutenant First Battalion. Samuel Annin, private; pro. to lieutenant. Jacob G. Bergen, lieutenant; lieutenant commanding guard at Princeton. Deuice Bier, lieutenant. [Name aleo given as Dennis Byn.] Rjbert Bolmer, lieutenant First Battalion. John Brocaw, lieutenant First Battalion ; killed Oct. 4, 1777, at German- town. Abra:ham Dement, lieutenant First Battalion. William Frazer, lieutenant First Battalion. George Hall (son of Edward), private Capt. Ten Eyck's company. First Battalion; pro. lieutenant. Lane, lieutenant First Battalion. John Swain, sergeant Capt. Bury ea's company, First Battalion; pro. lieu- tenant. John Ten Eyck, lieutenant ; killed June 17, 1777, at Millstone, N. J. John Tharp, lieutenant; in service until close of war, John Todd, lieutenant. James Van Horn, lieutenant First Battalion. Peter Welch, lieutenant. James Whalen, lieutenant First Battalion, Stephen Whitaker, lieutenant Capt. Ten Eyck's company. First Bat- talion. Joseph Gatterlin, first lieutenant Capt. Smalley's company, First Battal- ion ; lieutenant Capt. Outwater's company, and in Capt. Peter Ward's company. State troops. Joseph, Catherland, first lieutenant Capt. Ten Eyck's company, First Bat- talion, Nov. 11, 1777. Abram Dumont, first lieutenant Capt. Ten Eyck's company. First Bat- talion, July 8, 1776. Aaron Longstreet, first lieutenant Capt. Houston's company, Second Batr talion, Feb. 28, 1776. Peter Low, private Capt. Ten Eyck's company ; pro. first lieutenant ; firat lieutenant Capt. Stites' company, July 6, 1776 ; fii-st lieutenant Col. Thompson's battalion, Detached Militia,"" July 18, 1776; also first "
lieutenant Continental army.
James Stockton, ensign Capt. Houston's company, Second Battalion, Feb.

28, 1776 ; first lieutenant Capt. Moore's company, April 28, 1777.
Zebulon Barton, second lieutenant Capt. Houston's company, Feb. 28,

John Bennett, second lieutenant Capt. Ten Eyck's company, Second Bat-
Philip Folk, private Capt. Ten Eyck's company; pro. sergeant ; pro. en-
sign, Aug. 20, 1777; pro. second lieutenant, Nov. 11, 1777.
Derrick Lane, second lieutenant Capt. Stites' company, July 5, 1776 ; also

captain Continental army.
Isaac Manning, second lieutenant Capt. Smalley's company, First Bat-
Isaac Vanardsdalen, second lieutenant Capt. Ten Eyck's company, First

Battalion, July 8, 1776.
Peter Vandeventer, second lieutenant Capt. Porter's company, First Bat-
talion, March 7, 1777.
John Van Neste, second lieutenant Capt. Ten Eyck's company, First Bat-
talion, Dec. 3, 1776.
Jasper Brokaw, private ; pro. to ensign.

James Hambleton, ensign Capt. Moore'a company, Second Battalion,
April 28, 1777,

Isaac Parker, ensign Capt. Smalley's company. First Battalion.

Joakim Quick, ensign Capt. Vroom's company. Second Battalion.

Cornelius Suydam, private Capt. Ten Eyck's company; pro. corporal
and ensign in State troops.

Matthiaa Sharp, ensign Capt. Porter's company, March 7, 1777.

Peter T. Stryker, ensign Capt. Henry Sparks' company, Second Bat-

Andrew Ten Eyck, private Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company; teamster
ditto ; pro. corporal, sergeant Minute-men; ensign Capt. Ten Eyck'a
company, First Battalion, June 19, 1778.

Jacob Ten Eyck, Jr., private Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, July 8,
1776 ; pro. ensign.

Isaac Vantyle, ensign Capt. John Sebring's company. First Battalion.

Isaac Voorhees, private; pro. corporal, sergeant, and cornet of troop

Daniel Ammerman, private Capt. Ten Eyck's company; pro. sergeant.

George Auton, private Capt. Ten Eyck's company ; pro. corporal and

William Beekman, sergeant Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.

Isaac Bennett, private ; pro. sergeant.

Burgum Brocaw, sergeant Capt. Ten Eyck's company.

Evart Brocaw, private Capt. Ten Eyck's company; pro. corporal and

Derrick Brocaw, private Capt. Ten Eyck's company ; pro. corporal and

Samuel Brown, sergeant Capt. J. Ten Eyck'a company. First Battalion.

Isaac Cool, sergeant Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion.

Derrick Demit, sergeant Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company. First Battalion.

Frederick Ditres, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company ; pro. to sergeant.

Derrick Dow, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company; pro. td sergeant.

Fulkert Dow, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company ; pro. to sergeant ; also
in State troops, and private in Continental army.

Minne Du Bois, private Capt. Vroom's company, Second Battalion; pro.
to sergeant.

Mauicus Duboys, sergeant Capt. Coonrad Ton Eyck's company, Second

Aaron Hageman, private ; pro. to sergeant.

Rolif Hageman, sergeant Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.

Garret Harris, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company ; sergeant Minute-

Christian Hoagland, private Capt. Vroom's company ; pro. to sergeant.

Joseph Kennan, private ; pro. to corporal and sergeant.

Elijah Leigh, sergeant Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion.

Abraham Messeroll, private ; pro. to sergeant.

Morris Miller, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company ; pro. to sergeant ;
also sergeant State troops.

David Nevius, sergeant Capt. Stryker's troop.

John Perrine, sergeant Minute-men; sergeant Capt. J. Ten Eyck'a

Hendrick Post, private Capt. Vroom's company ; pro.'to sergeant.

John Powlson, sergeant Capt. Duryea'a company, First Battalion.

John H. Schenck, private Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company ; pro. to ser-

Thomas Sortore, sergeant Capt. Duryea's company.

Enoch Stillwell, sergeant Capt. John Sebring's company.

Benjamin Taylor, private Capt. Vroom's company ; pro. to sergeant

Conrad Ten Eyck, private Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company ; pro. to

Hendrick Teple, private Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company ; pro. to ser-

John Tilyer, sergeant Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.

George Todd, sergeant Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

John Van Ai-sdalen, sergeant Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company.

Abraham Van Arsdalen, private Capt. Vroom's company; pro. to ser-

Abraham Van Dorn, sergeant Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company.
Cornelius Van Dyke, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company ; pro. to ser-
Andrew Van Middlesworth, private Capt. Vroom's company; pro. to

John Van Nortwick, sergeant Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company.
Abraham Van Voorhees, sergeant Capt. Sebring's company.
Jacobus Van Voorhees, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company ; pro. to

Abraham Voorhees, sergeant Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company, First Bat-
Jacob Voorhees, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company, First Battalion.



Nathaniel Whitaker, private Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company ; pro. to ser-
Cornelius Willet, sergeant militia.

Jonathan 'Willet, sergeant Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company.
Jacobus Amerman, private Capt. Vrootn's company; pro. to corporal.
Jacobua Bergen, corporal Capt. Yroom's company.
Abraham Bertron, corporal Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company; pro. from

James Boylan, corporal Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company; pro. from private.
Peter Brokaw, corporal Capt. Vroom's company ; pro. from private.
Thomas Covert, corporal Capt. Vroom's company.
Cornelius Coshaw, corporal Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.
Kichard Davis, corporal Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.
Abram Defresh, corporal Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company ; pro. from

John Dumont, Jr., corporal Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, First Bat-
Cornelius Eraser, corpoml Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company ; pro. from

William Hula, corporal Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion.
Benjamin IngersoU, corporal Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, First

John Lake, corporal Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion.
Azariah Parker, corporal Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Peter Post, corporal Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company ; pro. from pri-
John Storms, corporal Capt Jacob Ten Eyck's company ; corporal State

troops ; also private Continental army.
Bernard Striker, corporal Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Gilles Sutphen, corporal Capt. Duryea's company.
Abraham Tan Arsdalen, corporal Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Philip Van Arsdalen, corporal Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Isaac Van Clefe, corporal Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Peter Vanderbergh, corporal Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company ; corporal

State troops ; also private in Continental army.
Benjamin Van Dorn, corporal militia.
George Van Nest, corporal Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company ; pro. from

Isaac Voorhees, corporal Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, First Bat-
Abraham Vourhase, corporal Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Sec-
ond Battalion.
Jacob Winter, corporal Capt. Vroom's company.
John Wortman, corporal Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company; pro. from

Philip Toung, corporal Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.
Joseph Hagerman, musician, militia.
Gilbert Lane, drummer Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Abram Van Voorhees, drummer Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
David Bertram, fifer Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
David Britton, fifer Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
McDonald Campbell, fifer Capt. Corey's company, First Battalion ; fifer

State troops ; also fifer in Continental army.
Bargun Covert, fifer Capt. Vroom's company.
Caleb Fulkerson, fifer,

James Hunt, fifer Capt. Ten Eyck's company.
Abram Lott, fifer.

John Nortwick, fifer Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Peter Stryker, fifer Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Andreas Ten Eyck, teamster Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Jacob Ten Eyck, teamster Capt Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Peter Ten Eyck, teamster Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Lewis Harthough, wagoner Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
William Hey, wagoner Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Henry Southard, wagoner Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
James Voorhees, wagoner Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Martin Voorhees, wagoner Capt. Duryea's company.
James Wintersteen, wagoner Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Acans, John.

Aldhood, John.

Allan, David, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck'fj company. First Battalion.

Allan, Joseph, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, First Battalion.

Allen, John.

Allen, Nathan.

Allen, Robert.

Allen, Samuel, also in Continental army, Capt. Martin's company ;
transferred to invalid corps, July 28, 1778 ; discharged Nov. 1, 1783 ;
leg amputated.
Amerman, Albert, Capt. Vroom's company, Second Battalion.
Amerman, Daniel, Jr., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. First Battalion.
Amerman, David, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company. Second Battalion.
Amerman, John, Capt. Vroom's company. Second Battalion.
Amerman, Powell, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company, Second Bat-
Amerman, Powell J.

Andrews, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Andrews, Malcom, Capt, Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Andrews, Michael.

Andries, Michael, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company,
Andries, Robert.
Anson, John.

Appleberry, Ambrose, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company.
Appleby, Amos, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company.
Appleman, David, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company.
Archer, John, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company.
Areuts, Stephen.
Armstrong, George.
Armstrong, Thomas.
Armstrong, William.

Arrowsmith, Benjamin, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Arrowsmith, Nicholas.
Arrowsmith, Thomas.
Atten, Joseph.

Auten, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company,

Auten, Thomas, Capt. John Sebring's company, First Battalion.

Auten, Thomas, Capt. Vroom's company, Second Battalion.

Ayers, David,

Ayers, Joseph.

Babcock, William.

Baird, Eobert.

Bakeman, Magness.

Baker, Elias.

Ballard, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. First Battalion.

Ballard, Nathaniel.

Barclay, Joseph.

Barger, John.

Barkley, George,

Barkley, Hugh.

Barkley, John.

Barkley, Joseph.

Bartley, John.

Battow, Lifeless, Capt. John Sebring's company.

Beam, Henry, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Beam, Henry, Jr., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Beard, Robert.

Bebout, Peter.

Beckman, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Bedine (Bodine), Nicholas.

Bedyne (Bodine), John.

Beedle, Jacob.

Beekman, John, First Battalion, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company.

Beekman, Lawrence.

Beckner, Michael.

Belew, Daniel.

Bell, William.

Bellard, John, Second Battalion, Capt. Vroom's company.

Belly ou, Cornelius.

Bennett, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Bercan, Benjamin, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Bercan, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Bergen, Hendrick.

Berham, Everet, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Berkley, Hugh. ,

Berkley, John.

Berry, James D,

Berry, Peter.

Bishop, Aaron, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Bishop, Moses, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Blackford, Benjamin,

Blackford, Daniel,

Blaw, William.
Blear, Robert.



Blew, Abram.

Blew, Frederick.

Blew, Isaac, Capt Duryea's company.

Blew, John.

Blbw, William, Capt. Duryea's company,

Bloodgood, Phineas.

Bloodgood, Phenice.

Blow (or Blue), Michael.

Blue, Cornelius.

Blue, Daniel, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Blue, Heudrick, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Board, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Bookman, George, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Bookman, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck'e company.

Bodewine, Peter, Capt. Jones' company. Second Battalion.

Bodewine, William.

Bodley, Nathan, Capt. Parker's company; also State troops; and Conti-
nental army, Capt. Ballard's company. Third Battalion, Second Es-

Bolmer, Garret.

Bond, Benjamin.

Bond, Jacob.

Bonnel, Jacob.

Boorum, Jacob.

Bours, James.

Bowers, William.

Boyd, Alexander.

Boyd, William.

Boylan, Aaron, Capt. Parker's company ; also State troops ; and Conti-
nental army, Capt. Piatt's company.

Boylan, John. '

Boyles, Jonathan.

Bracket, Nathaniel.

Brady, James.

Breese, Garret, also captain and conductor of Team Brigade.

Breese, John.

Bress, Cornelius, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Brewer, George, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, First Battalion.

Brewer, George, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company, Second Battalion.

Brewer, John.

Brickman, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Bright, Philip.

Brinson, John. \

Britt, Philip.

Brittain, Jeremiah, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company ; State troops ; and
sergeant in Continental army, in Capt. Piatt's company.

Britton, Abraham, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Brocaw, Adam, Capt. Porter's company ; also Continental army.

Brocaw, Benj., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Brockover, Peter.

Brockaw, Abraham, Capt. Vroom's company.

Brockaw, Casparus, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Brockaw, George, Capt. Vroom's company.

Brockaw, Isaac.

Brockaw, Richard.

Brookhead, Benj., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck'a company.

Brooks, Isaac.

Brown, Adam, First Battalion ; also State troops; and Continental army,
Capt. Piatt's company.

Brown, George.

Brown, Gilliam.

Brown, John.

Bruner, Jacob.

Bullas, Adam, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Bnrdine, Wilson.

Burgie, Thomas.

Burkfield, Thomas.

Bushfield, Thomas.

Butler, James.

IJutterfoss, Andrew, also in Continental army, Capt. Martin''s company.

Buys, Jacob.

Buzzy, Mathews, Capt. Moore's company; State troops, and Continental

Caldwell, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Caldwell, William.

Campbell, Alexander, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Campbell, Archibald, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Campbell, John.

Carbon, Christopher, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Carens, John.

Carle, Ephraim T., Capt. Baird's company; also State troops, and Conti-
nental army.

Carman, John, Capt. Duryea's company.

Carmer, John, militia.

Castner, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Catalyou, Henry.

Catolin, Joseph.

Cavaleer, Job n.

Chambers, John, Capt. Moore's company.

Cliambers, Roland, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Chandler, John.

Chandler, Peter.

Chapman, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck'a company.

Chapman, William.

Charles, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Christopher, John.

Clark, James, Capt. John Sebring's company.

Cleare, Godfrey, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Clendenning, Isaac.

Cloason, Ebenezer.

CluBon, Josiah.

Coach, Jacob. Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Cobb, Mathias, Capt. Parker's company; also State troops; and Bergeant
in Continental army, Capt. Coxe's company.

Cock, Henry.

Cock, Jacob, Capt. Vroom's company.

Cock, Jacob W., Capt. Vroom's company.

Cock, William.

Cocke, William, First Battalion, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company

Coe, Jacob.

ColUna, Abraham.

Colter, Alexander, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Colter, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Colwell, John.

Colwell, William.

Colyer, Moses, First Battalion.

Colyer, Thomas.

Combs, Charles, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Combs. Samuel, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Compton, Jacob, Capt. Quick's company; also in State troops,

Compton, Joseph, troop light-horse.

Compton, Richard, Capt, Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Conaway, John, Capt. Moore's company. Second Battalion.

Conelyou, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Conelyou, William, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Conk ling, Josiah.

Conover, David, Capt. Duryea's company.

Conover, John, Capt. Moore's company.

Cook, George, First Battalion ; also in State troops ; and Continental
army, in companies of Capts. Piatt and Phillips.

Cook, Henry, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Cook, Jacob.

Cool, David, Capt. Moore's company.

Coole, Peter.

Coon, Aaron.

Coon, Abijah.

Coon, Daniel, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, and Capt. Corey's com-
pany ; also in State troops, and Continental army.

Coon, Ebenezer.

Coon, Felty.

Coon, Levi, Fii-st Battalion.

Coon, Peter.

Coon, Euny.

Cooper, John.

Cooper, Thomas.

Copton, Richard, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Corlow, Benjamin.

Cornelison, Garret, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Cornell son, John.

Cornell, Cornelius (1st).

Cornell, Cornelius (2d).

Cornell, Joseph, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Gorrington, Archibald, First Battalion.

Corrington, Benjamin.



Corshon, Joseph.

Corahon, Joshua.

Cortleyou, Hendrick.

Corwell, Cornelius.

Coshow, Abraham, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck'a company.

Cosbow, George,

Coshow, Jacob, Capt. Vroom's company.

Covenhoven, Denice.

Covenhoven, Joseph.

Covert, Burgum, also in Continental army.

Covert, Daniel.

Covert, Jacob.

Covert, John.

Covert, Thomas, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Covert, Tunis, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Craig, Moses.

Crane, Asa, First Battalion; also State troops, and Continental army.

Creesey, James.

Crolns, John.

Ci-oss, Samuel.

Crow, Garret, Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion ; also State troops,

aud Continental army.
Cryer, John.
Cummins, Jacob.

Cummins, John, also in State troops.

Cumpton, John, First Battalion, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Cunningham, Matthew.

Daley, Nicholas, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. First Battalion.
Dan, William, Capt. Duryea's company.
DaiKildson, William.
Davis, James, Capt. Moore's company.
Davis, John, Capt. C. Ten Eyck'a company.
Davis, Samuel, Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company.
Davis, Thomas, Capt. Baird's company; State troops; also Continental

army, First Battalion, Second Establishment.
Davison, William.

Deamell, Patiick.

De Camp, John, Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company.

Decker, John, Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company.

Decker, Peter.

Defresh, Isaac, Capt. J. Ten Eyck'a company.

De Hart, Hendrick (or Henry).

Demott, Peter.

Demund, Tenes (or Tunis).

Deniante, John.

Dennis, Reuben, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company.

Dennis, Robert.

Dickson, Alexander.

Dickson, William, First Battalion; also State troops, and Continental

Dildine, John.

Dillen, Peter.

Disbrow, Joseph, Lieut. Bergen's company.

Ditmars, Johannes.

Ditmars, Peter, Capt. Vroom's company.

DitmoB, Frederick, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Ditmos, John.

Ditmos, Peter.

Doaran, Joseph.

Doran (or Doren), Cornelius.

Dortan, William.

Doty, Jeremiah, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Doty, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Doty, John, Jr., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Doty, Peter, First Battalion; also State troops; and Continental army;
Capt. Piatt's company.

Doty, Skillman.

Doty, Zebulon.

Doty, William.

Dougherty, John.

Doughty, Francis.

Doughty, Jeremiah, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company.

Doughty, John, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company.

Doughty, Levi,

Dow, John, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company.

Dow, John, Jr., Capt, J. Ten Eyck's company.

Dowelson, John, Capt. J. Ten Eyck's company.

Downey, William, Capt. Moore's company ; State troops, and Continental

Drake, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Drew, Thomas.

Du Bois, Nicholas, Capt. Vroom's company, Second Battalion.
Ducker, Peter.

Dumon (or Dumond), Hendrick, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Dumon (or Dumond), Peter, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Dnmon (or Dumond), Peter P.
Dumont, Albert, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Dumont, Elbert, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Dumont, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company
Dumont, John B., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Dumont, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Dumont, Peter J. B., Capt. Vroom's company.
Du Mott, Abraham, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Du Mott, Barent, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Du Mott, Benjamin, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Du Mott, Dirck.

Du Mott, Lawrence, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Duncan, John.
Dunham, John.

Dunning, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Dunn, Jonathan, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck'a company.
Dunn, Ben ben.
Dunn, William.
Dunster, James.
Dunvier, Thomas.
Durland, Linus.
Durling, Samuel.

Duychinck, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Dwire, Thomas, Capt. Vroom's company.
Edgar, Archibald.
Edwards, John.

Ellis, Joseph, Lieut. Bergen's company.
Emens, James.
Emens, John.
Emmons, John,
Eoff, Cornelius.
Estle, William.

Evans, William, Lieut. Bergen's company.

Evans, William, Capt. Babcock's company; also State troops; and Conti-
nental army. First Battalion, Second Establishment.
Exsen, Abner.
Fairchjld, Hezekiah.
Fantine, Rine.

Fayer, Christian, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Ferguson, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Fine, Abram.

Fisher, Charles, Capt. Moore's company.
Fisher. Henry, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Fisher, John.

Fisker, Hemy, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Ford, Charles.
Foreman, Walter.
Fort, Benjamin.
Fort, Francis.
Fort, Henry.
Fort, Joseph.
Fort, Thomas.
Forth, Francis.
Forth, Phineas.

Eraser, Christian, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Frazee, Henry.
Frazee, Reuben.
French, David.

French, Joseph, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck'a company.
French, WilUam, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Fristler, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Fulkerson, Cornelius.

Fulkerson, Fulkert, Capt. Coonrad TenEyck's'company.
Fulkerson, Henry.
Fulkerson, Hans.

Fulkerson, John, also in the Continental army.
Fulkerson, PhiUp, Capt. John Sebring's company.
Fulkerson, William.
Furmau, Edward, Capt. Duryea's company.



Furman, Waters, Capt. Duryea'e company.

Fusler, Jacob, Jr., Capt. Jacot Ten Eyck's company.

Fueler, Luke, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Fusler, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Gad, Alexander, Capt. Moore's company.

Gad, William, Capt. Moore's company.

Ganno, George.

Garrison, Bernardug.

Garrison, Dirck, Capt. Troom's company.

Garrison, Garret.

Garrison, George, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Garrison, John.

GaiTitaon, Kem.

Garritson, Samuel.

Gasling, Joseph.

Gaston, Hugh.

Gaston, Robert,

Geddes, John.

Ghulick, Derrick. '

Gibbe, John, Second Battalion, Capt. Fulkerson's company; also State
troops, and Continental army.

Gilmore, David.

Gilmore, John.

Gilmore, William.

Goble, Hugh.

Colder, Abraham, Capt. Sti-yker's troop light-horse.

Goldtrap, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Goltry, Thomas, Capt. Sebring's company.
Gordon, John.

Gray, Isaac, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Gray, Joseph.

Gray, William.

Green, William.

Griggs, William, Capt. Yroom's company.

Gulick, Abraham (or Abram).

Gulick, John, First Battalion, Capt. Duryea's company.

Gulk, Joakim,

Hagaman, Adrian.

Hagaman, Andrew.

Hagaman, John.

Hagaman (or Hegeman), Peter.

Hagerman, Eulif, Second Battalion, Capt. Babcock's company.

Hairville, James (given also as Hanville).

Hall, George (son of Edward), First Battalion, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's

Hall, George (son of Henry), First Battalion, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's

Hall, Isaac.

Hall, Thomas, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
JIamiltoD, James.
Hand, Christopher.
Handley, Ezekiel.
Handley, Jeremiah.
Hannah, William.

Harbough, Tuer, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Hardenbrook, Isaac.
Hardenbrook, Lewis.
Hardenbrook, Peter.
Harder, Christian.
Harder, Henry.

Harder, Philip, also express-rider.
Harpending, Andrew.

Harris, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Harris, Samuel, Capt. Corey's company; aleo State troops ; and Conti-
nental army, Capt. Foreman's company.
Hartshorn 6, Lewis, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Hartfihough, Lucas, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Hartsough, Aug., Capt. Troom's company.
Hause, John.
Hegeman, Aaron.
Hegeman, Benjamin.

Helbert (or Helebrant), Da^id, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Henry, Jamea.
Henry, Peter.

Herder, Christian, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Herns, John.
Herrod, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Hewyard (or Heyward), Benjamin.

Heyers, Benjamin,

Hickley, Timothy.

Hinds, Frederick, Second Battalion ; also State Troops.

Hinds, John, also in the Continental army, Third Battalion, First Estab-

Hinds, Robert.

Hise, Jacob.

Hoagland, Abram, Capt. "Van Nest's company ; also State Troops, and
Continental army.

Hoagland, Albert:.

Hoagland, Harman A., Capt. Troom's company.

Hoagland, Henry.

Hoagland, Hermanus, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Hoagland, Jacob.

Hoagland, Johannes, Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company.

Hoagland, John, Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company.

Hoagland, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Hoagland, Lucas, Capt. Troom's company.

Hoagland, Luke.

Hoagland, Martin, Lieut, Bergen's company.

Hoagland, Peter, Capt. Troom's company.

Hoagland, Samuel, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Hoagland, Tunis, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company (also express-

HofF (or HufF), Dirck, Capt. Troom's company.

HofF, Nicholas, Capt. Quick's company. Second Battalion ; wounded at
Germantown, Oct. 4, 1777.

Hog, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Honny, William.

Hosborn, Cooper.

Hosborn, John,

Houghland, John.

Howell, David, Capt, Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Howk, Philip.

Hudson, Thomas,

Huff, Isaac.

Huff, John, First Battalion, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

HufF, Moses.

Huff, Nicholas, Second Battalion, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Huff, Peter, also in the Continental army.

Huff, Richard, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Huff, Tunis.

Hulfiish, John.

Hunter, Andrew, also in Continental army,

Ingard, Benjamin, Capt. Jacob Ton Eyck's company; pro. to corporal,

Jasper, Richard, Capt. Quick's company ; State troops, and Continental

Jemison, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Jennings, John, Capt. .Tacob Ten Eyck's company.
Johnson, James, Capt. Jacob Ton Eyck's company.
Johnson, John, First Battalion; also State troops.
Johnson, Samuel.
Johnson, William.

Johnston, John, Capt. Parker's company, First Battalion.
Jones, Daniel, Capt. Lott's company. Second Battalion.
Jones, Henry, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Jones, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Jones, Samuel.
Jones, William.

Juel, LIcha, Capt. Moore's company. Second Battalion.
Kelly, David, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Kelly, John.
Kelly, Samuel.
Kennedy, Henry, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company; also troop of

Kershaw, Abraham.
Kershaw, George.

Kilpatrick, Andrew, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck*s company.
Kilpatrick, Hugh, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
King, David, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Kinnan, John.
Kinned, Peter.
Kinny, Simon.
Kirkpatrick, Alexander.
Kirkpatrick, David, wounded June, 1780.
Kirkpatrick, Hugh, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.



Kirkpatricfc, William.

KlickDor, George.

Lacy, Emanuel.

La Fever, Alinert.

La Fever, Myndert, Capt. Staat's company, Second Battalion ; also State

troops, and Continental army.
Lafferty, Denice (or Dennis).
Lafler, Coonrad.
Lafler, John.
Lalne, John.

Lake, Garret, Capt. Moore's company.
Lane, Gilbert, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Lane, Gulsbert.

Lane, Henry, Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.
Lane, Jacob.

Lane, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Lane, Mathias.

Lane, Beuben, First Battalion.
Lane, Tunis, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Lane, William, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company,
Lange, William, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Lany, William, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Large, John.

Lasender, Jacob, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Latham, James.
Laton, Thomas.
Laughhead, James.
Laughhead, William.

Lawkerman, Thomas, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Lawrence, Abram.
Layton, Thomas.
Lee, Daniel.
Lee, Samuel.

Lee, Thomas, First Battalion ; also State troops, and Continental army.
Lefferty, Henry C, First Battalion ; also State troops.
Leigh, Elijah, Capt. Duryea's company.
Leterah, Cornelius,
Lewis, Barnett,
Lewis, Barney.
Lewis, Edward.

Lewis, Jacob, First Battalion; also Continental army.
Light, Thomas, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Limbergh, John.
Liinbarger, Gabriel,
Liner, Isaac.
Linn, James.
Linu, Joseph.
Linn, Robert.
Lisk, Abram.

Lisk, John, Capt. Troom's company.
Ldboc, Charles.

Lwfler, Jacob, Capt. Troom's company.
Lofler, Philip.
Logan, Hugh.
Long, Cornelius.
Long, John.

Lorey, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Lorey, John, Jr., Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Losey, John.

Lutt, Abraham, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Low, Abraham, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Low, Abraham, Capt. Yroom's company.
Low, Cornelius.
Low, John.
Lowry, Thomas.
Lowsadder, Benjamin.
LuparduB, William.

Luyster, Peter, Capt. Troom's company.
Lyon, Gideon, Capt. Duryea's company.
Lyon, Solomon, Capt. Jones' company ; also State troops ; and Continental

army, First Battalion, Second Establishment.
MacGraw, Barney.

Malick, John, also in Continental army.
Manfort, Henry.

Manning, Clarkson, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Manning, Isaac, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck'a company,
Martin, David.

Martin, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Martin, Jeremiah.

Maahat, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Mawe, By near.
Maxfield, David.

Maybeck, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
McCarron, Hugh.

McCarty, Hugh, Capts. Tan Neat's and Jacob Ten Eyck's companies;
State troops , and Continental Army, in Capt. Ballard's company,
Third Battalion, Second Establishment.
McClean, John.
McCleary, Daniel, Capt. Porter's company ; also in State troops ; and Capt.

Piatt's company, Continental service.
McClow, Cornelius.

McColem (McColIom), Hugh, Capt. Troom's company.
McCollom, John.

McConnell, Robert, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
McCoy, Gavin.
McCray, James.

McCoUum, Jonas, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
McDowell, Ephraim, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
McDuffee, Daniel.
McElrath, Thomas.
McEowen, William.

McEwen, Daniel, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company,
McGill, James, Capt. Porter's company ; also in Continental army, Capt.

Piatt's company.
McGill, John, Capt. Porter's company ; also in Continental army, Capt.

Piatt's Company.
McGill, Robert, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
McKenney, Cornelius.
McKenuey, William.
McKey, Joseph.

McKin, Andrew, Capt. Moore's company. Second Battalion.
McKinney, Joseph, Capt. Corey's company, First Battalion; also State

troops ; and Continental army, Capt. Piatt's company.
McMackin, Andrew.

McManus, William, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

McMortry, Robert.

McMurtry, Thomas, First Battalion, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Mc Williams, John.

Mealigh, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Meculick, Robert.

Meeservie, Conrad, First Battalion ; also in State troops.

Melligan, William.

Merrill, Andrew, also in Continental army.

Messerol, Abram.

Messerol, Charles.

Middagh, Cornelius, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Midsco (or Mencow), Conrad, First Battalion ; also Capt. Piatt's company,
Continental army.

Miers, John.

Milburn, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Miller, John.

Miller, Jonathan.

Miller, Marion, First Battalion ; wounded and taken prisoner; died while
prisoner at New York, Dec. 3, 1777.

Miller, Mercer, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Miller, Moreen, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Milligran, James.

Minor, William.

Misket, Peter.

Mitchell, Benjamin.

Moffatt, Samuel, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Moffatt, William.

Monfort, Hendrick (or Henry.)

Monfort, Peter.

Montanye, Abram, First Battalion, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Montanye, Edward, First Battalion, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Montanye, Edward, Jr., First Battalion, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Moore, Isaac.

Moore, John (1st), Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Moore, John (2d), Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Moore, Joseph.

Moore, Prine.

Moore, Rynear.

Morris, Dennis, First Battalion,



Morris, States, First Battalion, Capt. Duryea's company.
Morris, Sylvester.

Mount, Matthew, Second Battalion, Capt. Moore's company.
Muler, Frederick.

Mullen, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Mulloner, Joseph, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Murphy, Thomas.
Murphy, William.

Myers, John, Capt Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Nail, John, Capt. John Sebring's company.
Naphis, Pet-er.

Navius,* Christopher, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Navius,* David, Capt. Stryker's troop light-horse.
Nephies, John, Capt. Duryea's company.
Nephies, Martin, Capt. Duiyea's company.
Nevies,* Cornelius.
Nevies,* Martinus.
Neville, John.
Nevins,* Joseph.
Newent, Daniel V.
Nivins,* RulofF.
Nixon, John.

Nnrris, Thomas, Capt. Moore's company.
Northall, William.

Norton, Jacob, Jr., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Nortwick, John.

Nurtwick, Simon, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Cake, Jacob.

O'Lefferty, Henry, Capt. Parker's company, First Battalion; also Conti-
nental army, in Capt. Ballard's company.
Oliver, Jerome.
Oliver, Nicholas.

Ci'pey, Christopher, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Owens, James.
Oyers, Benjamin.

Pack, William, also Continental army.

Packer, Jacob, also Continental army, First Battalion, Second Establish-
Packston, William (also given as William Paxon).
Pain, Stephen.
Pangborn, Peter.
Parker, Azariah.
Parker, Jacob, Second Battalion, Capt. Staat'g company ; State troops,

and Continental army.
Parker, James.
Parker, John.

Parker, Robert.

Parkinson, Aaron.

Parkinson, Jonathan.

Parkinson, Sylvanus,

Peach, William, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. First Battalion.

Pearson, Matthew (also given as Matthew Pierson).

Perlee, Peter, Second Battalion, Capt. Vroom's company.

Perrine, James.

Perrine, John.

Periiae, Nicholas.

Perrine, Peter (also spelled Peryn), Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Persee, John.

Peterson, Thomas, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Philhower, Christian.

Piatt, Abram.

Pickens, Alexander, Capt. Corey's company; also in State troops, and
Continental amiy.

Pitman, Jonathan.

Pittenger, Abram.

Pittenger, John.

Pitts, William.

Plum, Samuel.

Poke, John.

Pope, Birney.

Pust, Abraham, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Post, Henry, also in the Continental army.

Post, Tunis.

Post, William, also in the Continental army.

* So spelled in Adjutant-General's Keports, yet most or all maybe

intended for Neviua.

Pound, Cornelius.

Pound, John.

Pound, Jonathan.

Powelson, Abram.

Powelson, Cornelius.

Powelson, Hendrick (or Henry).

Powelson, John, in companies of Capts. Coonrad and Jacob Ten Eyck.

Powelson, Monah, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Probasco, Garret.

Probasco, Peter.

Pull, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Quick, Garret.

Quick, Jacob.

Quick, Peter, Sr., Capt. Vroom's company.

Quick, Tunis.

Ralph, Leroy, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Rapalye, Jeromus.

Reamer, George.

Reamer, John. (See John Roomer.)

Bedding, Chris.

Reemer, Lewis, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company,

Reepley, Baltis.

ReynearsoD, Garret.

Reynolds, Samuel.

Rich, Joseph, also in Continental army, in Capt. Martin's company.

Richardson, Joseph, Capt. Staat's company ; State troops, and Continental

Rickey, Benjamin.
Rickey, Cornelius, Capt. Parker's company ; State troops, and Continental

Riggs, Jonathan.
Riggs, Thomas.
Bockefellow, Peter.
Rodes, Allan.
Rogers, Henry.

Roland, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Rolde, John.
Rolph, Jonathan, First Battalion ; State troops ; and Continental army,

in Capt. Forman's company.
Rolph, Richard, First Battalion, Capt. Corey's company; State troops;

and Continental army, in Capt, Forman's company.
Roomer, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Bosebroom, Garret.
Rosebroom, Hendrick (Henry), Capt, Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Ross, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Rossburg, John, also in Continental army, Capt. Bond's company, Fourth
Battalion, Second Establishment; Capt. Anderson's company, Third
Regiment ; disch. April 10, 1783, " worn out in the service."

Rubart, John, Capt. Jones' company, Second Battalion ; Continental
army, First Battalion, Second Establishment.

Buckman, David.

Ruckman, Samuel, Capt, Moore's company; also State troops ; and Con-
tinental army, in Fii-st Battalion, Second Establishment.

Runyan, Richard (Ist).

Runyan, Richard (2d), Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Runyan, Yincen, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Bush, Peter.

Russell, William, also in Continental army, in Capt. Martin's company.

Ryall, Isaac, Capt. John Sebring's comimny, First Battalion.

Ryker, Cornelius, Jr.

Rynearson, Isaac, Capt. Lett's company. Second Battalion ; State troops ;
and in Continental Army, in First Battalion, Second Establishment.

Rynearson, Rynier B.

Salter, Henry,

Sanders, Israel.

Sanders, John, Capt. Baird'a company. Second Battalion; also State

Sanders, Thomas, Capt. Staat's company, Second Battalion ; State troops,
and Continental army.

Saums, John, Capt. Vroom's company, Second Battalion.

Saunders, John,

Saunders, Timothy, First Battalion; also Continental army, in Capt.
Piatt's company.

Schanck, Abram, troop light-horse.

Schanck, Abraham, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, First Battalion.

Schanck, John.

Schenck, Garret, Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion.



Schenck, Garret, Liewt. Bergen's company.

Schenck, Jacob, Capt. Duryeii's company.

Schenck, Peter F.

Sv.ilman, Thomas, Capt. Moore's company.

Sears, Samuel, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company ; also State troops.

Sesirs, Samuel, Capt. Corey's company, First Battalion ; also Continental

army, in Fourth Battalion, Second Establishment.
Sebring, Abram, Capt. John Sebring's company, First Battalion.
Sebring, Cornelius, Capt. John Sebring's company, Firet Battalion.
Sebring, Jacob.

Sebring, Rodif, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company, Second Battalion.
Sebring, Thomas, Capt. John Sebring's company.
Sedam (or Suydam), Charles.
Sedam {or Suydam), Peter.
Sedam (or Suydam), Rick.
Seday, Jacob.
Sbafer, Peter.
Shankler, Andrew.

Sharp, Jonathan, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Sickles, Zachariah, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Silcock, Valentine, also Continental army.
Simerson, John.

Simonson, Abraham (or Abram).
Simonson, John.

Simonson, Samuel, First Battalion ; also State troops ; and Continental
army, in Capt. Anderson's company.

Simpson, Allen.

Simpson, David.

Simpson, William.

Siulley, John.

Skelton, Thomas, Capt. Moore's company.

Skillman, Gerardus, troop light-horse ; also express-rider.

Skillman, Thomas, in Capt. Vroom's and Capt. C. Ten Eyck's companies.

Slader, Thomas.

Sloan, James, Capt. Fulkerson's company. Second Battalion ; State troops ;
Continental army, in First Battalion, Second Establishment.

Sloat, William.

Slover, Isaac.

Slover, Jacob.

Smalley, Jonas, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Smell, Bobard.

Smith, Adam, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Smith, Ethan.

Smith, Jeremy.

Smith, John, also corporal in Continental army,

•Smith, William.

Smock, Abram, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Smock, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Smyley, Robert.

Snowden, John, Capt. Duryea's company.

Solter, Thomas.

Soper, Thomas, also in Continental army, in Capt. Martin's company.

Sortore, Henry, Capt. Duryea's company.

Sortore, Jacob, Capt. Duryea's company.

Southard, Richard.

Spader, Benjamin.

Spader, Bergen.

Spader, Jonathan, Capt. Vroom's company, Second Battalion.

Spader, William, Capt. Vroom's company, Second Battalion.

Sparks, Gabriel, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Sparks, James.

Sparks, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Squire, Simeon.

Staats, Peter.

Staats, Rynear, Capt. Vroom's company.

Stapleton, Richard.

Steel, Alexander, Capt. John Sebring's company.

Steel, Jonathan, Jr., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Steele, John.

Steele, John, Jr., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Stephens, Peter.

Stephenson, John.

Stevens, Joseph, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Steward, Charles.

Steward, David, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Steward, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Stewart, Alexander, also in Continental army.

Stewart, David, Capt. Corey's company ; State troops ; Continental army,

in Capt. Forman's company.
Stewart, Robert, also in Continental army. Fourth Battalion, Second Es-
tablishment; killed at the battle of Germantown, Oct. 4, 1777.
Stillwell, Azariah ('* Ezeriah").
Stillwell, Garrec, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Stillwell, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Stillwell, Siaa.
Stoll {or Stull), Joseph, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company ; in Continental

army, in Capt. Piatt's company.
Storan, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, First Battalion.
Stotehoff, Albert, Capt. Vroom's company.
Stotehoff, Cornelius, also express-rider.
Stotehoff, John.
Stout, Benjamin.
Stout, James.

Stout, John, Capt. Duryea's company.
Stout, William.
Stryker, Abram, Capt. Quick's company ; State troops ; and Continental

army, in First Battalion Second Establishment.
Stryker, Abraham, Capt. Vroom's company. Second Battalion.
Stryker, Barnet, Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.
Stryker, Dominicus.

Stryker, Isaac, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Stryker, James, troop light-horse.
Stryker, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Stryker, Peter, troop light-horse.

Stryker, Peter, Capt. Duryea's company, First Battalion.
Stryker, Peter, Sr.

Stryker, Rano, Capt. Duryea's company.
Stryker, Simon.
Stuart, James.
Stuart, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Sunderlin, Peter.

Sutphen, Arthur, Capt. Duryea's company.

Sutphen, Derrick.

Sutphen, Gilbert.

Sutphen, Guisbert, Capt. Duryea's company.

Sutphen, John, Capt. Duryea's company.

Sutphen, Peter.

Sutphen, Ruliff.

Sutphen, Samuel.

Sutton, Amos.

Sutton, John.

Sutton, Peter. "*•

Sutton, Zebulon.

Swaim (or Swain), Isaac, Capt. Duryea's company.

Swaim, John.

Swim, Isaac.

Sylvester, Peter.

Sympeen, Cornelius.

Tappan, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Taylor, Isaac.

Taylor, Willet, Capt. Vroom's company.

Teeple, George.

Teeple, John, Capts. Jacob Ten Eyck's and Sebring's companies.

Teeple, Luke, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Ten Eyck, Abram.

Ten Eyck, Andreas, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company. '

Ten Eyck, Andrew J.

Ten Eyck, Andries, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Ten Eyck, Cornelius, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Ten Eyck, Jacob, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Ten Eyck, John.

Ten Eyck, Matthias, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Ten Eyck, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Ten Eyck, Withen, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Terhune, Garret, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company; also express-
Terhune, Stephen.
Teumey (or Teuney), John.
Thomas, David.
Thompson, Samuel.
Thomson, James.
Thomson, John.
Tingley, Ebenezer.
Tingley, Jeremiah.



Todd, David.

Todd, James.

Todd, "William.

Toland, John.

Tone, John.

Traner, Simon.

Tunison, Derrick, in companies of Capts. Jacob Ten Eyck and John

Tunison, Fulkert, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Tunison, Henry, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck'e company.
Tunison, James.

Tunison, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck^s company.
Ubdike (Updyke), Lawrence, Capt. Duryea's company.
TJbdike (Updyke), Rolif, Capt. Duryea's company.
Updyke, Brogan.
A'^alentine, Borne.

Valentine, Jacob, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Tan Allen, Derrick, Capt Lett's company; also State troops, and Conti-
nental army.
Yan Arsdalen, Abram, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Yan Arsdalen, Caleb.

Yan Arsdalen, Capture, Capt, Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Yan Arsdalen, Christian, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Yan Arsdalen, Christopher, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Yan Arsdalen, Cornelius, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Yan Arsdalen, Donald, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Yan Arsdalen, Garret, Capt. Yroom's company.
Yan Arsdalen, Harmon.

Yan Arsdalen, Hendrick, Jr., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Yan Arsdalen, Henry, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Yan Arsdalen, James, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Yan Arsdalen, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company ; also State troops ;

and Continental army, in Capt. Piatt's company.
Yan Arsdalen, John, Capt. Yroom's company.
Yan Arsdalen, Noah, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Arsdalen, Philip, Jr., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Arsdalen, Stuffel, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Van Arsdalen, "Wilhelmus.

Yan Asdalen, Jacob, Capt. Duryea's company.

Yan Asdol, Hermanus.

Yan Asdol, Isaac.

Van Audler, Abram, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Van Ausdaul, Jacob.

Yan Beuren, Abram.

Yan Beuren, John.

Yan Beuren, William.

Van Brunt, Nicholas.

Van Clafe, Puryas, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company,

Yan Cleaf, Garret, also dragoon.

Yan Cleaf, Isaac,

Yan Corte (Yan Court), John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Court, Michael.

Yan Dabecke, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Yanderbeak, Andrew.

Vanderbilt, Cornelius.

Vanderbilt, Jacob, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Vanderbilt, Peter.

Yanderdunk, Henry.

Yanderveer, John, Capt. Duryea's company,

Vanderveer, Matthew.

Yanderveer, Peter.

Yanderventer, Abram, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Yandervoort, Gabriel.

Vandewater, Abram, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Van Dike, Isaac, Capt. Moore's company.

Yan Dike, Jacob, troop light-horse.

Van, Dike, Jacob, Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion.

Van Dike, John, troop light-horse.

Van Dike, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Vandine, John, Capt. Stryker's Troop Light-Horse.

Yan Doren, Abram.

Yan Doren, Benjamin, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Doren, Burgam, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Van Doren, Christian, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Van Doren, Isaac.

Yan Doren, Jacob.

Yan Doren, Peter.

Yan Doren, William.

Yan Dorn, Chrystoyan, Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Dorn, Cornelius (1st), Capt. C. Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Dorn, Cornelius (2d), Capt, C. Ten Eyck's company.

Van Dorn, Jacob.

Van Dorn, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company,

Yan Duyck, Cornelius, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company,

Yan Dyck, Frederick.

Yan Dyck, John, Capt. Yroom's company.

Yan Dyck, William, Capt. Yroom's company.

Van Dyke, Hendrick.

Van Dyne, Abram.

Yan Dyne, Cornelius.

Yan Dyne, John.

Yan Dyne, William.

Yan Harglen, Rynear.

Yan Harler, Edward, Capt. Duryea's company.

Van Horn, Cornelius.

Yan Houten, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Lew, Cornelius.

Yan Lew, Denice (or Dennis).

Yan Lew, Frederick.

Yan Lew, Hendrick.

Yan Lew, Jeremiah.

Van Lew, John.

Van Lew, Peter.

Yan Lew, Kichard.

Yan Middleswart, Tunis, Sr., Capt. Yroom's company.

Yan Middleswart, Tunis, Jr., Capt. Yroom's company.

Van Middlesworth, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Van Middlesworth, Thomas, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Muler, Cornelius.

Yan Nest, Abram.

Yan Nest, Bernard, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Van Nest, Cornelius.

Yan Nest, George, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Van Nest, Jacobus, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Van Nest, Jeromus.

Yan Nest, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company,

Yan Nest, Kuliff.

Yan Nest, Tunis, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Van Netten, John, First Battalion ; also in State troops, and Continental

army, Capt. Piatt's company.
Yan Norden, Daniel.
Yan Norden, David.
Van Norden, Michael.
Yan Norden, Tobias.

Van Norsdalen, Philip.

Yan Nortwick, Hendrick, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Nostrand, Crisparius.

Yan Nostrand, George, also in Continental army.

Van Nostrand (or Yan Ostrand), Jacob.

Yan Nowdent, Michael.

Yan Nuys, Jacobus, in companies of Capts. Yroom and C. Ten Eyck.

Van Ostrand, John.

Yan Ostrand, Matthew, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Pelt, Abram.

Van Pelt, Christian.

Van Pelt, Christopher, Capt. Duryea's company.

Yan Pelt, Garret.

Yan Pelt, Kurlif, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Van Pelt, Teras, Capt. Duryea's company.

Van Pelt, Tunis, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Van Sant, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Sickle, John.

Yan Sickle, Thomas.

Van Sickle, Zachariah.

Yan Tine, Bynear.

Yan Tyle, Abram.

Van Tyle, John, Capt. John Sebring's company.

Van Tyle, Orto, Capt. John Sebring's company.

Yan Voorheese, Abram, First Battalion ; also in Continental army, Capt.
Piatt's company.

Yan Voorheese, Abram, Jr., First Battalion ; also in State troops.

Yan Voorheese, Ccmrt, Capt. Yroom's company.

Van Voorheese, John, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

Yan Wagonen, C, Capt. Yroom's company.



Van Wagoner, Conrad, in companies of Capts. C. Ten Eyck, Jacob Ten

Eyck, and in Stryker's light-horae.
Van Zaudt, John, Capt. Duryea'a company, First Battalion.
Van Zandt, Peter.
Varmon, Nebeiniah.
Veghte, Henry.

Voorhees, Abraham, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyok'a company.
Voorbees, Court, Lieut. Bergen's company.
Voorheea, Gerardus.

Voorbees, Gilbert, Capt. Duryea's company.
Voorhees, Grades, Capt. Dnryea's company.
Voorbees, Gnisbert.

Voorhees, James, Capt. Duryea's company.
Voorbees, Jeremiah, Capt. Bui-yea's company.
Voorhees, John, Capt. Stryker's troop Ught-borse.
Voorbees, Lucas.
Voorbees, Martines.
Voorheea, Minnab.

Voorhees, Obadiah, Capt. Duryea's company.
Voorbees, William.
Voorbeese, David.

Voorbeese, Garret, Lieut. Bergen's company.
Voorbeese, Hendrick (or Heuiy).
Voorbeese, Isaac.
Voorbeese, Jacob (or Jacobus), Capt. Vroom's company, and Capt. 0. Ten

Eyck's company.
Voorbeese, Jacques.

Voorbeese, Paul, also in the Continental army.

Voorbeese, Peter, Capt. Vroom's company, and Conrad Ten Eyck's com-
Voorbeese, Ham, Capt. Duryea's company.
Voiiuus, Nicholas, Capt. Moore's company.
Vorious, Peter, Capt. Moore's company.
VuBseller, Jacob, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Vosaeller, Jacob, Jr., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Vosseller, Lucas, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Vtaseller, Luke, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Viisaeller, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Vroom, George.

Vvoom, John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Vroom, Peter, Capt. Vroom's company.
Wade, Thomas, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Waldron, Bei^jamin.
Waldron, Cornelius.

Waldron, William, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's comp»ny.
W'allace, William.

Webb, Matthew, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
WheaTour, Adolphus, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
Wheeler, Charles.
Wbeeler, Simon.

Wbilsou, William, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.
White, Denice (or Dennis).
^Vbitenaught (or Whitnack), Andreas.
AVhitenaught, John.

Whitlock, James, also in the Continental army, in Capt. Bond's com-
pany ; taken prisoner Feb. 15, 1777, near Woodbridge.
Whortman, John.
WickofF, Cornelius.

Wickoff (or Wyckoff), John, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Wickoff, Peter, Lieut. Bergen's company.
Willet, Samuel.

Williams, Cornelius, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Williams, Samuel, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Williams, Stephen.

Williamson, Cornelius, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Williamson, James.

Williamson, John, Capt. Moore's company.
Williamson, Joseph.
Williamson, Nicholas.
Williamson, William.
WilBon, Jacob.
Wilson, James.
Wilson, John.
Wilson, Kindert.
Wilson, Shinab.
Wilson, Thomas.
Wilson, Wm., Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company, and Capt. Stryker's troop.

Winans, William, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Wiuings, Benjamin.

Winings, Philip, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.

Winter, Jacob, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company, and Capt. Quick's

company; also Continental army, First Battalion, Second Establish-

Winter, Joseph.

Winter, Peter, Capt. Vroom's company.
Wintersteen, Jacobus, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Woan, Peter, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Wortman, Andrew.

Tates, Ephraim, Capt. Moore's company, Second Battalion.
Teagley, Adam.

Young, George, Capt. Jacob Ten Eyck's company.
Toung, John, Capt. Duryea's company.
Toung, Philip, Capt. Coonrad Ten Eyck's company.

A " census of pensioners for Revolutionary and
military services, with their names, ages, and places
of residence, 1840," shows that there were living at
that date in

BeOilehem Totonship, Jacob Johnston, 87 ; John Head, 83 ; John Bigler,

84; Leonard Martin, 84 ; John Clifford, 92.
Amwell Township. Jacob Williamson, Sr., 86 ; Peter Williamson, 77 ;

John Abbott, Sr., 82 ; Amos Peters, 81 ; Jacob Williamson, 80.
Baritan Toionship. Martin Smith, 84 ; Joseph Gray, Sr., 81 ; John Besson,

90; John Howe, 86.
Readington Toionship. Cornelius Latourette, 85 ; Adrian Johnson, 85 ;

Cornelius Messier, 81 ; Edward Mitchell, 85 ; Peter Shirts, Sr., 92,
Ldaware Tovmship. William Dilts, 8G ; Elijah Hummell, 84 ; Tunis Case,

79 ; Andrew Butterfoss, 81 ; James Underwood, 77 ; William Geary,

85 ; Daniel Ent, 83 ; Samuel Barber, 84.
Alexandria Tovmship. Catharine Hoagland, 85; Edwin Dalrymple, 88;

John Witing, 77.
Lebanon Toionship. Jacob Nitzer, 97 ; John Blane, 82.
Kingwood Tovmship. John Mires, 81 ; John Bray, 85 ; Richard Heatb,

84 ; Christy Little, 77.
TewJcsbury To tfjwTitp. Christopher Pbilbower, 86.


Bedminster TovmsMp. William Todd, 79; Joseph Annin, 89; Hendi'ick
Field, 88.

Bernard Township. Henry Southard, 92; Hannah Van Sickel, 84; Na-
thaniel Whittaker, 80; Ziba Norria, 78; Mary Kennan, 76; John
Toulin, 69 ; Joseph Kennan, 58.

^anklin Township. Isaac Brokaw, ; James D. Perrien, ; John C,
Wyckoff, 83; Ellen Van Tyne, 78.

Warrm Tovmship. John Coddiugton, 78 ; John Pennington, 78.

BridgewcUer JbiOTwfttp. Jacob Degroot, 90; Robert Little, 86; John
Steele, Sr., 85 ; Henry Vroom, 83 ; Richard Brokaw, 83 ; Lucius Vos-
seller, 83 ; Paul Voorhees, 82 ; Rulif Van Pelt, 82 ; John A. Autin,

Hillsborough Township. Adam ^Bellis, 91; George N. Scbamp, 89;
Dinah Van Cleaf, 86 ; Peter Voorhees, 84 ; Peter J. Quick, 81 ; Willet
Taylor, 81.'



The " Peculiar Institution" in the Seventeenth Century Servants in the
Colonial Days Indian Slaves Redemption ers Laws concerning Slav-
ery The Quakers and the Institution Few Capital Crimes committed

by Negro Slaves Negroes hung for Murdering Whites in Hunterdon
and Somerset Counties Negro Rebellion in 1734 Abolition of Slavery

Manumission Rev. Dr. Finley and the "American Colonization


A FAITHFUL and correct history of those who have
lived here before us, must contain some mention of



the " peculiar institution" which is happily now no
more. One hundred and eighty years ago, and dur-
ing the century succeeding that time, the inhabit-
ants of New Jersey, in common with those of other
States, considered slavery no crime, and at that early
day it had become one of her institutions. Even the
Quaker settlers at Burlington owned negroes, and the
Dutch, who came up the valley of the Rarita'n, brought
servants with them ; ,so that in 1740 three-fourths of
all the corn that was planted and hoed, flax raised and
dressed, and other work done, was performed by negro
slaves. The records in the clerks' offices of both Hun-
terdon and Somerset Counties show that in the first
ten years of the present century a large number of the
old families still held slaves upon their farms.

Under the proprietors persons were imported into
the province, as " servants,'' to occupy and improve
the land and perform other labors. While these ser-
vants did not absolutely forfeit their personal liberty
by their engagements with their masters, they were
still, in all essential particulars, bondmen, held in
servitude, and entirely controlled by those who had
brought them into the province for their own profit.
It was slavery in everything save the name, a species
of white slavery, for the servitude was for life, and
in some instances included their children also.

The constitution of New Jersey, signed Feb. 10,
1664 (0. S.), by Lord Berkeley and Sir George Car-
teret,* to encourage planters, promised every freeman
who should embark with the first Governor or meet
him on his arrival, provided with a ''good musket,
bore twelve bullets to the pound, with bandeliers
and match convenient, and with six months' provi-
sions for himself," one hundred and fifty acres of
land, and the like number for every man-servant or
slavet brought with him provided with the same ne-
cessaries. To females over the age of fourteen sev-
enty-five acres were promised, and a similar number
to every Christian servant at the expiration of his or
her term of service. Those going before the 1st of
January, 1665-66, were to receive one hundred and
twenty acres, if master, mistress, or able man-servant
or slave, and weaker servants, male or female, sixty
acres ; those going during the third year three- fourths,
and during the fourth year one-half of these quanti-
ties. J

In a letter from James Johnston, of Spottswood,
dated Feb. 13, 1685, " from Piscattaway, in East Jer-

* "The Concessions and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors of the
Province of New Cajsarea, to and with all and every of the adventurers,
and all such as shall settle or plant there." See Appendix to Smith's
Hist, of the Colony ot Nova-Ca>saria, pp. 612-521; also, Bancroft's
Hist. United States (vol. ii. p. 316, ninth ed.).

t Whitehead's "East Jersey under the Proprietary Governments," pp.
38, 39. In a foot-note he says, " Whether any slaves were actually
brought to New Jersey under the Concessions is uncertain ; but if so,
they must have been very few in number, and probably none were di-
rectly imported from Africa for some years thereafter."

t In the "Concessions" of the West Jersey proprietors, which were
similarly worded, the words " or slave" are omitted. ifisf. Coll N J n
38. •••.!

sey," he says : " Dear Brother. ... I stand in
need of forty pound value of goods and some Ser-
vants."! In 1684, Thomas Eudyard, first represen-
tative of Gov. Barclay in the province, claimed
head-lands for his two daughters and six servants,
and received a warrant for two hundred and thirty
acres of land, to be surveyed for him on South Eiver. ||
Many of the early settlers were sent out, in the em-
ploy of the different proprietaries and landholders,
under such agreements as would afford them the
benefits of the head-land grants for each individual
brought into the province, fifty acres being allowed
to each master of a family, and twenty -five acres for
each person composing it, whether wife, child, or ser-
vant, each servant to be found three years, at the end
of which time he or she was to be allowed to take up
thirty acres on separate account. Under this plan
there was a shipment from Scotland in 1682, brought
out by Eudyard and Groom, and another the follow-
ing year, on board the " Exchange,'' Capt. Peacock,
which brought thirty-one men- and women-servants
under two overseers. This was but the beginning of
an extensive traffic in servants, as the records of East
Jersey show. Among the names mentioned as figur-
ing in these importations we find Gawen Lawrie,
William Haige, Thomas Pearson, William Dockwra,
John Barclay, Eobert Fullerton, John Campbell,
Capt. Alexander Hamilton, David Mudie, Lord Neill
Campbell, John Forbes, James Johnstone, George
Keith, Charles Gordon, the Scotch proprietaries, etc.1[

It is a fact not generally known at the present day
that native Indians as well as negroes were at one
time held in slavery in New Jersey. This is proved
by occasional references to " Indian slaves" found in
ancient records. Such an instance is found in the " Jour-
nal of the House of Eepresentatives for the Province
of Nova Cesarea, in the Second General Assembly and
1st Sessions, begun at Burlington this 13th day of Nov"',
1704," under date "Die Veneris, A.M. 24° 9'"''',
1704," as follows :

" Onliti-cd, That a Bill be Prepared & brought in for y« Speedy tryin)j & Regulating of Negro & Indian Slaves ; & y< M' Hartshorn, Capt. Bown Ac. do prepare and bring in y= same ; And then The H Adjourned till i "
a Clock."

And in the afternoon session of the same day :

Mr. Hartshorn also (according to Order) presented to y« H a Bill En-
tituled an Act for Regulating Negro, Indian & Molatto Slaves w* was.
also read the lirst time."

On the 28th of the same month,

" The Bill Entituled an Act for Regulating of Negro, Indian & Molatto Slaves was read y= 2i Time & Committed to M' Gordon, M' Wheeler, M' Laurence & M' Smith. "

i Whitehead's " East Jersey under the Proprietors," p. 444. In the
same work (pp. 438-440) is an interesting letter "writ by Peter Watson
(who went over a Servant with David Barclay, in the year 1683) to John
Watson, Messenger, in Selkirk." The letter is dated "New Perth, the
20th of August, 1684."

II Whitehead, p. 106.

If Ibid., p. 136.



On the 29th,

" M' Gordon Reported from y^ ComM to whom y Bill Entituled an Act for Regnlatlng of Negro, Indian and Molatto Slaves was Committed yt tbey had gone thro' y» 8* Bill & made Bev' Amendments thereto, w^h he read in his place, & afterwards delivered it at y Table, where y« same were read & w^ some further Amendments, Agreed to by ye House. Ordered That y® ^ Bill w^b ye Amendments be Engiossed. "

On the 30th, at the afternoon session,

" The Bill Entituled an Act for Regulating of Negro, Indian and Mo- latto Slaves wiin this Province of N. Jersey was also read yo 3d time. "
Besolved that y Bill do pass."

The council proposed some amendments to the
bill, which were concurred in by the House December
10, and approved by the Governor Dec. 12, 1704.

The above, and some other similar fragmentary
allusions to the subject, show that Indian slavery
existed and was legally recognized in New Jersey ;
but, beyond this fact, nothing has been found in ref-
erence to its extent or the period of its duration.

There also prevailed in New Jersey and adjoining
provinces another species of servitude besides negro
and Indian slavery, the subjects of it being known as
redemptioners, a class of persons who sold them-
selves for a term of years to pay the price of their
passage to the shores of America. These emigrants
on embarking signed a bond to the master of the ves-
sel authorizing him, on arrival here, to sell them into
servitude for a term sufficient to pay the price agreed
on for passage. After gaining their freedom many of
them succeeded in placing themselves in comfortable
circumstances, and some even became wealthy men.

Servants of this class were first found along the
Delaware River about 1662, and for a quarter of a
century after that time domestic or mechanical labor
was seldom employed for wages. Many of the re-
demptioners who served in New Jersey were from the
Palatinate and other parts of Germany, but a few
were Irish. Redemptioners from German and Dutch
ports were frequently brought over on speculation,
and when they landed were sold at public sale. The
purchaser had the right to re-sell the services of the
poor redemptioners, and he often passed through sev-
eral hands before he had served out his term. The
price paid for them was usually very low. In the
year 1722, at Philadelphia, German redemptioners
sold at ten pounds each for five years of servitude,
but in some cases they brought more than that sum
for a single year. It is related that, in the year 1728,
Lord Altham, then a lad, came to this country un-
known, and was sold as a redemptioner in Pennsyl-
vania, working out his time with a farmer on the
Lancaster turnpike.

This form of servitude prevailed most along the
lower Delaware River and in adjacent parts of Penn-
sylvania and New Jersey, but it existed, to a less ex-
tent, in both Hunterdon and Somerset Counties. An
account is given of the purchase of one of these ser-
vants by a member of the Van Horn family, in Read-
ington township, Hunterdon Co., as follows :

" In accordance ^vlth the custom of that period, the Van Horns bought of a sea-captain the service of a German emigrant for a term of years in order to defray the expenses of his passage to New York. It soon became known that this emigrant waa an excellent mason by trade, and being a shrewd man as well as a good mechanic, he entered into a bar- gain with his employers to build them three stone houses in three suc- cessive seasons (some say they were all to be built within the same year), in lieu of his term of service, which was not less than three years. He fulfilled his contract, and claimed all the time as his own during these seasons in which he was not actually engaged upon these three build- ings.* "

One of the stone houses referred to as built by the
redemptioner (whose name was Caspar Berger), was
the old Van Horn house, bearing the date 1757 and
the initials " C. V. H.," and standing about half a
mile west of White House Station, a little north of
the railroad-track. Another is the house now or re-
cently occupied by William Pickel, and the third is
said to have been the old stone house demolished a
few years since by G. C. Gearhart to make room for
his new residence. Concerning the identity of this
last named, however, there is some doubt.

It has been stated that the ancestors of the Ilsly
(Inslee?) family who first came to America were
indentured under this system as servants to farmers
in the vicinity of Woodbridge, or rather that the
master of the ship on which they came attempted to
sell them, but failed to carry his project through.

" There is a tradition, which may or may not be true, that they came over in the old ship ' Caledonia,' the wreck of which for many years was seen on the shore at Perth Amboy by some who are yet (1873) living. It is said that, driven by persecution, the Ilslys, with other Dissenters, were compelled to flee from their homes, which were either in England or in the north part of Scotland, and were allowed by their enemies to depart only because they embarked on the unseaworthy ' Caledonia,' which was confidently expected to founder at sea and engulf the sturdy heretics. But, lo ! they came safely into harbor. Before they landed, however,, the Dutch captain proceeded to bind them over as servants to the planters in the vicinity, according to custom, until certain real or fancied debts in the old country had been discharged. A Mrs. Ilsly, filled with indigna- tion, seized a bar of iron, and, flourishing it over the captain's bead, declared, with emphasis,' that she and the rest had fled from tyranny at home to find quiet in the new land, and that she would not submit to slavery right on the borders of freedom. The doughty captain was cowed by the determination of the brave woman, and saved his head by landing his passengers without the indentures having been executed.t "

Although the " redemptioners" system had been in
existence for many years prior to 1725, yet by far the
greater number of these unfortunates were sold to
service during the twenty-five years which succeeded
that time. After the middle of the eighteenth cen-
tury, however, it gradually died out, and finally dis-
appeared entirely, though there were occasional in-
stances of its practice down to, and even after, the
close of the Revolution.

The earliest instance of the holding of negro slaves in
New Jersey which is found recorded is that of Col.
Richard Morris, of Shrewsbury, who had as early as
1680 sixty or more slaves about his mill and planta-

* " Our Home," 1873, p. 387.
f " Woodbridge and Vicinity,"

by Rev. Joseph W. Dally,



tion.* The inhabitants of the Earitan valley all had
slaves as early as 1686 or 1690. In 1790 there were
eleven thousand four hundred and tvi^enty-three slaves
in New Jersey, of which number about two thousand
were in Hunterdon and Somerset ; they had increased
to twelve thousand four hundred and twenty-two in
1800, after which the number very rapidly declined.
Between 1700 and 1800 the traffic was largely carried
on, and records of the sale of Africans are frequently
found. In the Woodbridge town records is the fol-
lowing :

" Know all men by these preeenta y^ J, Shobalt Smith, of Woodbridge, Jn ye County of Middx Jn y^ provence New East Jersey, for and Jn Con- sideration of yi sum of fifty pound Currant Silver money, of y s* prov- ence, to me Jn band paid by Samuel Smith of ye same place yeoman of ye town and provence afores*! do bargain, sell, allineat, and Deliver, one Negro woman Named Phebe to sd SamU Smith, for him, his heirs and ' etc.f It is not to be wondered at that the introduction of negro slavery into New Jersey was coeval with its settlement, when it is remembered that the mother- country not only recognized their existence as prop- erty, but also engaged in the slave trade, and that the -adjoining provinces possessed them ; not even Puri- tanic New England being exempt. J The Eoyal "
African Company" was particularly commended to
the Governor of New .Jersey (Cornbury) by Queen
Anne as deserving of encouragement.^ This was in
the year 1702.

"The early settlers, in clearing the forests, were much assisted by their slaves. In some families they were numerous. The success of the farm- ers depended on the rapid clearing of the forests, in which they rendered important assistance. One of the Vleet families (in Somerset County), it was said, owned "
seventeen slaves, composed of different ages and both sexes. Cornelius
DeHart purchased from a slave-vessel a negro girl named Phillis who had
been kidnapped, and who waa a daughter of one of the kings of Africa.
She related that on the voyage to America she was often terribly fright-
ened by some of the crew attempting to feel of her hands, she supposing
that it was done for the purpose of ascertaining whether she was in good
condition for slaughtering and her carcass to be eaten, as the neighboring
tribes of cannibals did in Africa, to avoid which she fasted to cause lean-
ness, so as to disappoint them in their expectations, and thereby preserve
her life. She was a faithful servant in the family, but had a great desire
that a time might come when she would be able to say that she the
king's daughter, was free. Her desire in the course of time was granted.
Another of her desires was that before she died she might also see her
youngest son, Thomas, free, which she was also permitted to see. In her
old age Abraham Dehart built a house for her ou his land, in which she
enjoyed the freedom so earnestly coveted, and in which she lived and
died. Her son Thomas, who was also freed, lived therein with her until
she died. Her remains lie buried with those of several of her children
in a colored burying-grouud ou the south bank of the Six-Mile-Eun
Brook, with others of the Vleet, Van Cleef, and DeHart colored families,
located about two hundred yards east of the residence of Ralph Voor-
bees, Jr.

" Almost every family in former days had places on their farms where they buried their colored dead. About two hundred yards north of the house of Mrs. Peter Hageman is a colored burying-ground where those of the Wyckoff and Hageman families were buried. There was another near the tenant-house of Henry Cortleyou, on the south side of the line between the lands of Van Cleef and Hageman. When the new road was * This seems to conflict with Gordon's statement (p. 29, Gazetteer"") "
that in the same year there were but one hundred and twenty negroes
in bondage in the province.

t Liber B, folio 100.

X Hist. Coll. N. J.', pp. 88-89.

g Smith's Hist, of N. J., p. 254.

laid out at that place between the turnpike and the Middlebush road,
about iifty years ago, it was objected to and opposed on account of its
passing over the colored burying-ground; nevertheless, it was laid there.
On each side of the line between the Stryker and StothoflF farms, near
Franklin Park, is another, which was established for burying the colored
dead of their familieB."|J

In 1709 an act of Assembly forbade persons trading
with slaves, except by consent of their owners, under
penalty of twenty shillings for the first and forty shil-
lings for the second offense, one-half to go to the in-
former. A negro, if found five miles from his home,
was taken up and whipped by the party apprehend-
ing him, five shillings being paid for the services. If
the negro was from another province, the informer
received ten shillings and the negro was whipped by
the nearest constable. For conspiracy to kill a white
person, for rape, murder, or arson, the negro was to
be taken before three justices of the peace and five
freeholders, without a grand jury, and if convicted
was compelled to suffer death in such manner as the
enormity of the crime, in the judgment of the justices
and freeholders, seemed meet. The owner of the
slave, however, had a right to appeal and have a jury
appointed, with liberty to make challenges as in
other cases.1[ The same act sets forth :

" Whereas such negro so put to death is a great loss to his owner, therefore, to prevent said owner from being under the temptation of withdrawing and secreting said slave, it is provided he shall receive for each man slave executed thirty pounds, and for each woman slave twenty pounds,** to be collected in manner and form to wit: The con- stables to deliver a list of all negro, Indian, or mulatto slaves in their district, between the ages of fourteen and fifty years, at the May and June terms of the Court of Quarter Sessions. When a slave is executed these lists to be taken by the justices of the peace, or any three of them, and the damages assessed. "

The public whipper was the township constable.

The newspapers of those times frequently contained
advertisements of negroes " strayed" or " ran away
from the subscriber," etc., and in the county records
are found registers of births, bills of sale, as well as of
manumission of slaves.

The Quakers early showed their hostility to the
importation of negro slaves : vide the following ex-
tracts from the Yearly Meeting's minutes for 1716,
meeting held at Burlington, N. J. :

" For the Quarterly Meeting at Shrewsberry, Chester meeting pro- poses their concern about the practice of buying negroes imported. Urging that former minutes and orders are not sufficient to discourage their importation,tt and therefore requests that no Friends may buy aoy II Hon. Ralph Voorhees. H Act of 1Y14, Neville's Laws, I, p. 19. ** In the Governor's speech to the Assembly, read on the 24th of Octo- ber, 1707, occurs the following: '^ Gentlemen, Since I wrote this one thing more Occurs to my thoughts, which is this: I haVe Keceived In- ' formation from very good hands that the Negroes are grown very Inso- lent, and Committ great Enormities, the best Expedient I can recom- mend to you in that case is the passing a law to Settle a price upon the head of every Ncgroe who Shall be put to death in pureuance of the Law, to be paid to the owner of every such Negi-o, this I hope will be a means to frighten them from Committing any the like Enormities for the future. Journal mid Votes of Oie Souse of Bepresentalives of New "
Jersey, 1703, p. 128.

ft The Yearly Meeting had, in 1696, advised Friends " not to encour-
age the bringing in of any more negroes," and recommended that they
"be careful of them, bring them to meeting, and have meetings with them in their families. "



Tiegrro for tbe future. Ab to the proposal from Chester meeting about
ni'groes, there being no more iu it than was proposed to the last Yearly
Meetiug, this meeting cannot see any better conclusion than what was
tliB judgment of the last, and therefore do confirm the same. . . And
it is desired that Friends generally do as much as may be [to] avoid buy-
ing such negi'ces as shall be hereafter brought in, rather than offend any
fi lends who are against it. . . Tet this ia only caution, not censure."*

That the conscience of this people was not at rest
the following from the Woodbridge meeting, June
17, 1738, shows:

" Fiirsuant to a Kequest in the extracts of the yearly meeting nunutea at Philadelphia coDSerning the Importation of negroes & buying them after they are Imported Friends have inquired into it & Do find that four or five years ago Som have bin Imported by a Friend and that it hath bin three or four years Since Friends have bought of them that was Imported and not since to their Knowlidg.-]- "

For several years the holding of slaves agitated the
society. A report to the Monthly Meeting at Plain-
field in August, 1774, shows that at this time only one
negro "fit for freedom" within the jurisdiction of the
society remained a slave.t

It is a noticeable fact that so few crimes were com-
mitted by the slaves. Pilfering there always was, but
it was of a petty character, and perpetrated generally
to obtain some luxury not allowed them. Cases of
murder, arson, etc., were extremely rare. But two in-
stances are known in all the territory of both Hunterdon
and Somerset Counties where slaves murdered whites,
that of James Guise, in 1828, who murdered his
mistress, in Hunterdon County, and was hung at
Flemington ; and the murder of Jacob Van Nest by
his slave, about 1753, in Branchburg, Somerset Co.,
for which the murderer was burned I at Millstone,
then the county-seat. II A more extended account of
this affair will be found in the township history
of Branchburg.

Notwithstanding these exceptional cases, the peace-
able disposition of the negroes is universally attested ;
and yet, says Dr. Messier, " there had been a sort
of rebellion among them along the Earitan in 1734,
in consequence of which one at least, if not more,
was hung. It is called a ' rising,' and the design
was to obtain their freedom, kept from them, as they
believed, contrary to the express directions of the
king, and the plan was to murder all the whites and
then join the Indians in the interest of the French,
but it failed to do any real harm or have any results.
There seems to be, and no doubt was, a connection

* Daily's Woodbridge and Vicinity, p. 73, et 8eq.

t Ibid., p. 74.

X Ibid., p. 218.

I This is not the only instance of this mode of punishment. Burning
for capital offenses was the fashion, rather than hanging, in the early
days. In Perth Amboy two slaves were burned within two weeks of the
time of the perpetration of the crime.

y '* We have notice of a case of arson succeeded by a public execution,
a-rid also of the murder of one slave by another." Meml^a Siel. Somer-
t-it County, p. 128.

The case of arson here mentioned by Dr. Messier must be that of
Tobey, negro slave of Mary Middagh, of Hillsborough, Somerset Co.,
tried, found guilty, and hung in 1780, an example of swift Jersey
justice. He was executed four days after the indictment 1

between these transactions and tbe famous ' negro
plot' of New York in 1741. Another 'rising' was
feared in 1772, but precautionary measures were
adopted, and the excitement passed off."

" An act had been passed as early as 1713 levying a duty on the importation of negroes, but it seems not to have been enforced. It was forty shillings in East New Jersey, and six pounds in West New Jersey. "
This inequality in the tax was obviated by subsequent
enactments, which continued in force until the Revo-

" It ought to be noted, also, as an evidence in favor of the gentleness and amenity of domestic slavery in our country, that when the slaves were invited by the British in the Revolution to' abandon their homes and seek refuge in their armies, very few of them responded. The In- dians were deceived into activity and fought bravely for their natural enemies, but the slaves remained in quietness. There were, in fact, slaves enough in the country to have decided the contest against us, if they had generally entered the armies of our enemies. *' When Sunday-schools were introduced the negroes were largely benefited by them [and many became members of .Christian churches]. "
"But in the old church of Raritan, after the Great Revival, was the largest number. At one cotamuuion season sixty-eight colored persona came down from tbe galleries and sat down at the table, spread then, according to older customs, in the middle aisle of the church. Most of these are now no more, but during their life they maintained a consistent demeanor, and died in the hope of a better condition.l[ "

From Feb. 24, 1821, dates the first legislative action
having for its object the abolition of slavery. It
provided that the children of all slaves in New Jer-
sey born subsequent to July 4, 1804, should have
their freedom upon attaining to the ages of twenty-
five and twenty-one for males and females respec-
tively. Under the operations of this humane legisla-
tion slavery gradually expended its existence. The
people of this section generally favored the emanci-
pation, and many even anticipated legislation in free-
ing their slaves. Moore Furman in 1784,** the heirs of
George Opdyke in 1796, the heirs of Richard Green
in 1798, Joseph Capner in 1799, John Lambert, Jr., in
1808, and a host of others, manumitted slaves prior to
any legislative action looking to their liberation.

It is an honor to Somerset County that one of her
citizens, Rev. Robert Finley, D.D., was the pioneer in
efforts for the formation of the " American Coloniza-
tion Society," an institution which has done much
in the past for the amelioration of the condition of
the colored race and in christianizing Africa.

T[ Rev. Abraham Messier, D.D.

** We find in the records of the Hunterdon County clerk's oflBce, dated
Jan. 7, 1784, that the sheriff executed the following:

" To ALL CnnisTiAN People to whom these Presents shall come, GREiiTiNG: I, Moore Fui-man, being convinced of the iniquity and in- humanity of slavery, and desirous of discouraging the same, have man- umitted my negro man slave Thomas, and do by these presents manumit, set free, and discharge my negro man Thomas from all bonds and slavery to me, my heirs, and assigns forever. (Signed) Mooee Foeman."" "





I. Boads. The MiniBink Path The Old Burlington Path The " Upper
Road" and "Lower Eoad" The Old "York Road" The New Jersey
Turnpike Company New Gemiantown Turnpike Company, etc.
H. Stages and Stage-Lines. First Public Conveyance previous to 1702
Stage-Line between Trenton and New Brunswick " The Swift-Sure
Coach-Line" The Trenton and Flemington Mail-Coach Post-road
from New Brunswick t» Flemington Express Lines, etc. III. Tlie
Delaware and Raritan Canal, Its incipiency, Construction, and Com-
pletion Length, Cost, etc. IV. BaUroads. The Central Railroad of
New Jersey South Branch Railroad High Bridge Railroad The
Delaware and Bound Brook Railroad The United New Jersey Rail-
road and Canal Company " The Belvidere Delaware Railroad" The
Fasten and Amboy Railroad, etc.



The earliest highways in the State of New Jersey
were the Indian paths. Mention is made of them in
the early Indian title-deeds and old records of com-
missioners for laying out roads. The most noted of
these, was the "Minisink path," which extended from
the highlands of the Navesink to the Earitan, cross-
ing at a place called Kent's Neck ; thence along the
west side of the Rahway River to Springfield, whence
it crossed the mountain and passed near Morristown ;
thence to Minisink Island, on the Delaware, a dis-
tance of seventy-five miles. Besides this long path
were many others. One ran from Perth Amboy to
New Brunswick, where it crossed the Raritan ; froih
thence to Sis-Mile Run, and on through the State
westward to the Falls of the Delaware. The present
road through Six-Mile Run, Kingston, and Princeton
was laid out on this path. Another ran from Shrews-
bury, through Monmouth County, southerly, after-
wards known as the " Old Burlington Path."

These Indian paths were located with skill, much
attention being given to a careful study of the natural
advantages of the ground which they traversed. The
hills were ascended by the easiest grade; the most
solid ground was selected for crossing a marsh. The
streams were forded at a point where they were least
liable to be affected by freshets, and in nearly every
instance the Indian paths were followed in the loca-
tion of the roads that are to-day the great thorough-
fares of the State.

Previous to 1675 the only road in the State (for
the Indian paths, just mentioned, cannot be classed
as roads) was that from Elizabethtown Point to where
New Brunswick now stands, and probably was the
same one that now, widened and improved, is known
as the " old road" between those places. This road
continued almost in a straight line to the Delaware
above where Trenton now stands. The Raritan and
Delaware Rivers were both forded at low water, there
being no bridges ; but later, ferries were established.
This was called the "upper road," to distinguish it
from another, which later was opened to Burlington,
branching off from the old road some five or six miles

from the Raritan, and arriving by a rather circuitoua
route at the site of the present Burlington. This road
was called the "lower road."*

These roads were at the first little more than foot-
paths, and the " upper" one was for most of its dis-
tance laid out on the old Indian path. " Even as
late as 1716, when a ferry had been established at
New Brunswick for twenty years,t provision was only
made, in the rates allowed by Assembly, for ' horse
and man' and ' single person.' The sum required
annually to keep this road in repair was only ten

The "Old York Road," which started in Philadel-
phia at a point near what is now known as Fourth and
Vine Streets! and ran to the Delaware, crossing at
Lambertville, thence through Mount Airy, Ringos,
and Reaville to New Brunswick and Newark, was one
of the first wagon-roads opened in the State, although
it was never surveyed.^ In a deed for land at Rin-
gos, dated Aug. 25, 1726, this road is described as
The King's Highway that is called the York Road.||
The first public measures for the improvement or
establishment of roads seem to have been adopted in
November, 1675, when it was enacted that two men
in each town should be appointed "to lay out com-
mon highways." In March, 1683, commissioners
were appointed " to lay out and appoint" in the dif-
ferent counties " all necessary highways, bridges, pas-
sages, landings, and ferries, fit and apt for traveling
passages and landing of goods."T[ These boards con-
tinued for several years, and under their direction the
first system of intercommunication was established,
and the present generation travel many of the roads
laid out by them.**

The " New Jersey Turnpike Company" was incor-
porated by act of the Legislature in 1806, which act
authorized certain persons, named therein, to con-
struct a turnpike road from the city of New Bruns-
wick to Phillipsburg, passing through the counties
of Somerset, Hunterdon, and Sussex (now Warren ).tt
The road was completed late in the year 1809, but
that portion situated in Hunterdon and Warren
Counties was never kept in sufiicient repair to justify
the company in collecting toll thereon, and in 1838
the company surrendered it " to the inhabitants of the
several townships in said counties of Hunterdon and
Warren through which the same passes," in accord-
ance with a special enactment of the State Legislature

* "New Jersey under the Proprietors," Whitehead, p. 235; Hist. Coll.
N. J., p. 41 ; Banker's and Shuyter's Journal, etc.

t Established in 1697, and subsequently called "Inian's Ferry," from
John luian, who was the first grantee; the privilege to continue during
the natural lives of himself and wife at five shilUngs sterling per annimi.

} The road still exists there (1880), and is called " York Avenue."

§ This was not necessary, as it was laid on the bed of the old Indian

I Rev. Dr. Mott's History of Hunterdon County, p. 10.

1[ Grants and Concessions.

** Whitehead's Bast Jersey and Prop., p. 236.

tt Session Laws of New Jersey, 18U0.



passed Jan. 31, 1838.* The indebtedness of the com-
pany had not been extinguished, or any dividend paid
to its stockholders, until 1841, or later, over thirty
years after the road was first opened.f

In the year 1818 the " New Germantown Turnpike
Company" was chartered and organised. It com-
menced at North Branch, Somerset Co., intersecting
and branching off from the Easton and New Bruns-
wick turnpike, and ran through New Germantown to
its terminus at German Valley. James Honeyman
was president, and one of the principal stockholders.
Other turnpikes, chartered by the State Legislature
between the years 1800 and 1828, running through
either Hunterdon or Somerset Counties, were the fol-
lowing : March 12, 1806, " Hunterdon and Sussex ;"
Feb. 9, 1811, " Farmers'," from Springfield, through
Pluckamin, to the Jersey tujnpike, near Potterstown ;
1813, "Spruce Eun," from Clinton, Hunterdon Co.,
to the Washington turnpike, near Sherrard's mill,
(now) in Washington township, Warren Co. ; and in
1813 the " New Germantown," above mentioned.
Gordon, in his " History of New Jersey," gives the
last turnpike constructed in the State as the " Passaic,"
in 1828 ; a few years later the canal and railroads di-
verted capital from turnpikes into other channels.

In another portion of this workj wiU be found a
detailed account of the early roads of Somerset
County, many of which also extended across Hunter-
don County.


The only public conveyance through the province
previous to the surrender to Queen Anne (1702), of
which any knowledge has been obtained, was a wagon
on the Amboy road, which, under authority from
Governor Hamilton, ran at irregular times and with-
out established rates, in connection with the packet-
boat to New York.^ Whitehead remarks that this
may have been " the Post" between East Jersey and
Pennsylvania, several times referred to in the Penn-
sylvania Colonial Records. ||

The earliest mention of stages is found in an ad-
vertisement in the Philadelphia Mercury, dated in
March, 1733, as follows :

"This IB to give notice unto Gentlemen, Merchants, Tradesmen, Travelers, and others, that Solomon Smith and James Moore of Burling- ton : keepeth two Stage Wagom intending to go from Burlington to Amboy, and back from Amhoj' to Burlington again Once every Week, or ofit'er if that Business presents, etc. "

About this time, a line ran by way of New Bruns-
wick, and in 1734 the first line via Bordentown was
established from South River to New York, " once a
week, if wind and weather permit, and come to the
Old-slip." In 1744 the stage-line between Trenton
and New Brunswick was established, and ran twice a

* Session Laws of New Jersey, 1838.

t Acts of General Assembly, 18«, pp. 83, 84.

X See Chapter V. General History of Somerset County.

§ Smith's New Jersey, p. a02.

I Col. Records, i., pp. 4*1, 467, 640.

week. From New Brunswick it continued east to
Amboy, crossing at the Narrows, and thence to Flat-
bush and New York. David Mizner, now eighty-two
years old and still living at Kingston, was the driver
of one of the stages of Robert Bailes for twenty suc-
cessive years.f

In 1791 there were only six post-ofiices in New
Jersey, Newark, Elizabethtown, Bridgetown (now
Rahway), Brunswick, Princetown, and Trenton.
Somerset seems to have had no mail facilities at all.

The Swift-Sure Coach-Line was established very
early, ^before the Revolution, and possibly as early
as the Trenton and New Brunswick line, and ran
between Philadelphia and New York, over the " Old
York Road," by the way of New Hope, Flemington,
Somerville, Bound Brook, Plainfield, Elizabethtown,
etc. At the first, possibly, but one trip a week may
have been made, later increased to two, and at least
as early as 1826 (no doubt earlier) making three trips
a week.**

The Trenton and Flemington mail-coach com-
menced running about 1828 or 1829. From an ad-
vertisementft of this line, dated " Bloomsbury, Aug.
17, 1829," we learn that the coach left the " Union
Line office, Trenton," for Flemington, every Monday,
Wednesday, and Friday, and left Nathaniel Price's
inn, Flemington, for Trenton and Bloomsbury, every
Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. The fare through
was one dollar, and we are told that the line was well

In 1832 the " Swift-Sure Mail-Line" was revived
between Philadelphia and New York, and "splendid,
Troy coaches'' put on by the proprietors, George Car-
ter & Co., Philadelphia, John A. Weart, Trenton,
and Anderson & McCutcheon, New York. It con-
nected with the steamboat " John Marshall" at Eliz-
abethtown Point for New York City. Three trips per
week each way were made, lodging at Flemington, and
the fare was four dollars and twenty-five cents.

The post-road from New Brunswick to Flemington
was established by Congress early in 1838, and the
New Brunswick, Millstone, and Flemington Stage"
commenced running that year, making tri-weekly

If Ealph Voorhees, 18Y3.
** The following advertisement
Flemington, of date Jan. 3, 1827 :

in the HmUerdon Oazetie,


"NEW TOBK & PHILADELPHIA MAIL STAGE, via New Bope, Flemingtav, Somerville, Bound Brook, Plainjield, Elizabeth- town, &o. PASSENGEES in this line ivill leave Philadelphia at 8 o'clock a.m. oi Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, lodge at Centreville, and arrive in New-York at 2 p.m. of the succeeding days. Likewise leave New- York at half-past 10 a.m. of the days above named, stop at Centreville, and reach Philadelphia at 4 P.M. of Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. Fare through 43.60. Way paaaengers in proportion. All baggage at the risk of the owners. Peter B. Lowe, "
One of the Proprietors.
"Doc. 27. 1826. f Hmierdon Ornnty Oaaetle, Aug. 26, 1829. 108 HUNTERDON AND SOMERSET COUNTIES, NEW JERSEY. trips between Joline's hotel, in New Brunswick, and Mahlon C. Hart's, in Flemington, via Millstone, "
Flaggtown, Shannock, Clover Hill, and Greenville."
This stage connected at New Brunswick with the cars
for New York, and stages for Princeton, Trenton, and
Philadelphia.* The proprietors were J. V. D. Joline
and Frederick Ten Eyck.

It seems essential to take this retrospective glance
at the old coaching-times in order properly to under-
stand the vast change which the iron rail and steam
propulsion hath wrought.

" where is the coach ? where is the mail ? The coachman, where is he ? Where is the guard that need to blow His horn so cheerily ? "

It is, of course, understood that country stages have
not altogether disappeared from our midst. They
still exist in both Hunterdon and Somerset, yet essen-
tially changed from the old-time stage-coach de-
scribed by Washington Irving in his "Sketch-Book,"'
or by Dickens on the occasion of the journey of Pick-
wick and his friends on the " Muggletown Telegraph,"
to spend Christmas with the Wardles at Dingley Dell.
Such scenes, however, were daily enacted in this sec-
tion less than half a century ago.

Before the era of railroads, travel between New
York and Philadelphia increased to such an extent
that thirty-two stages were frequently run each way
per day to carry the passengers. On days of extra-
ordinary travel the farmers in the neighborhood of
places where horses were changed were in readiness
to furnish additional vehicles and teams if circum-
stances required.

" In 1825, on the day Lafayette passed through tie State to review the troops at Trenton, assembled to do him honor, there were one hundred and sixty-eight horses ready harnessed and exchanged at Kingston. The general passed through in a splendid barouche drawn by six gray liorses, driven (says Mizner) by David Sauderson, now of Wbite House, Hunterdon Co., then a youth of nineteen years of age. The stages, on their way to New York, would often separate a short distance east of Kingston, some taking the Trenton turnpike, others crossing Bocky Hill -to New Brunswick by the way of Six-Mile Run.! "

About this time there was also an express-line be-
tween New York and Washington whose route lay
through Somerset and Hunterdon Counties. The
express-rider found a fresh horse ready saddled and
bridled as he came to each of the stations, at short
intervals, on the route. It was by this means that
the New York papers published, in advance of the
mail, the vote on Mr. Clay's tariflT-bill the day follow-
ing its passage in the House, at Washington.

There was also an immense travel across the State
at this time independent of stage- and express-lines.
It consisted principally in conveying produce to mar-
ket at New Brunswick from Hunterdon, Sussex, and
Somerset Counties. Large wagons heavily laden with
flour, flax, flax-seed, or other produce, frequently

* Advertisement in Hunterdon GazeUe, Aug. 1, 1838.
t " The Earitan and its Early Dutch Settlers," Voorhees, in " Our
Home," 1873.

drawn by six horses, passed over the Amwell road to
New Brunswick, while those from Sussex and the
north went principally by the way of Bound Brook.
At a certain time the keeper of the toll-gate at Mid-
dlebrook kept an account, and stated that five hun-
dred vehicles of various kinds had passed through the
gate in one day on their way to the " Landing" and
New Brunswick markets. In 1748 the Earitan
Landing was described as "being a market for the
most plentiful wheat country for its bigness in Amer-

From about 1808 until the railroads were built
Messrs. Fish, Hill & Abbey ran goods across the
State from Trenton to New Brunswick, from thence
to New York by sloops, and later by steamboats.
This firm is said to have carried on even at that early
date a very extensive transportation business.


The project of a canal to connect the waters of the
Delaware and Earitan Eivers was earnestly considered
even as early as the year 1804. At that date a route
was examined by a company of intelligent, experienced
men, and a law was passed by the Legislature author-
izing its construction by a private company. Of this
the late Judge Morris was president, and the late
Gen. Braley of Hunterdon, the late Mr. Garnett of
Somerset, with others, were directors. But these gen-
tlemen, with all their zeal, did not succeed in their
project ; the state of trade at that time, and inex-
perience with works of this character, prevented its
execution. Nevertheless, in 1816, and again in 1823,
its practicability was demonstrated by commissioners
appointed by the Legislature to explore the route.
Its practical utility was also realized by many as
being one of the links of the great chain of internal
navigation which would greatly foster the domestic
trade of the country. With the completion of the
Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, this one only was
wanted to complete an entire inland navigation from
Newbern, in North Carolina, to Providence, E. I.
Therefore another effort was made. A second joint-
stock company was authorized to build this canal. It
paid to the State treasury the sum of one hundred
thousand dollars for the privilege ; but, failing to ob-
tain the sanction of the State of Pennsylvania to the
use of the waters of the Delaware Eiver, it was com-
pelled to abandon the enterprise. The State refunded
to it the premium which it had paid.

^ This enterprise was by many at that time deemed
visionary,! while not a few rejoiced in this second

X Ibid., p. 6n5.

§ It may sound strange to the present generation,-so familiarized with
railroads and "rapid traDsit,"_but it is a fact, that many of the people
of Hunterdon and Somerset sent remonstrances in 1829 to the Legisla-
ture " against the passage of a law to authorize the formation of a canal
along the South Branch of Earitan from Hunt^s Mills in Hunterdon to
Perth Amboy," alleging that it " would not only injure, but entirely de-
stroy, the many valuable mills located upon the Earitan, and in injuring
them would also injure us as citizens in the vicinity of said mills "



failure, by whict the power of constructing the canal
reverted to the State, thinking that if it were feasible
she would soon build it. The friends of the measure
were active. Many petitions were presented to the
Legislature in 1828-29, committees were appointed
and reported, and there was much agitation of the
subject and earnest efforts put forth to induce the
State to undertake its construction. A bill introduced
for this purpose was defeated. The State refused to
build it or incur obligation thereby.

Although abandoned as a State measure, its friends
still were confident, and efforts were revived to pro-
vide for its erection as a private enterprise. In Feb-
ruary, 1830, it was committed to a joint-stock com-
pany, with certain beneficial restrictions to the State.
The act of February 4th provided that " subscriptiour
books to the capital stock of the 'Delaware and
Earit^an Canal Company' shall be opened, within six
months after the passing of this act, by James Parker
and James Neilson of Middlesex, John Potter of
Somerset, William Halsted of Hunterdon, and Garret
D. Wall of Burlington.'' The capital stock was " to
be one million dollars, divided into shares of one
hundred dollars each, and when five thousand shares
are subscribed the stockholders shall elect by ballot
nine directors," and annually thereafter said directors
to elect- a president. The act gave them corporate
rights, powersj and privileges, and empowered the
company " to construct ... a canal or artificial navi-
gation from the watere of the Delaware River to the
waters of the Earitan, and to improve the navigation
of the said rivers, respectively, as may from time to
time become necessary below where the said canal shall
empty into the said rivers, respectively ; which canal
shall be at least fifty feet wide at the water-line, and
the waters therein be at least five feet deep through-
out ; and the said company are hereby empowered to
supply the said canal with water from the river Dela-
ware by constructing a feeder, which shall be so con-
structed as to form a navigable canal not less than
thirty feet wide and four feet deep, to conduct the
water from any part of the river Delaware."

The first directors were (1830) Robert F. Stockton,
Garret D. Wall, John Potter, James Parker, James
Neilson, William Halsted, John E. Thompson, James
S. Green, Joseph Mcllvaine, who chose R. F. Stockton
president of the board, James Neilson treasurer, and
J. R. Thompson secretary.

The construction of the canal was commenced late
in the year 1830, and it was completed and in opera-
tion in June, 1834. The entire work was under the
direction of Canvass White, chief engineer, who lived
only a few months after its completion. The eastern
section was built under the sliperintendence of John
Hopkins- the middle section, George T. Olmsted; the
western section and lower part of the feeder, Edward
A. Douglas; and the upper part of the feeder under
the direction of Ashbel Welch, of Lambertville.

The Hon. Ashbel Welch, in a letter to Solomon W.

Roberts, Esq., dated Ttenton, June 27, 1834, so neatly
portrays the event of the opening of the canal that
some extracts are here given, by permission :

" I am here waiting for the packet on my way home from the canal celebration. On Wednesday the directors of onr canal and railroad com- panies, and some thirty or more of the principal stockholders, together with the Governor, and sundry others of our great people, came up the 'feeder' as far as Lambertville in a Chesapeake and Delaware canal- barge. After dining there all hands got aboard the barge myself among the number and started for Trenton about nine o'clock at night. . . By good luck more than good management, we got to Trenton without wrecking the boat, and after a short nap started off yesterday morning for New Brunswick. *' The canal-banks for the whole distance were lined with people, that is to say, there were large collections of them at the landings, bridges, etc. A more jolly party than ours was in the afternoon you seldom meet. John C. Stevens, James S. Green, and Thomas Biddle acted as fun-makers, and they acquitted themselves admirably. . . When' we arrived at New Brunswick we were greeted with a salute of twenty- four gnns, were received by the military with presented arras, stood some- thing less than half an hour with our hats off while the mayor made a speech and was answered, hurr.ihed in return to their civilities until we were all hoarse, were marched up and down the streets, and a little after dark sat down to a sumptuous dinner, provided at the expense of the canal company. The military, for their arduous services (to wit, waiting under arms four or five hours and being nearly broiled), received their pay partly in champagne, partly in glory. "

The Delaware and Raritan Canal Company and
the Camden and Amboy Railroad and Transportation
Company were at the time of their incorporation, in
1830, rival and antagonistic corporations. They were
consolidated in interest by act of the Legislature, Feb.
1.5, 1831, and assumed the title of the " Joint Compa-
nies," their affairs being controlled by the boards of
both companies joined as one body. March 14, 1872,
the " Joint Companies" and the " New Jersey Rail-
road and Transportation Company"* were, by act of
the State Legislature, merged into one corporation,
known as the "United New Jersey Railroad and
Canal Company." Its present management (1880) is
as follows : John G. Stevens, President ; A. L. Den-
nis, Vice-President; F. Wolcott Jackson, General
Superintendent. Directors : John Jacob Astor, John
C. Barron, William Bucknell, A.' L. Dennis, Charles
E. Green, Robert L. Kennedy, Thomas McKean,
Isaac W. Sciidder, John G. Stevens, Robert F. Stock-
ton, Ashbel Welch, Samuel Welsh ; Charles A. Butts,
State Director.

This canal extends from the Delaware at Borden-
town to Trenton, thence across the State to New
Brunswick, where it joins the Raritan, passing through
the southwestern portion of Somerset County, along
the east bank of the Millstone River and the south
bank of the Raritan. It is forty-four miles long, with
a feeder, twenty-two miles in length, which extends
from Bull's Island, above Stockton, in Hunterdon
County, southward to the main canal, with which it
unites at Trenton. The canal crosses the Assanpink
Creek, east of Trenton, in a fine stone aqueduct. This
canal is eighty feet wide and eight feet deep, admit-

* Incorporated March 7, 1832 ; it constructed the railroad from Jersey
City, through Newark, Elizabeth, and Bahway, to and through the city
of New Brunswick. ,



ting the passage of barges of two hundred and fifty
tons burden, and its cost is not far from five million
dollars. In 1867 it passed into the hands of the
United New Jersey Eailroad and Canal Company,
by whom it was subsequently leased to the Pennsyl-
vania Eailroad Company, at an annual rental of ten
per centum per annum upon the capital stock, free of
all taxes ; and, in accordance with the lease, quarterly
dividends of two and one-half per cent., in cash, have
been regularly paid.

The receipts and expenditures of this canal for 1879
were as follows :

From toUaon boats S4,37fi.40

lading 410,816.70

" Bteam towing 273,663.10 *' miscellaneouB 7,203.90 $696,069.10 Working expenses 3-:i6,924.86 Net earnings $369,034.25* IV. EAILKOADS. The coach of the sixteenth century, the stage of the seventeenth, and the mail of the eighteenth led step by step to the locomotive of the nineteenth, the cen- tury marked by such giant strides in the matter of travel and transportation. In 1750 it took from five to seven days to make the trip Irom New York to Philadelphia; in 1850, two hours.f THE CENTEAI; KAILEOAD OF NEW JERSEY. The principal east-and-west railroad line traversing the counties of Somerset and Hunterdon is The Cen- tral Bailroad of New Jersey. This road, besides being one of the leading avenues for conveying the products of Pennsylvania and the West to New York City, is one of the most important routes from the Atlantic seaboard to the West. No road in the Union is so indispensable a link in the chain of communication between the East and West, and none can excel it in the picturesque attractions which it opens up to the tourist. • The history of the road is full of interest, especially as in its construction it acted as a pioneer and made the all-important preparation which led to the build- ing of other and important connecting railroad lines. The road from Elizabethport to Somerville was built by the Elizabethtown and Somerville Railroad "
Company," under a charter granted in 1831. The
company was poor, and the road was opened first from
Elizabethport to Elizabeth, two and one-half miles,
and connected at the Point with New York and New
Brunswick by boat. The route to Somerville was
surveyed in 1835 by Col. James Moore, the present
chief engineer; who has filled this office and that of

* Beport State Comptroller, 1879.

t In 1829, when steamboatB were running, and the same journey waa
made In nine hours, it waa cause of great rejoicing aa the inauguration
of a new era in the history of traveling in the United States, and truly
it was a marvel when compared with the slow-moving stage-coach and
canal-boat. But the steam-cara soon left even the steamboats in the

general superintendent since the commencement of
the road.

In 1836 it was built as far as Plainfield, and the
panic of 1837 told severely on the finances of the
company; but they still pressed onward, though
slowly, extending the road to Bound Brook, and finally
reached Somerville in 1839,t by a . desperate efibrt
which resulted in the failure of the company and the
foreclosure of the mortgage upon the road. The road
was sold in 1846, the strap-rail taken up by the new
organization, the track relaid with heavy T-rail, and
preparations made for a large business. Feb. 16,
1842, the State Legislature, by special enactment, ex-
tended the time for completing the road until July 4,
1856. A new company was chartered in 1847 (ap-
proved February 26th) to extend the road to Easton,
under the name of " The Somerville and Easton Eail-
road Company." In the fall of 1848 the road was
opened to White House ; the following year? authority
was given the above-named company to purchase the
Elizabethtown and Somerville Eailroad, and the name
of the consolidated company was changed to " The
Central Eailroad Company of New Jersey.'' This was
carried into efi'ect in 1850, the existing roads brought
under one ownership, and immediately thereafter, in
the spring of the same year, the remainder of the
route to Phillipsburg was put under contract. The
portion to Clinton was opened in May, 1852, and the
cars made one round-trip per day from New York to
Clinton, in Hunterdon County, from whence passen-
gers reached Easton in stage. On the morning of the
1st of July, 1852, the last rail was laid, and the next
day, in eight splendid cars (drawn by the gigantic
engine "Pennsylvania," decorated with flags), the
directors of the road, with their invited guests and
accompanied by Dodsworth's Band, sped through the
glorious landscapes of Hunterdon and Warren, to the
wonder of thousands of delighted inhabitants, who
thronged to the stations and greeted the party with the
firing of guns and the waving of handkerchiefs and
banners. From this time that undeveloped country
began to yield up its wealth. Iron-works that had
lain in ruins for the want of fuel since the Eevolution
were rebuilt, and with the advent of the thundering
coal-trains began the ring of tilt-hammers ; while the
exchange of log cabins for beautiful dwellings, and
the founding of churches, schools, etc., marked the
succeeding years of the history of this road.

For eight years more were passengers transferred
from Elizabethtown to New York by boat, but in 1860
authority was obtained to extend the Central Eoad to
Jersey City, which was soon after accomplished. The
most important feature in this extension is the Bav

X John 0. Stearns, who died in Elizabeth in November, 1862, com-
menced his connection with the road in 1834, the firm of Colkett &
Stearns having taken the contract for the construction of a part of the
original Elizabethtown and Somerville Railroad. After the foreclosure
and sale of the road, in 1846, Mr. Stearns was appointed superintendent
and retained the office until his death.

i Act approved Feb. 22, 1849.



Bridge, nine thousand eight hundred feet in length,
over Newark Bay.

In 1869-70 the Central Railroad Company made
many important improvements at points within
Hunterdon County and in its immediate vicinage,
calculated to contribute to the comfort and safety of
passengers, and of persons crossing the tract. They
are thus detailed by the Hunterdon Republican of
March 10, 1870 :

" At FhlUipsburg the fonner complicated network of traclts has been so changed that the rails all now nin from one switch to the main street. The old freight-house has been removed to the main street and changed to a passenger-car house. A new freight-house at the same place has lately been finished. At Bloomsbnry bridge another track has been laid, 80 that danger from a single track oyer the bridge is thus avoided. At High Bridge the new station has been finished in a style appropriate to that romantic growing town. Below the White House a mile of new track on each side of the road has just been completed for turn-out pur- poses, so that freight- and coal-trains may lay over, making four tracks here. A bridge has also just been completed by the company over their track below White House, so that vehicles on the public road in crossing are entirely out of danger. This bridge is one hundred and one feet long and has three spans, one of which is fifty-one feet long. A mile of tiack has also been added each side of the road from Clinton Station towards High Bridge, making four tracks here, and three-quarters of a mile from Hampton Junction towards Spruce Run. These improve- ments have all been very judiciously made, and prove the good judgment and engineering skill of the superintendent. "

The first station-agent at Somerville was Bernard
Steams, with James BJreusen as helper; the last
named is now, and has been for years, the agent at

In 1855 the Lehigh Valley Railroad was opened
from Easton, first to Allentown and then to Mauch
Chunk, the centre of the Lehigh Valley coal-region.
During the same year, also, the Delaware, Lacka-
wanna and Western Railroad completed the line from
New Hampton (its point of junction with the Central
Railroad of New Jersey) to Scranton, the centre of
the Lackawanna coal-region, and a convenient depot
for the coal transportation from the Wyoming Valley
eastward. Through these two roads the products of
the richest anthracite mines of Pennsylvania were
brought to the Central Railroad of New Jersey for
transportation to the metropolis. The Lackawanna
connection requiring a six-foot gauge, the Central
Railroad Company at an early period anticipated this
necessity by laying a third rail to Hampton junction.
The common gauge of the Central road is four feet
eight and a half inches, which is uniform with that
of the railroads of the country generally. The
value of these connecting lines may be appreciated
from the fact that during the first year after their
completion the business of the Central Road was
nearly double. During the second year the Lehigh
Valley road brought eighty-six thousand three hun-
dred and fifty-five tons of coal, and the Lackawanna
road two hundred and twenty-four thousand tons, to
the Central road for transportation.

In 1858 the East Pennsylvania (now Philadelphia
and Reading) Railroad was opened between Allen-
town and Reading, establishing a direct line, with

unbroken gauge, to Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, and the
West ; and it has direct control of and operates the
roads in Pennsylvania extending from Easton,
through Bethlehem, Mauch Chunk, White Haven,
and Wilkes-Barre, to Carbondale, under the title of
the Lehigh and Susquehanna Division. It also oper-
ates, within the State of New Jersey, the " New York
and Long Branch Railroad," from Perth Amboy to
Long Branch ; the " New Egypt and Farmingdale
Railroad," from Long Branch to Ocean Beach; "The
Long Branch and Sea Girt Railroad," from Long
Branch to Sea Girt, aggregating thirty-four miles,
and in the. summer of 1880 extended the line to Point
Pleasant, under the name of " New York and Long
Branch Extension Railroad," three miles ; also the
Jersey Southern Railroad, from Sandy Hook to
Bay Side, one hundred and seventeen miles. The
Central Railroad, being in harmony and acting in
unison with the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad,
makes connections with the various lines of the latter
road, one important branch of which, the " New York
and Philadelphia New Line," intersects with the
Central at Bound Brook, Somerset Co.

These are the immediate connections of the " Cen-
tral Railroad of New Jersey," all of which are of
incalculable value. Certain it is no road could have
a geographical position more favorable for numerous
and important connections than this one. Along the
line of the Central the beauties of nature and the
utilities of man vie with each other for the overmas-
tering interest. The trunk route that is, that of the
Central road itself extends across the central portion
of New Jersey, and hence its name. Its termini are
Jersey City and Easton, Pa. It traverses the finest
portion of the State, passing through a succession of
alluvial valleys containing the very richest land in
New Jersey, and increasing both in beauty and fer-
tility as one approaches the borders of Pennsylvania.
Who that has looked from Ne9v Hampton upon the
Musconetcong valley of Hunterdon County, will ever
forget the scene or its suggestions ?*

The first president of this company was Governor
Isaac H. Williamson, who was succeeded by Col.
John Kean. Stephen Vail followed, and officiated
until the consolidation of the companies, when John
Taylor Johnston was elected. The last-named gen-

* The route beyond Easton affords an extent and variety of scenery
found on few roads on this continent, mountain-ranges of characteristic
grandeur, cleft here and there by abrupt fissures to their very base,
through which stately rivers lead their pomp of waters to the sea; rich
and beautiful valleys, sometimes so narrow, and, withal, so picturesque,
as to remind the traveler of Swiss cantons among the Alps, and some-
times allowed a broader and longer reach by the yielding mountain-
ranges that inclose them ; forests that still retain the rugged aspect of
their primeval wilderness, and romantic cascades. The mention of these
features but feebly suggests the reality as seen by the eye. One must
actually visit the Delaware Water-Gap, must himself climb the Pocono
range, must follow the winding Susquehanna, must be drawn up the in-
clined planes of Mount Pisgah, must actually realize these things in
his own experience, for it is beyond our power adequately to describe



tleman served for many yfears, and until recently,
when the present incumbent was chosen.

The present officers, 1880, are as follows: E. C.
Knight, President ; John Kean, Vice-President ; Sam-
uel Knox, Treasurer and Secretary; F. S. Lathrop,
Receiver ; James Moore, General Superintendent and
Engineer ; W. W. Stearns, W. S. Polhemus, Assistant
Superintendents ; Jacob M. Clark, Engineer ; H. P.
Baldwin, General Passenger Agent ; P. H. Wyckoff",
General Freight Agent. The directors are E. 0.
Knight, F. S., Lathrop, F. A. Potts, J. J. Barnes,
G. G. Haven, Edward Clark, Benjamin Williamson,
John Kean, and F. T. Frelinghuysen.

The capital stock of the company is $18,563,200,
while the value of the road and equipments is over
$20,000,000. For the year ending Dec. 31, 1879, the
balance net earnings was $1,371,579.64.

The stations upon this road within Somerset and
Hunterdon Counties ar6 Boulid Brook (where connec-
tion is made with the " New York and Philadelphia
New Line,"' and with stages for New Brunswick),
Finderne, Sbnierville (connecting with the " South
Branch Bailroad," to Flemington), Baritan, North
Branch, White House, Lebanon, Annandale (Clin-
ton), High Bridge (connecting with the "High Bridge
Branch," to German Valley, Chester, and Port Oram,
etc.). Glen Gardner, Junction ("where connection , is
made with the " Delaware, Lackawanna and Western
Railroad"), Asbury, and Valley. From the last-
named station the road crosses the southern corner of
Warren County to Phillipsburg and Easton, where
- the "Lehigh and Susquehanna division" of the road,
with its half-dozen branches, commences.


This road, a branch of the " Central Bailroad of
New Jersey," extend^ from Somerville to Flemington.
It was chartered in 1870, and its construction com-
pleted soon thereaftej. Its length is fifteen and a
half miles, and its cost was $441,868.87. Its capital
stock is $438,300 ; its floating debt, $3568.87. 0. D.
Hayne and W. F. Rand are the conductors on this
road ; the fortiler is a veteran in railroad service,
twenty-six years "'on the rail," and mostly in the em-
ploy of the Central.

The stations on' this line are Somerville (connecting
with the main line, east and west), Ricefield, Flagg-
town,.Neshanic, Three Bridges, and Flemington, all
within Somerset and Hunterdon Counties.


In 1873 a charter was procured for the construction
of a railroad from High Bridge, in Hunterdon County,
to Chester, in Morris County, and to connect with tlae
New Jersey Central at the first-named point. This
was afterwards consolidated with the " Longwood
Valley Railroad." Work was commenced on the
High Bridge road in 1874, and completed in 1876 to
Port Oram, in Morris County, twenty-five and one-

fourth miles. It is coriteriiplated' to extend it east-
ward to the Hudson River. The first president of
this corporation was Lewis H. Taylor, of High Bridge.
This road has short branches to Chester, four and one-
half miles, and to Hacklebarney Mines, one and one-
fourth miles. The statistics of this road show : Cost,
$972,830.03 ; capital stock, $850,000. This line is also
operated by the Central Railroad of New Jersey.


The history of this road is one of unusual interest.
In 1867, Henry M. Hamilton, Esq., of New York,
conceived the idea of building a new line of railroad
from New York to Philadelphia. He removed to
New Jersey for that purpose and entered on the un-
dertaking, which only succeeded after a tremendous
struggle between the popular will as it centred in him
and the United Railroads of New Jersey, a struggle '
which will ever be memorable in the annals of the
history of this State. From the outset the new line,
which crosses the southern part of Somerset County,
was a very popular undertaking, and its conflict en-
listed general sympathy. Mr. Hamilton began with
the Attleborough Railroad Company, a corporation
chartered by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, April
2, 1860, its charter being renewed March 24, 1868.
It was authorized to build a railroad from Philadel-
phia to the Delaware River above Trenton. In order
to be able to withstand the opposition of the Camden
and Amboy Railroad Company, which, with every
resource of money and influence, he was well aware
would throw its whole power against every step
of his advance, he proceeded to procure amend-
ments to the charter of the Attleborough Railroad
Company from the Legislature of Pennsylvania, au-
thorizing the increase of' its capital, so that it could
hold sufficient to build the whole road from Philadel-
phia to New York, empowering it also to purchase
the stock of railroad corporations in New Jer.sey.
Thus authorized, he procured the purchase of con-
trolling interests in the Yardleyville Bridge Company,
the Millstone and Trenton Railroad Company (a body
corporate of the State of New Jersey under an act
approved April 3, 1867), the Peapack and Plainfield
Railroad Company (under acts approved March 30,
1855, and March 11, 1864), the Elizabeth and New
Providence Railroad Company (under act approved
March 22, 1867), and afterwards the Narrow Gauge
Railway Company (under act approved March 22,
1871), these all being corporate bodies existing under
legal charters in the State of New . Jersey, with
full powers to build their respective roads, and so
situated as to connect and form, when built, a con-
tinuous line from New York, with the Attleborough
Company, to Philadelphia.

Another thing was' necessary besides filling up the
links in the chain from New York t6 Philadelphia,
and that was the pi'iltection of -the Stock of this new



enterprise from being bought up by the opposition or
controlled in any way in its interest. To this end, he
had the Attleborough Railroad Company made the
parent company, with its name changed by law to
The National Railway Company, and, pursuant to
authority granted by the Legislature of Pennsylvania,
he had its stock arranged into two classes, common
and preferred, each being equal in amount and having
equal privileges, except that the preferred stock was
entitled to receive ten per cent, dividends out of the
net earnings of the road before the common stock
could receive anything. He also had authority
granted by the Legislature of Pennsylvania to place
the common stock in trust, that is, to transfer the
power to vote it to a trustee by a deed of trust, the
conditions of the trust being such that no vote could
be cast on it in the interest of the Camden and Am-
boy or any other opposition company. This would
put forever safely out of the reach of the control of
anybody hostile to the interests of the new company
one-half of its entire voting stock. The other half
the preferred could be sold to any purchaser without
risk to the control. It could only be obtained at its
par value in cash, and its proceeds could be used only
towards the building of the road. The equitable in-
terest or money value of the common stock was not
conveyed to the trustee, being reserved for the benefit
of the company. This common stock was used in
buying up the control of the New Jersey corporations
which were needed to make the line from the Dela-
ware Eiver to New York, it having been exchanged
for their stock. This had a twofold result : it com-
pleted the line, and it was made full-paid by the ex-
change, so that it could be placed in trust. The deed
of trust provided that any attempt to vote it in the
interest of any competing line should be void, and
the holder of a single share of it was given full, real,
and equitable power to enforce this provision as com-
pletely as if he were a party to the contract.

The purpose of this provision was not clearly seen
at the time, even by the members of the legal pro-
fession generally in New Jersey, it being the first
time it was ever introduced for the protection of a
railroad company. Mr. Hamilton had worked out
this application of the principle himself, after having
exhausted all the possibilities of protection otherwise.
He had' consulted able lawyers, among them Prof.
Theodore W. Dwight, of the Columbia Law School of
New York, as to the possibility of an irrevocable
proxy, and whatever other forms' of protection against
outside control could be suggested; and this plan was
finally approved, and adopted as the only one reli-
able and satisfactory. It was made the occasion of a
great cry of fraud, and much odium against Mr.
Hamilton was raised in consequence of its misappre-
hension, it being made to appear to the public as a
very great bug-bear. It was in reality the key to the
whole, position, and' was so essential as a means of
protection that but for it the enterprise could never

have been carried through. .This arrangement has
been copied by other corporations since, notably the
Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad Company, which
has used it for the same purpose, ^to protect itself
from the control of the Pennsylvania Railroad Com-

The National Railway Company still lacked the
power to execute a single mortgage on the whole line
from Philadelphia to New York, and capitalists re-
quired that legislative authority to do this should be
secured as a condition precedent to their putting in
the money to build the road. A bill was therefore
introduced into the Legislature of New Jersey in
1870 supplementary to the charter of the Millstone
and Trenton Railroad Company, authorizing that
company to consolidate with the National Railway
Company, so as to give the' required mortgage pii the
whole line ; but it was defeated 'by the .powerful op-
position of the Camden and Aniboy Railroad Com-
pany after a two months' content in the Legislature.
From 1870 to 1872 the time was spent in endeavoring
to obviate the difiiculty growing out of the inability
to make a consolidated mortgage. At length, in the
session of the Legislature for 1872, the Stanhope
charter was obtained, which was approved by the
Governor, March 13, 1872, having passed both
branches of the Legislature without opposition,
though it contained a clause providing for this.neces-
sity, this clause having escaped thei notice of the
agents of the Camden and Amboy Railroad Company,
who were guarding their interests in the Legislature.
This charter, in the opinion of many of the first
lawyers of New Jersey and other States, among
them Hon. Cortlandt Parker, Attorney-General Rob-
ert Gilchrist, Judge William Strong of the United
States Supreme Court, all of whom gave written
opinions, together with Hon. Charles Gibbons and
Messrs. Bullitt and Dixon of Philadelphia, con-
tained the necessary power to unite in one corporation
all the franchises under which the new line was to be
constructed, rendering them competent to execute a
consolidated mortgage and to build and operate the
road. The different New Jersey corporations were
therefore merged into the Stanhope Railroad Com-
pany, and that company leased to the National Rail-
way Company so much of the united franchises as
was necessary to extend it to Jersey City and make
one mortgage on the whole line.

Such eminent counsel having approved the indenture
as competent for the purpose, capitalists willingly en-
gaged to furnish the funds for building the road.
Contracts for construction were let ; the grading of the
road-bed was vigorously commenced along the whole
line, and a considerable portion of the earthwork and
masonry done in a short time.

The Pennsylvania Railroad Company, which had
then leased the works of the Camden and Amboy
Railroad Company, applied to the courts for an in-
junction restraining this new and competing line from



completing their work. Judge Sharswood, before
whom it came, notified counsel of the National Rail-
way Company, after argument on both sides, that he
intended to deny the injunction, suggesting, however,
that it would expedite a decision in the Supreme
Court if the company would accept an injunction
pro forma, i.e., for the sake of form, and thus be
able to carry it up themselves, so as to secure a final
decision at once. They accepted the injunction, and
it was granted. While these proceedings were pend-
ing, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company applied to
the Court of Chancery of New Jersey for an injunction
against the National Railway Company in this State,
on the ground of their still possessing the monopoly
of all carrying between New York and Philadelphia.
At the original incorporation of the Camden and
Amboy Railroad Company it had been secured the
monopoly of all transportation between New York
and Philadelphia. The legislative enactment of
March 2, 1832, by which this was accomplished, pro-
vides " that it shall not be lawful at any time during
the charter of the Camden and Amboy Railroad Com-
pany to construct any other railroad in New Jersey,
without its consent, which shall be intended or used for
the transportation of passengers or merchandise be-
tween the cities of New York and Philadelphia, or to
compete in business with the Camden and Amboy

This monopoly was complete, and in time made the
Camden and Amboy overpowering in the State, and
so strong as to be felt in the framing of the laws, in
the choosing of the Governors and members of the
Legislature, and even of the judges of the courts.
This had at length become intolerable to such a de-
gree that every effbrt had been made to shake ofi' its
tyranny, but in vain.* Henry C. Carey, the distin-
guished political economist of Philadelphia in those
days, who had done his utmost to curb the power of
the monopoly and failed, said to Mr. Hamilton re-
garding his enterprise, " Young man, that is a noble
thing to do ; but let me tell you that, however well
you lay your plans, you will never get through. Any
body of men you may gather around you will some
day sell you out." It was to prevent this that Mr.
Hamilton first began his search after a means of pro-
tection, which search ended in his deed of trust.

As a means of ending this monopoly, however, a
way was found in 1854 for securing a compact be-
tween the Legislature of New Jersey and the joint
companies, whereby those exclusive privileges were
to cease in 1869, and it was then enacted that no such
claim should ever be made after that date. The legis-
lative act respecting this compact provided " that
after the first day of January, 1869, it shall be lawful,
without the consent of the Camden and Amboy and
Delaware and Raritan Companies, to construct any

* A more full account of this monopoly and its power may be found
n the North American Review of April, 1867.

railroad or railroads in this State for the transporta-
tion of passengers and merchandise between New
York and Philadelphia, or to compete in business with
the railroads of the joint companies"; and this act
the joint companies formally accepted, April 17, 1854,
having received in return certain advantages for which
they were willing to relinquish the monopoly.

Nevertheless, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company,
as the successors of the joint companies, claimed be-
fore the chancellor that until the Legislature should
iu express words authorize a new company to comr
pete with the joint companies, it had exclusive right
of transportation between New York and Philadel-
phia. The National Railway Company was defended
by some of the ablest legal counsel in the State,
Judge Robert S. Green, of Elizabeth, Hon. Cortlandt
Parker, Hon. Robert Gilchrist, then attorney-general
of the State, and Judge J. G. Shipman, who showed
the clear right of the new company to compete ; yet
Vice-Ohancellor Amzi Dodd, before whom the appli-
cation for an injunction came, granted it, Jan. 14,

This decision practically ended the contest in the
courts and left the new company powerless to pro-
ceed, but it aroused public indignation and organized
a sentiment of opposition to the monopoly which grew
in strength and boldness until it culminated in a free
railroad law.

When the Legislature of 1873 convened, it was
found that the Lower House was largely in favor of a
competing railroad, and of granting the National
Railroad Company whatever legislation might be
necessary to give it undoubted right to build a new
railroad between the two great cities of the continent.
The Senate was nearly equally divided, with the
spirit of monopoly in the preponderance. The friends
of the National Railway 'Company, finding special
legislation impossible in face of the opposition in the
Senate, drafted a general railroad law and -secured its
passage. Immediately upon its approval, April 2,
1873, the New York and Philadelphia Railroad Com-
pany was organized under its provisions, and began
anew the eifort to carry forward its work. But it was
found that capital, which was willing to embark in
the enterprise under a special charter, hesitated to
take the risks under an untried general law. The
panic of 1873 soon followed, and the company, dis-
couraged by the difficulties still surrounding it, em-
barrassed by the expense of the long fight it had sus-
tained, and depressed by the effect of the panic, sold
its rights, property, and franchises, in May, 1874, to
the Delaware and Bound Brook Railroad Company,
a new corporation organized in the same general in-
terest, for the same purposes, to build over the same
ground, and including several of the same men.
Most of these men were Philadelphia capitalists and
connected with the North Pennsylvania Railroad
Company, who were backed by that corporation. The
other obstacles having all been removed, the work



was rapidly completed, and in May, 1876, the road
was opened for travel in time for the Centennial Ex-
position of that year.

It is equipped and operated by the Philadelphia
and Beading Railroad Company, upon a lease of nine
hundred and ninety years from May 1, 1879, at an
annual rental of the amount of interest on its bonded
and floating debt, and a dividend on its capital stock
at the rate of six per cent, per annum for the first two
years, of seven per cent, per annum for the next two
years, and of eight per cent, per annum thereafter.

To Mr. Hamilton is due the credit of this whole
undertaking, as it was by his enterprise it was pro-
jected, by his foresight it was protected, by his skill
it was directed, and by his unflinching perseverance
it was carried through and the courage of its friends
rallied again and again after repeated defeats. To
him, indeed, is due the passage of the free railroad
law of New Jersey, and the liberation of the State
from the curse of special legislation, and from monop-
oly rule to a large extent. Besides the legal gentle-
men already mentioned, to wit. Judge Green, Hon.
Cortlandt Parker, Attorney-General Gilchrist, Judge
Shipman, Judge Strong, Hon. Charles Gibbons,
Messrs. Bullitt and Dixon, a number of other gen-
tlemen associated with him deserve honorable men-
tion, a few only of whom can be even named. Among
them are Hon. William M. Meredith, of Philadel-
phia ; Algernon S. Cadwallader, of Yardleyville, Pa. ;
Samuel K. Wilson and Alfred S. Livingston, of Tren-
ton ; Henry Lewis, Jacob Eiegel, and James Gowan,
Esq., of Philadelphia, all of whom stood manfully
by when the storm of obloquy was overwhelming and
the obstacles apparently insurmountable. Edward
C. Knight, Esq., the president of the Delaware and
Bound Brook Railroad Company, and his associates
of that corporation, are deserving of great credit for
their success and the character of the work they have
achieved, which is surpassed by no other of the kind
in the world, and is an honor to any body of men.

This road, popularly known as the " Bound Brook"
or " Air Line" Railroad, has a double track, is well
built, and is finely outfitted in rolling stock. It ex-
tends from Philadelphia .to Bound Brook, N. J.,
where it intersects with the Central Railroad of New
Jersey, continuing thence to New York City. The
cost of the road and equipments was $3,138,056.64;
capital stock paid in, $1,584,400; bonded debt,
$1,500,000; floating debt, $299,600. Its receipts for
1879 were $310,469.31, and expenditures for the same
year were $167,213.83. E. C. Knight is the present
officiating president.

The stations of this line within Somerset County
are Bound Brook, Weston, Hamilton, Van Aken,
Harlingen, SkUlman, and Stoutsburg.


This corporation embraces quite a network of rail-
roads in this State, as also the Delaware and Raritan

Canal. It includes the Camden and Amboy Railroad,
with its many branches and connections, also the
Millstone and New Brunswick, the "Belvidere
Delaware," and the " Flemington" Railroads, all ex-
cept the first named being wholly or in part within
the counties of Hunterdon and Somerset.

At the beginning of the year 1867, Hamilton Fish
and Ashbel Welch, with others, effected the consoli-
dation of the New Jersey Railroad Company with the
joint companies. This consolidation was in the
form of a contract, drawn up by Joseph P. Bradley,
the counsel of the joint companies, and was validated
by act of the Legislature approved Feb. 27, 1867.
Although these roads were now operated by a joint
board, the combination was at first rather that of an
association or partnership of the several roads con-
cerned than as a unit; but in 1872 (March 14th), by
an act of the Legislature, they were merged into one
corporation, henceforward known as the " United
New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company." The
Pennsylvania Railroad Company subsequently took
possession of the roads under their lease, although
the stock remained in the hands of the united com-
panies. John A. Anderson, of Lambertville, who
had been assistant superintendent of the Belvidere
Delaware Railroad, became superintendent of what
has since been known as the " Belvidere Delaware
Division of the United Railroads of New Jersey."
This position he still holds.

The " Belvidere Delaware Railroad" was completed
to Lambertville in 1850, to Milford in February, 1853,
and finished in 1854. It was leased to the United
New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company, Feb. 15,
1876, and assigned to the Pennsylvania Railroad Com-
pany March 7th of the same year. It has a length of
sixty-eight miles, and extends from Trenton, N. J^, to
Manunka Chunk, N. J., where it intersects the Dela-
ware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. It is laid
upon the east bank of the Delaware River, whose
windings it follows, and gives the western part of
Hunterdon County railroad communication from its
southern to its northern boundary. Its capital stock,
paid in, is $994,050, its bonded debt is $3,444,500, and
its floating debt (being special bonds) is $156,081.77.
The cost .of the road and equipments has been
$4,246,638.92. The receipts from all soiirces for the
year 1879 were $718,152.31, and the expenditures for
the same time $454,900.11, leaving as net earnings
$263,252.20. Ashbel Welch is its president, and Hugh
B. Ely secretary and treasurer.


which is a part of the railway chain above mentioned
as now operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad Com-
pany, was constructed in 1854. It runs from Flem-
ington, in a southwest direction, to Lambertville,
twelve miles, where it connects with the Belvidere
Delaware Railroad both north and south. This line



is wholly within Hunterdon County. Its receipts for
1879 were $10,593.08, and expenses $17,576.45.

Ashbel Welch, of Lambertville, is president, and
Hugh B. Ely treasurer and secretary. The cost of
the road and equipments was $290,653.87; capital
stock paid in, $150,000 ; bonded debt, $250,000.

The Belvidere Delaware Eailroad Company and the
Flemington Railroad and Transportation Company
still have their own oflBcers and boards of directors,
though those officers and directors have no control of
the working of these roads. They have cognizance of
all things that have not passed under the lease, for
example, making loans secured by mortgage, and
agreements of a permanent character.


This road extends from the middle of the Delaware
River, at Phillipsburg, eastward across Hunterdon
and Somerset Counties, to Perth Amboy, a distance of
sixty miles, and is popularly known as the " Packer
Road," Mr. Asa Packer having been from the first
largely interested in it.* It was leased, and is now
operated, by the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company,
at an annual rental of the cost of maintenance, taxes,
and interest on its securities.

Capital stock paid in, $5,000,000; bonded debt,
$5,000,000; floating debt, $387,413.78; cost of the
road and appendages, etc., $9,412,651.63. The re-
ceipts and expenses of the Easton and Amboy Rail-
road are not kept separately by the Lehigh Valley
Railroad Company, and the exact figures cannot be
given, but the following is an estimate for 1879:
Income from passengers, $22,460.99; from freight,
$290,140.88; from coal, .$665,902.34; total, $978,604.21.
The expenditure for 1879 was $538,177.31.

Charles Hartshorne is the present (1880) secretary
and treasurer of this road.


This road, constructed in 1870, extended from Som-
erset Junction, on the line of the Belvidere Delaware
Railroad, to East Millstone, in Somerset County, a
distance of twenty-two and a half miles, where it
connected with the Millstone and New Brunswick
Railroad. It was leased to the United New Jersey
Railroad and Canal Company, and the lease by them
assigned to the Pennsylvania Railroad Company,
who equipped. and operated the road. On account
of default in payment of interest on the bonded debt,
Strickland Kneass, trustee of the mortgage securing
the payment of the same, caused the road, with its ap-
purtenances and franchises, to be sold at public auc-
tion, n Trenton, Nov. 20, 1879, when it was purchased

* It is to a .Somerset County man, William H. Gatzmer, that Now Jer-
sey is largely iudebted for the Buccessfiil issue of this undertaking. His
oonnection with the Lehigh Valley Kailroad commenoed in 1853, and as
one of its first directors (he continued until 1880), and later m consult-
ing manager, he was instrumental in enabling Judge Packer to secure
and retain for many years the majority of the whole capital stock of the
company, which gave him the controlling management of the road.

in the interest of the bondholders by G. Morris Dor-
rance for fifty thousand dollars. The lessees have ter-
minated the lease and ceased operating the road.
Within a year past therails have been taken up and
the route vacated.


This road extends from Millstone, in Somerset
County, eastward six and three-fourths miles, to New
Brunswick, in Middlesex. It was subsequently leased
to the New Jersey Railroad Company, and ulti-
mately passed (1871) into the hands of the Penn-
sylvania Railroad Company at an annual rental of
six per cent., by which corporation it was equipped
and is now operated. A. L. Dennis is president.
Cost of the road and equipments, $113,404.42; re-
ceipts for 1879, $6802.57 ; expenditures, $9824.71 ;
paid in dividends during the year, in cash, $2866.


was surveyed about 1868, and opened for travel a few
years later. It runs from Bernardsville, Somerset Co.,.
through the townships of Passaic in Morris and New
Providence in Union County, to Summit, where it
connects with the Morris and Essex Division of the
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad.


This road extends from Rocky Hill to Monmouth
Junction, Middlesex Co., a distance of six and one-
half miles. Capital stock, paid in, $45,995; cost of
road and equipments, $45,005.74. D. H. Mount is
president. It is leased to the " United Railroad and
Canal Companies," at an annual rental of six per
cent, on the capital stock held by individual stock-
holders. Income for 1879, $3410.52; expenditures,



The Patriotism of the People of Hunterdon and Somei-set The First
Volunteers, Three Months' Men ^amhertviUe the First to Respond
to the Governor's Call for Troops- Services in the Field of the New
Jersey Brigade Roster of the Companies from Hunterdon County.

The part taken by the counties of Hunterdon and
Somerset in the war which was waged from 1861 to
1865 for the suppression of rebellion and the preser-
vation of the Union, was most honorable and patri-
otic. At the receipt of the intelligence of the attack
on Port Sumter, in April, 1861, there were seen in
these counties the same demonstrations of loyalty to
the Union and of determination to crush out treason
at every hazard, the same patriotic meetings and flag-
raismgs, the same disposition of young men to volun-
teer and of old men to encourage and aid them in
doing so, as were found everywhere in the other



counties of the patriotic State of New Jersey. And
when the Union armies melted away in the fervent
heat of battle, and call after call was made for
men to take the places of those who had fallen, there
was shown here the same determination to stand by
the government at whatever cost ; and the people and
the local authorities with the same alacrity voted the
moneys which were called for to accomplish the de-
sired end.

From the time when the President's first call for
men was made until the time when the death of the
great Rebellion made further calls unnecessary, the
men of Hunterdon and Somerset Counties responded
to each appeal with a patriotic devotion not excelled
in any part of the State or of the Union. The names
of these soldiers are found on the rolls of a large num-
ber of regiments of this and other States ; and such
of those regiments as were most noticeable for the
number of Hunterdon and Somerset County men
serving in their ranks are especially mentioned in the
following pages, in historical sketches of their organ-
ization and services in the great war for the Union.


On the 15th of April, two days after the fall of
Fort Sumter, President Lincoln issued his first call
for troops, the number required being seventy-five
thousand, of which number the quota of New Jersey
was four regiments, of seven hundred and eighty
men each, a total of three thousand one hundred
and eighty, to be detached from the militia of the
State. On receipt of the requisition, on the 17th,
Governor Charles S. Olden issued his proclamation di-
recting all individuals or organizations willing to volun-
teer to report themselves within twenty days ; and at
the same time orders were issued to the four generals
of division for each to detail one full regiment for
the service, and immediately to proceed to the organ-
ization of the reserve militia. Under the orders,
volunteers were to be accepted for three months' ser-
vice ; but if a sufficient number of these did not of-
fer, the deficiency was to be made up by draft from
the militia. It was not, however, found necessaiy to
adopt the latter alternative. Volunteers aggregating
more than the required number* were easily obtained,
and to this force Somerset and Hunterdon Counties
contributed their full proportion, Hunterdon furnish-
ing three companies to the Third Regiment (three
months) and Somerset sending a large number of
men, who, however, did not form any full companies
as distinctively of the county, but enlisted, according
to their fancy, in various companies of the several

The first regimental offer was made by the First

* Within a few days over one bundled companies of volunteers equal
to ten thousand men had offered their services under the Governor's
proclamation, and even this number would have been greatly increased
butfor the prevalent belief that the quota would be filleri by the brigade,
already organized. FosUr^s New Jersey and llie RebeUkni.

Regiment of the Hunterdon brigade on the day follow-
ing the appearance of the Governor's proclamation.!
The letter to the Governor preferring the services of
this organization was as follows :

" Lambeetville, N. J., April 18, 18G1. GoTERNOE Chakles S. Olden : "

" Dear Sir, The Tirst Eegiment of the Hunterdon Brigade, at this time numbering about two hundred men; rank and file, respectfally ten- der their services to the government to aid in putting down the present re- bellion. We are ready to obey your command. V. R. Mathews, "
LixnUnant-CoTmid of the First Regiment Hunterdon Brigade.

The troops were raised with such expedition that
on the last day of April the quota of the State was
complete, and the brigade was mustered into the
State service and placed under command of Brig.-
Gen.t Theodore Runyon, with Maj. Alexander V.
Bonnell, of Hunterdon County, as brigade inspector.
On the 1st of May, Governor Olden sent a special
messenger to Gen. B. F. Butler, then in command at
Annapolis, Md., requesting him to prepare to receive
the New Jersey brigade. At the same time he
sent another messenger to "Washington to notify the
Secretary of War that the State authorities of New
Jersey would furnish their volunteers with the ne-
cessary arms and accoutrements, which the United
States government was at that time unable to do.
The Governor also telegraphed the War Department
saying that the troops from this State would move
forward on the 1st, 2d, and '3d of May, and asking
that all possible measures might be taken to insure
their efficiency and promote their comfort.

As railroad communication with Baltimore had
been severed by reason of the destruction of the
bridges over Gunpowder Creek and other streams, it
was decided to send the New Jersey troops forward by
water, by way of Annapolis, Md. They were accord-
ingly embarked on fourteen Delaware and Raritan
Canal propellers on the 3d of May, and proceeded
down the Delaware and through the Delaware and
Chesapeake Canal and Chesapeake Bay to their des-
tination, which was reached in the night of the 4th.

" The arrival of the brigade was at once reported to Gen. Butler, wlio, after some ceremony, ordered its advance to Washington, and on the 5th the Firet Kegiment, with six companies of the Second and nine companies of the Third, started forward in two trains of cars. The first of these trains reached Washington about midnight, .and the second at eight o'clock the following morning. The same evening the Fourth Regiment and the remaining company of the Third reached the capital. The four companies of the Second left at Annapolis were detailed, by order of Gen. Scott, to the service of guarding the telegraph and railroad-track between Wasliington and Annapolis Junction. On the 6th of May the arrival of the brigade was reported to Gen. Scott, and, no camps being provided, the troops went into such quarters as were available in Washington. On all sides the arrival of the troops was hailed with pleasure. Men "
felt that now the capital was safe. These three thousand Jerseyman,
thoroxighly armed and equipped, as no regiment previously arrived had
been, could be relied on to repel all assaults. New Jersey never stood
higher in the estimation of the loyal people of the country than at that
juncture when she sent to the nation's defense the first full brigade of
troops that reached tlie field." §

f Ibid. X Commissioned April 27, 1861.

g Foster's New Jersey and the Rebellion.



The passage of the troops from Trenton to Annap-
olis and their arrival at the latter place were thus
noticed hy the National Intelligencer :

"The whole brigade, with its four pieces of artillery, arrived at Annap- olis on Sunday, May 5th, in twenty-eight houi-e from Trenton, and pro- ceeded direct for Washington. It ifi 8ta;ted that the fourteen transports, with a strong convay, C^t. F. E. Leper, made a splendid appearance "
steaming: in two lines down the Chesapeake. They had been greeted by
a great Union demonstration as they passed along the Chesapeake and
Delaware Canal. They are armed with the Mini6 musket, but are to
have the Mini6 rifle and sword-bayonet; . . . This regiment is composed
of some of the best men in the State, and in athletic appearance, as well
as general soldierly deportment, is a credit to the country."

On the 9th and 10th of May the regiments of the
hrigade moved out from Washington to Meridian Hill,
near the city, where they formed a camp which was
christened " Camp Monmouth." There they remained,
engaged in drill and the perfecting of their discipline,
until the 23d of the same month, when, in obedience
to orders received from Gen. Mansfield (commander
of the forces around Washington), the Second, Third,
and Fourth Regiments* moved from their camp at
about midnight and took the route, by way of the
Long Bridge across the Potomac, to Virginia. They
reached the " Sacred Soil" at about three o'clock in
the morning of the 24th, then, proceeding a short
distance farther on the Alexandria road, halted, and
after a brief rest and the making of the usual military
dispositions commenced the construction of a strong
defensive work, which, after about three weeks of
severe and unintermitted labor, performed exclu-
sively by the men of New Jersey, was completed,
mounted with heavy guns, and appropriately named,
in honor of their brigade commander, " Fort Run-
yon," a name which remained unchanged during
the continuance of the war.

The position of the brigade remained substantially
unchanged until the 16th of July, when a part of it
was moved forward a few miles, this being part of the
grand advance on Manassas, from which the most
favorable results were expected, but which ended in
the disgraceful defeat and rout of the Union forces at
Bull Run on the 21st of July. The Jersey brigade,
however, was not actively engaged in the battle of
that disastrous day, being posted at several points in
the reart as part of the large reserve force commanded

* The First did not move till the following day.

t " Meanwhile, Gen. Kunyon had, on the 16th, sent the First Regiment
of his brigade to a point occupied by our pickets, on the Oi'ange and
Alexandria Railroad, three miles beyond Springfield, where they acted
as a guard to a party engaged in repairing the railway. On the same
day four hundred and twenty-five men of the Third Begiment were
detailed as an escort to a provision-train en route for the main body of
the army. At the same time a guard was detailed from the Fourth
Regiment for another section of the railroad which it was important to

guarding the Long Bridge, and still another on duty at Arlington Mills.
The remainder of the regiment was ordered to proceed to Alexandria,
together with the Second (three months) Regiment. Col. Taylor, com-
manding the Third (three years) Regiment, was at the same time ordered
to march to a point on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, and during
the night following the First and Second (three years) Regiments were
moved foi-ward to Vienna. On the same day the division headtiuarters

by Gen. Runyon. But in the positions assigned to
them the several commands did their whole duty, and
when the day was hopelessly lost, and the Union
army came flying from the field in disorganization
and panic, these Jersey regimenfe, standing firm,
aided materially in rallying the terrified fugitives,
and so staying the tide of overwhelming disaster.

On the 24th of July, three days after the Bull Run
battle, the Third and Fourth Regiments (their term
of service having expired) were ordered to report to
Gen. Mansfield for muster out. The First and Second
received the same orders on the following day, and
the four regiments of three months' men were accord-
ingly mustered out of the United States service, and
returned to New Jersey, where they were most enthu-
siastically received by their fellow-citizens. A ma-
jority of the men afterwards enlisted in three years'
regiments and did good service, while many of them
gave their lives for their country on the battle-fields
of Virginia and the Southwest.

Following is a list of the ofiicers and men of the
three Hunterdon County companies in the Third
(three months) Regiment:

The officers and enlisted men of this company were all enrolled
April 25, 1861, mustered into service April 27, 1861, and mustered out,
July 31, 1861.

George Hunt, corporal.
William Spencer, corporal.
Henry Cafry, corporal.
Joseph Sprote, corporal.
George Terkes, iifer.
William Lees, drummer.

Aehbel W. Angel, captain.

Aaron H. Slack, first lieutenant.

Isaac M. Bunnell, ensign.

Charles A. Angel, first sergeant.

Theodore F. Large, sergeant.

Thomas Hunt, sergeant.

Samuel Mustard, sergeant.


James Agin, Charles Bauman, Jacob J. Bergen, Jerome Bogart, Lewis T.
Brant, Albert Buriingame, John H. Chidester, James Clark, John H.
Clark, Richard S. Conover, Alexander Corrie, John Craig, Patrick
Daver, Andrew I. Day, Michael Downs, William H. Egan, John Ely,
Richard Ely, Thomas Flaherty, John W. Fowler, John H. Gilbert,
Patrick Hammell, Jacob Hines, Daniel K. Hinson, Thomas Horn,
Michael Hunt, William Hnnter, Benjamin H. Joiner, John B. Jonesi
John H. Keisle, Smith F. Kinsey, Matthias Kiret, Peter C. Kulp, John
A, Kutter, William Linburn, John.Logue, James Longshore, James

were transferred to Alexandria, and instructions were issued to the De
Kalb Begiment, wbicli had become attached to the division, with other
troops, to keep a guard at all times on the railroad from Camp Trenton
the former headquarters, to Ariington Mills. On the 17th orders werj
issued to all the regiments in the command to provide themselves with
two days' cooked rations, and, on the 18th, Gen. Bunyon formally as-
sumed command of all the troops not on the march to the front.

"The troops actually under Gen. Rnuyon's command at this critical and important period numbered thirteen regiments, comprising perhaps ten thousand men. Of these, the term of service of some four thousand would expire witliin a week, and that of one regiment within two davs after his assumption ot the command. His prepaiations, however, went regulariy forward, every call upon him being promptly met. On the 2Tst of July-the day on which the army advanced to the attack-he for- Another detail of one company from this regiment was then ^^Xr'w^th ^feti^t'^t^d'Tnd'lhii;' fthrT -- J-^^--.- obedience to orders from Gen, McDowell. On the evening of the same day, orders being received to cease sending reinforcements, the battle havmgbeen lost, the forts were at once placed in rea<liness to receive the enemy should he pursue our retiring columns, and every preparatk.u was made to retrieve, so far as possible, the misfnrtnnes of the day luster s New Jersey iwd llie ReMlion. THIRD INFANTRY REGIMENT (THREE YEARS). 119 Magie, James H. May, Patrick McNamara, James H. Moon, George Haylor, Howard O'Daniel, 'William O'Daniel, Charles F. Peterson, Stacy Pidcock, John R. Price, George W. Risler, John Robbins, John Savage, Thomas D. Schenck, Thomas Seery, James M. Sly, Ahram E. Smith, James Stites, Charles A. Stout, Theodore C. Stryker, Daniel Scudder, disch. for disability at Roche's Springs, Va., May 29, 1861, John P. Thompson, George W. Trauger, George C. Van Camp, Joseph "
Warford, John Waterhouse.

Mustered in April 27, 1861 ; must out July 31, 1861.
George A. Allen, captain.
Jam^ Gordon, first lieutenant.
Martin Wyckoff, ensign.
(Jeorge W. Forker, first sergeant.
John H. Clark, sergeant,
Peter M. Larue, sergeant.

Robert Ramsey, sergeant; pro. from corporal May 29, 1861.
Samuel B. Mann, sergeant ; pro. from corporal May 25, 1861.
Lemuel Fisher, corporal.

David A. Wilson, corporaL ,

Andrew V. Smith, corporal; pro. from private May 25,1861.
"William H. Stryker, corporal ; pro. from private May 29, 1861. Samuel Volk, fifer. Jonathan Hanpence, drummer. Prwates. James 0. BelUs, William R. Bellia, John Bosenbury, Joseph Bosenbury, Peter Boss, George W. Breene, Isaiah Buchanan, Asa Carkhuff, Chaa. P. Case, disch. for disability May, 1861, William D. Clark, Andrew S. Connet, Asa Dalrymple, Isaac N. Danberry, Isaac Dayton, Hugh Doran, William Dorrington, Frank W. Downs, John V. D. Drost, William Dnngan, George Ege, George H. Engles, William Fleming, John W. Forker, Max Franklin, Hamilton Gary, Forman V. Hart- pence, George Heauy, Herman Heimbold, Lemuel Hoagland, George W. Keller, Frank Kelly, Joseph D. Kinney, Henry S. Lake, John R. S. Lane, William Lare, Daniel Luther, Mahlon Martindell, Richard C. Martindell, William McGinn, James H. Melick, Charles Merriam, William T. Merrill, Horatio P. Milburn, Samuel Milburn, Joseph H. Pettit, Joseph R. Potts, Ranslear D. Runkle, John F. Schenck, Jr., Theodore R. Servis, Wesley Servis, Isaac P. C. Shemela, Levi Snyder, William H. Snyder, Henry Stothoflf, Benjamin Stradling, John Sul- livan, John W. Thomas, Augustus Thompson, Henry R. Yan Doren, Jacob W. Van Fleet, Jacob R. Weart, Samuel Woodruff, John S. Yard, William Yard. COMPANY I (LAMBERTYILLE). Enrolled April 27, 1861 ; mustered out July 31, 1861. Wail, Charles Wesner, James H. Welch, missing, and not mustered out with company ( Adjutant-General's Report) ; Spencer Williams, Giles Wright, James Wristband.* Simeon E. Huselton, captain. TheophiluB Stout, first lieutenant. William W. Abbott, ensign. Theodore H. Field, first sergeant. Anderson Slack, sergeant. George W. Day, sergeant. Charles Kitchen, sergeant. Asa Price, corporal. Preston B. Goodfellow, corporal. Joseph Taylor, corporal. Oliver Case, corporal. Nathaniel Sliuttuck, fifer. Jacob A. Errickson, drummer. CHAPTER XL THIBD HTPASTTET KEGIMEITT (THKEE TEAES). The GoTernor calls for Three Regiments for Three Tears' Service The First, Second, and Third Regiments take the Field Officers and Move- ments of the Third Infantry At the Battle of Gaines' Mill Heavy Losses Gen. Taylor Wounded Orampton's Gap Campaign of Chan- cellorsville Battles of the 'Wilderness Ite Laat Fight, at Cold Harbor Hegiment Mustered Out and Disbanded Sketch of Brig.-Gen, George W. Taylor Boster of OfBcers and Men from Somerset County. It has already been mentioned thait in response to Governor Olden'a proclamation of the 17th of April, 1861, calling for troops, nearly ten thousand men responded, of which number only four regiments (three months' men) could be accepted. Of the large number which remained, many, being anxious to enter the service, proceeded to New York, Philadelphia, and other points outside the limits of New Jersey, and enlisted in regiments of other States. Of the large number who enlisted in this manner estimated by the adjutant-general at five thousand men from the entire State of New Jersey no record can be given. But it was not long before it became apparent to the authorities at Washington that it would be neces- sary to call into the field a much larger number of regiments, to be made up of men enlisted for a longer term of service, and the President thereupon issued a call for thirty-nine additional regiments of infantry and one of cavalry, to be enlisted for three years or during the continuance Of the war. Under this call the quota of New Jersey was placed at three full regi- ments, and a requisition for these was received by Governor Olden on the 17th of May. No diffi- culty was found in furnishing them,t for a sufficient number of companies had been already raised and organized, and were anxiously waiting to be mustered into the service. From these companies there were Charles A. Abbott, Charles Akers, Gershom A. Akers, Augustus Bodine, Joseph Briese, William Bunker, Jeremiah B. Carroll, William J. Carroll, John Clary, Christopher S. Conway, John Coulton, William M. Craft, Timothy Courley, John 0. Daniel, William F. De Hart, Kalph Dilts, William F. Dilta, Benjamin F. Dollas, disch. for dis- ability May 29, 1861, Ephraim Ellison, George Enganoch, Eichard Garmo, Samuel Goodfellow, Charles H. Green, Eldridge Green, Peter Halpin, William Henderson, Andrew Henry, Henry B. Kitchen, Lewis L. Landis, Joseph Larrasou, Michael Madigan, Charles Mann, Thomas McDermott, Thomas McDonald, Pierson C. McFerren, Samuel McGarr, James McBae, William Murphy, John Myers, James M., Naylor, John N. C. Nelson, Joseph Nelson, John B. Orner, dis- charged on account of disability May 29, 1861, John E. Pitman, Albert J. Beading, Peter P. Eink, William Bobbins, Franz Eeiley, Daniel Saylor, Augustus Sbeppard, Hiram Sibbett, Paul Simhold, Calvin Sisson, George W. Skillman, William E. Skinner, Elnathan Stephenson, William W. Ten Eyck, Frederick G. Tliomas, Godliep * No list of Somerset County three months' men can be given, for tlie reason that no whole companies were formed in that county. As its volunteers under this call enlisted in companies formed in other counties, it is impracticable to select the names of Somerset County men from others borne on the rolls of those companies. j- On tho 18th of May, the day following the receipt of the requisition Governor Olden wrote to the War Oflice as follows : Hon. Simon Cameeon, Seceetaut ofWak: "

"Deab Sie, I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 16th inst. inclosing plan of organization of the volunteers for three years or during the war, and assigning three regiments to this State. Tho three regiments are now ready, and only await orders to the "
mustering oflicer, Maj. Laidley, who is now here awaiting orders, to be
mustered into the service. I have not called out more than three regi-
ments, because I have not been authorized to do so by you ; but it the
occasion required their services, this Stale would willingly furnish twice ae
manii regiments to serve during llie war. ..."



organized without delay the First, Second, and Third
(tliree years') Regiments, which were mustered into
the United States service for that term, being uni-
formed, equipped, and furnished with camp and
garrison equipage by the State of New Jersey, but
armed by the general government. The three regi-
ments left Trenton on the 28th of June,* and were
reported to Gen. Scott, at Washington, on the follow-
ing day.

The Third Regiment was mustered under the follow-
ing-named field-officers : Colonel, George W. Taylor ;
lieutenant-colonel, Henry W. Brown; major, Mark
W. Collett; adjutant, Robert T. Dunham; quarter-
master, Francis Sayre ; surgeon, Lorenzo Lewis Cox.
The commissioned officers of the Somerset County
company! (G) of this regiment were : Captain, Peter
F. Rogers ; first lieutenant, Richard D. Cook ; second
lieutenant, Arthur H. Hardcastle.

Soon after its arrival in Washington, the Third
Regiment, as well as the first and second three years'
jegiments, was ordered across the Potomac and as-
signed to duty in the Jersey brigade, under command
of Gen. Runyon. A few days before the commence-
ment of the fii-st advance towards Manassas, but after
the movement had been determined on, the Third was
ordered forward to perform the duty of guarding and
repairing the railroadj to Fairfax Station, at which
point the regiment was stationed, as part of the
reserve force, during the progress of the battle of
Bull Run, therefore taking no active part in that
engagement, but doing good service, nevertheless, in
rallying fugitives from the field and helping to restore
something like order among a part at least of the
flying and panic-stricken troops which were pressing
on in disorder and rout towards Washington in the
evening of that disastrous day, the 21st of July. Im-
mediately after the battle the Third was moved to the
neighborhood of Alexandria, and there encamped
with the other regiments of the Jersey brigade, which
early in August received as its commander Brig-Gen.
Philip Kearney, one of the bravest and best soldiers
that ever drew a sabre, and one whom the veterans of
New Jersey will ever remember with love and ad-

The Third Regiment was first under hostile fire on
the '29th of August, when, in making a reconnoissance
in the vicinity of Cloud's Mills, it fell into an ambus-
cade of the enemy, and in the skirmish which followed

* Foster, p. 66.

t Tills waa the first company which Somerset County seut to the field,
tliough a considerable number of men from the county had previously
volunteered in other organizations.

X Following is a copy of the order :

" Headquarters Fourth Division, July 16th. ^' Sj)ecial Order No. 2. Col. Taylor, of the Third Regiment of three yeal-s' New Jei-sey vol- "
unteei-B, will proceed with all practicable dispatch, in light marching
order, up the Orauge and Alexandria Railroad to a point occupied by our
pickets, about three miles beyond Springfield, or thereabouts, and re-
port to the railroad manager there for duty.

By order of Brig.-Gen. Theo. Runyon.

lost two men killed and four wounded. A month
later (September 29th) it took part in a reconnois-
sance in force, made by Gen. Kearney with his entire
brigade, one company of Kentucky cavalry, and a
light battery under command of Capt. Hexamer, the
object of the expedition being to ascertain the strength
and position of the enemy at Mason's Hill, a point
which he was reported to be fortifying in front of the
Union lines. The object was accomplished without
loss. After a summer and autumn spent in camp-
and picket-duty, varied by the events above mentioned
and some other minor affairs of similar nature, the
Third with its brigade went into winter quarters near

On the 7th of March, 1862, the brigade left camp
and moved forward to Burke's Station, on the Orange
and Alexandria Railroad, as a guard to a working-
party, and on the 8th made an extended reconnois-
sance of the country, which developed the fact that
the Confederate forces were preparing to evacuate
their strong position at Manassas. Upon this. Gen.
Kearney, without ftirther orders from the division
commander, pressed on with vigor, driving the scat-
tered pickets of the enemy before him, and on the 9th
reached Sangster's Station, where the Second and
Third Regiments surprised a detachment of rebel
cavalry, killing several and taking twelve prisoners.
On the 10th the brigade occupied the abandoned
position at Manassas, eight companies of the Third
Regiment being the first force to enter and hoist the
Union flag on the works.

On the opening of the spring campaign of 1862 the
Third Regiment with its brigade, which then formed
part of the First Division of the First Army Corps,
moved forward to Catlett's Station, two miles from
Warrenton, on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad,
the object of the movement being to divert the atten-
tion of the Confederate commander while Gen. Mc-
Clellan was moving the Army of the Potomac to Fort-
ress Monroe and Newport News for the commence-
ment of the movement towards Richmond by way of
the A'irginia Peninsula. It does not appear that Gen.
Lee was greatly deceived by this movement to Cat-
lett's, and on the 11th of April (six days after the
army of McClellan had arrived in ft-ont of Yorktown)
the division moved back to Alexandria, where, on the
17th, the Third wuth its companion regiments was
embarked on steamers bound for the Peninsula to join
the army. It landed at York Point, on the York
River, whence, on the 5th of May (the day of the
battle of Williamsburg), it was moved by steamer up
the river to West Point. The brigade was then under
command of Col. Taylor, Gen. Kearney having been
advanced to the command of the division.

At West Point, during the night and day following
the disembarkation of the troops, a- brisk skirmish
amounting almost to a battle was fought with the
Fifth Alabama and other Confederate regiments, but
the Third New Jersey, being held in reserve, sustained



no loss. On the 15tli the First Division joined the
main body of the Army of the Potomac at White
House, and marched thence with the grand column
to the Chickahominy Eiver.

In the fighting which subsequently occurred along
the dismal shores of that ill-omened stream, the Third
Regiment took no active part until in the afternoon of
the 27th of June, it was moved with its brigade from
the camp on the south side of the Chickahominy
across that river to its north bank, and there plunged
into the fire and carnage of the battle of Gaines'

" The brigade was at ouce formed into two lines, the Third andFonrth Begimente in front, and the First and Second in the second line, and in this order advanced to the brow of a hill in front, where the Third Regi- ment, under Lieut.-Col. Brown, was ordered into the woods to relieve Newton's brigade, which was sorely pressed by the enemy. At this point the woods, some four hundred yards in front of our line of battle, swarmed with rebels, who fought with the greatest desperation and ferocity, hand- ling their artillery especially in the most effective manner, and doing fearful execution in our ranks. The gallant Third, however, bravely stood its ground, opening a galling fire on the enemy and remaining in the woods until the close of the action.* About half an hour after reaching the field the First Regiment, under "
Lieut.-Col. McAllister, was also ordered into the woods, and took position
under tlie eye of Gen. Porter. The volleys of musketry from the enemy
were at this time terribly rapid and destructive, but oflBcers and men
alike bravely held their ground. At length. Gen. Taylor, dashing to the
frout, ordered a charge, and the line swept forward with a cheer, driviug
the rebels clear out of the woods into an open field. Here, however, the
reserves of the enemy were encountered, and our men were compelled
to fall back and take a new position. ... On either side of the open field
the enemy's ai'tillery was placed, having a perfect range of our forces.
But, with all the odds of position and numbers against them, the Jersey
Blues fought steadily on until nightriill, their ranks terribly thinned,
indeed, but the sui-vivore still bravely keeping heart. Three times the
enemy were driven from the woods, but as often returned, reinforced, to
renew the contest. . . . Three several times Gen. Taylor sent his aids
through a fearful fire to procure from some commander necessary orders
and Buppoi^, but none could be found, and so, abandoned, he was com-
pelled to fight a force outnumbering him six to one as long as the most
obstinate courage could hold out. It wjis no wonder, under these cir-
cumstances, that the heroic brigade, the flower of the division, represent-
ing three thousand New Jersey households, where women wrestled in
prayer through all those bitter days of blundering and disaster, was
almost obliterated; that, out of tlie two thousand eight hundred stout-
hearted men who marched afield early in the afternoon, but nine hun-
dred and sixty-five, wearied, scarred, and dark with the grime of battle,

* The following, having reference to the service performed by the
Third Regiment at Gaines' Mill, is from the report of the battle, by
Bi-ig.-Gen. George W. Taylor:

" The battle, begun the day previous, had been renewed near Gaines' Farm, where we arrived about four o'clock p.m. I immediately formed my brigade in two lines, the Third and Fourth Regiments in front and the First and Second Regiments iu the second line. My line was scarcely formed when the Third Regiment, under Lieut.-CoI. Brown, was ordered to advance into the woods, where a fierce combat was raging. Col. Brown immediately formed his regiment in line of battle, led it into the woods, and began a rapid fire upon the enemy. As this was the first of my regiments engaged, I will complete my report of it by saying that they continued tlie fight in the woods until the close of the action. They weie all this time under a galling fire, often of a cross-fire, but main- tained their ground until near sunset, when the whole line fell back. They had at this time expended (a large majority of the men) their last cartridge, sixty rounds to the man. It is but justice to say that this regiment bore itself most heroically throughout the entire action. Their conduct was all Ihat.conld be desired. With their comrades falling around, they stood up like a wall of iron, losing over oue-tliird of their number, and gave not an inch of gi'uund until thdr ammunition was ex- pended and the retrograde movement became general. They were under this fire one hour and a half, "


answered to their names in the solemn midnight when the morning's
camp was reached,"f

The loss of the Third Regiment in the battle of
Gaines' Mill was one hundred and seventy killed and
wounded, and forty-five missing.

At eleven o'clock in the night succeeding the battle
the New Jersey regiments recrossed to the south side
of the Chickahominy, and remained quietly there in
the woods until midnight of the 28th, when they
moved silently out, taking the road to Savage Station
and thence to White Oak Swamp, on the retreat to
the James River. A brisk engagement took place
near the crossing of White Oak Creek, but the Third
did not take part in it, though it occupied a position
of peril between the batteries of the contending forces,
where the shells of both passed over the men as they
lay on the ground for comparative security. From
this point the brigade moved on by way of Malvern
Hill (passing that position on the 1st of July, but
taking no part in the bloody battle of that day) to
Harrison's Landing, which it reached in the morning
of the 2d, in the midst of a drenching rain, and en-
camped in a wheat-field of several hundred acres in

The regiment remained in the vicinity of the Land-
ing for about six weeks, at the end of which time it
marched with the army down the Peninsula, and was
transported thence by steamer up the Chesapeake Bay
and Potomac River to Alexandria, where it arrived
on the 24th, and was moved from that place to Cloud's
Mills on its way to reinforce the army of Gen. Pope,
who was in the neighborhood of Manassas and sorely
pressed by the Confederates under Stonewall Jackson.
On the 27th it moved forward by rail from Cloud's
Mills to Bull Run bridge, and from there marched to
the old battle-field, where it became engaged with the
enemy's infantry and fought bravely for more than an
hour, sustaining severe loss from the musketry- and
artillery-fire. It was at last compelled to give way
before the overwhelming force of the Confederates,
but retreated in good order to Fairfax Station and
thence to Cloud's Mills, which latter point was reached
at noon on the 28th. In the engagement at Bull Run,
Gen. Taylor was severely wounded in the leg, and died
at Alexandria on the 1st of September from the effects
of amputation.

After defeating Pope's army in Virginia the Con-
federate forces moved rapidly to the Potomac at
Edwards' Ferry and other points, and crossed into
Ma,ryland. The Union army pursued, and overtook
them at South Mountain, _ where a severe bat-
tle was fought on the 14th of September. In that
battle the First Jersey Brigade (then under command
of Col. Torbert) was engaged at the point known as
Crampton's Gap, and fought with its usual gallantry,
the Third Regiment sustaining a loss of thirty-one in
killed and wounded. In the great battle of Antietam,
which occurred three days later, the brigade stood in

f Foster's " New Jersey and the Rebellion."



position for forty-two hours, and during six hours of
that time was under a very severe artillary-iire, but
was not ordered into action. After the battle it re-
mained in Maryland for more than two weeks, and
finally, on the 2d of October, crossed the Potomac at
Berlin, and after a number of tedious movements in
Virginia reached Stafibrd Court-house on the 18th,
and remained there in camp until Gen. Burnside
ordered the forward movement against Fredericks-

In that movement the brigade marched from its
camp to the Rappahannock, which it reached on the
11th of December, and crossed to the south shore at
daylight on the following morning. It remained at
rest until two o'clock in the afternoon, when it ad-
vanced rapidly across a plateau under a heavy fire of
artillery until it reached the shelter of a ravine
through which flow the waters of Deep Hun, and in
this ravine it remained until the morning of the 13th.
It was not until three o'clock in the afternoon that
the brigade was ordered forward into the fight, and
then the Third Eegiment, being in the second line,
did not become engaged, and its loss in the battle was
only two, wounded by shells. The loss of the brigade
was one hundred and seventy-two, killed, wounded,
and missing. After the battle the army recrossed to
the north side of the river, and the First New Jersey
Brigade went into winter quarters near White Oak

In the movement across the Rappahannock in the
spring of 1863 known as the campaign of Chancel-
lorsville, the First Brigade, then commanded by Col.
Brown in place of Col. Torbert, who was sick, crossed
the river with the Sixth Corps at " Franklin's Cross-
ing," below Fredericksburg, on the 29th of April, but
remained occupying the old rifle-pits and with strong
pickets posted until the morning of the 3d of May,
when it was put in motion, and, moving up the river
through Fredericksburg, about three miles on the
road to Chancellorsville, came to Salem Church,
where the enemy was found in strong force and ad-
vantageously posted in thick woods, with earthworks
on both sides of the road. The brigade advanced and
attacked this position, and the battle raged with great
fury until night, the enemy being driven a short dis-
tance with severe loss until he occupied another line
of rifle-pits. The loss of the Jersey brigade was
heavy, but its reputation for bravery was fully sus-
tained. The loss of the Third Regiment was seventy-
nine killed and wounded and sixteen missing. The
brigade remained on the field during the following
day, but was not again engaged except as a support to
the batteries. In the early morning of the 5th of
May it recrossed the river and marched back to its
old camp-ground at White Oak Church.

Moving northward with the Army of the Potomac in
pursuit of Lee, who was then marching towards Penn-
sylvania, the First Brigade (then in Wright's division
of the Sixth Corps) crossed the Potomac at Edwards'

Ferry on the 27th of June, and reached Gettysburg
on the 2d of July, its last day's march being thirty-
six miles. It immediately went into position, and
remained without change until the following morning,
when it was advanced to the front line ; but it did not
become engaged, except slightly on the picket-line,
where it lost eleven men wounded. In the pursuit
of Lee's army it was again slightly engaged at Fair-
field, Pa., and Hagerstown, Md. It crossed the Po-
tomac on the 19th at Berlin, and on the 25th of July
reached Warrenton, where it remained till the 15th
of September. During the remainder of the fall it
participated in a number of minor movements, and
early in December encamped near Brandy Station,
where it remained in winter quarters until the latter
part of April, 1864.

The Third Regiment commenced its last campaign
on the 4th of May, when, with the other regiments of
the First Brigade, it crossed the Rapidan at Germania
Ford, and moved southward into the labyrinths of the
Virginia Wilderness. In the month which succeeded,
its movements, battles, and skirmishes were too nu-
merous to be recorded in detail. On the day follow-
ing the crossing it became heavily engaged with the
enemy, fighting stubbornly until its ammunition was
exhausted, and losing severely. On the 6th it was
again fighting, and suffered heavy loss. On the 8th,
at the Po River, it took part in an assault on strong
earthworks, but was compelled to retire from the
overpowering numbers and impregnable position of
the enemy. It was briskly engaged in skirmishing
on the 9th, and at Spottsylvania, on the 10th, it again
formed part of an assaulting-party which carried one
of the Confederate works and took a considerable
number of prisoners. Still again, at Spottsylvania,
on the 12th of May, it took part in the battle, and
charged the enemy's position with great bravery. At
the end of eleven days from the time when it crossed
the Rapidan its losses aggregated one hundred and
twenty-three killed and wounded, and thirty-three
missing, an exceedingly heavy loss, considering its
greatly reduced numbers at the commencement of tlio

In the advance beyond Spottsylvania the regiment
(now but a handful of men) was engaged in heavy
skirmishing along the North Anna River and at Tolo-
potomoy, until finally it stood on its last battle-field,
at Cold Harbor, where through two days of blood and
terror it fought as bravely as ever. But its term of ser-
vice had expired, and on the 3d of June the First and
Third New Jersey Regiments (both together number-
ing only three hundred and forty men) left the front
and proceeded, by way of Washington, to Trenton,
where they arrived on the 7th, and were soon after

* Those or tbe men whose teims, l.y reason of their re-enlistme-.t, hud
not yet expired were transferred to the Fourth and Fifteenth Eegin,e..ts
but afterwards, witli those of the same class from the Second Eegiment,
were consolidated into the First, Second, and Third Battali.uis



The following biographical sketch of Brig.-Gen.
George W. Taylor, the original colonel of the Third
Infantry Regiment, is taken from Foster's "New
Jersey and the Rebellion" :

George W. Taylor, who gave his life in defense of
the country, was a native of Hunterdon Co., N. J.,
and early exhibited a predilection for military pur-
suits. Graduating, at the age of eighteen, at the
celebrated military school of Col. Allen Partridge, in
Connecticut, he entered the navy as a midshipman
and made several cruises, subsequently, however, re-
signing and engaging in mercantile pursuits. But
when the Mexican war broke out his military instincts
were aroused, and his native patriotism incited him
to raise a company of volunteers, of which he was
commissioned captain, and which was offered to the
government, accepted, and arrived in Mexico in time
to endure some fatiguing marches and many hard-
ships, but too late to participate in any of the battles.
Upon the outbreak of the Rebellion, in 1861, Capt.
Taylor was one of the first to respond to the appeal
for troops, at once engaging in the formation of com-
panies and inciting the people of his county generally
to patriotic action. This done, he made preparations
to leave home, with his horse and arms, with a view
of offering himself as a volunteer upon the staff of
some general already in the field and at the post of
danger. He was, however, deterred from this action
by the unexpected and, so far as he was personally
concerned, unsolicited offer by Governor Olden of
the colonelcy of the Third Regiment, then in process
of formation. Accepting without hesitation, Col.
Taylor at once addressed himself to the task of re-
ducing his new levies into a state of discipline. On
the 28th of June, 1861, he accompanied them to
Washington, near which place they were stationed
until the 21st of July, when he assisted, with the
other New Jersey regiments, in checking the dis-
graceful flight from Bull Run, and rendered other
important service. In the following spring, upon the
assignment of Gen. Kearney to the command of a
division. Col. Taylor, as the senior officer of the First
Brigade, became acting brigadier-general of that com-
mand, and June 10, 1862, he was promoted to that
rank. He commanded the brigade during the battles
of the Peninsula, displaying in them all the most in-
domitable courage.

Returning with the army to Alexandria, he was
sent forward (August 27th) to Bull Run bridge with
a view of moving up to Manassas Junction and dis-
persing a rebel force reported to be at that point.
Upon reaching the field, however, his command found
itself confronted by the entire corps of Stonewall
Jackson, and, being violently assailed, was obliged
to fall back with severe loss. In this movement Gen.
Taylor was seriously wounded in the leg. He was
removed to Alexandria, where he died, Sept. 1, 1862,
from the effects of the amputation of the limb, his
spirit remaining firm and undaunted to the last.

As a soldier. Gen. Taylor's prominent character-
istics were* courage, intelligence, and inflexible devo-
tion to duty. As a disciplinarian, he was stern almost
to harshness; and, although on this account he was
for a time far from popular with the troops of his
command, he soon became endeared to them. In
personal manners he was haughty and reserved, sel-
dom unbending from his lofty mood even among his
intimates ; but underneath all this there throbbed a
nature at once passionate and noble, a nature which
scorned injustice and held unyieldingly to convictions
honestly and deliberately formed. Had his life been
spared he must have attained a high rank among the
generals of the Union army, in which, whatever its
misfortunes, courage and unselfish patriotism always
commanded generous and certain applause.



Peter F. Bogere, captain ; com. May 29, 1861 ; rea. Oct. 26, 1861.

John Roberts, captain ; com. Nov. 8, 1861 ; res. Aug. 6, 1863.

CharleB A. Wahl, captain ; com. Ang. 6, 1863; pro. from first lieutenant

Co. H ; dismiBsed S. 0. War Department Ang. 12, 1S64.
Eichard D. Cook, first lieutenant ; com. May 29, 1861 ; pro. to captain

Ck>. B Sept. 20, 1862
John L. W. Wentz, first lientenant ; com. Ang. 21, 1862 ; pro. to captain

Co. A Sept. 29, 1863.
Washington Irvine, first lieutenant ; com. Sept. 29, 1863 ; pro. from second

lieutenant Co. J> ; must, out June 23, 1864.
Arthur H. Hardcastle, second lieutenant ; com. June 13, 1861 ; res. Nov.

7. 1861.
William C. Barnard, second lieutenant; com. Dec. 16, 1861; aide-de-
camp to Gen. Kearney ; killed in action at Williamsburg, Va., May

6. 1862.
Franklin H. Coles, second lieutenant ; com. May 29, 1862 ; pro. to first

lieutenant Co. A Sept. 4, 1862.
Charles A. McOlung, second lieutenant ; com. Sept. 15, 1862 ; pro. to first

lieutcnaut Co. E Dec. 10, 1862.
John Torbert, Second lieutenant; com. Feb. 19, 1863; private of Co. 1,
Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry ; pro. to second lieutenant ; res.
Nov. 12, 1863.
Oscar H. Westlake, first sergeant; enl. May 29, 1861; pro.

lieutenant Co. B Aug. 13, 1862.
John Miller, first sergeant ; enl. May 29, 1861 ; pro. from sergeant Sept.

1, 1862 ; must, out June 23, 1864. ,

John 0. Wiggins, sergeant; enl. May 29, 1861; pro. to second lieutenant

Co. C Nov. 8, 1861.
Kichard Cassidy, sergeant ; enl. June 24, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864.
Lewis S. Fisher, sergeant ; enl. May 29, 1861 ; pro. to second lieutenant

Co. H July 2, 1862.
John T. Space, sergeant ; enl. May 29, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864.
Augustus Gootsche, sergeant ; enl. May 29, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864.
Peter T. Vanderveer, sergeant ; enl. May 29,1861; disch. for disability

Nov. 28, 1862.
James Toomer, sergeant; enl. May 29, 1861 ; disch. for disabUity Sept.

9, 1863.
Theodore McCoy, sergeant; enl. May 29, 1861; killed at Crampton's

Pass, Md., Sept, 14, 1862.
Johns. Judd, sergeant; enl. May 29, 1861 ; died of wounds May 30, 1864.
David T. Eunyon, corporal; enl. May 20, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864.
Philip French, corporal ; enl. May 29,1861; must, out June 29,1865;
re-enl. Dec. 30, 1863 ; served in Co. C, Fifteenth Eegiment, and Co.
A, Third Battery.
George W. Luse, corporal ; enl. May 29, 1861; not must, out with com-
Jasper Van Buskirk, corporal; enl. May 29, 1861; not must, out with

Corelius Van Zandt, corporal ; enl. May 29, 1861 ;
Oct. 7, 1862.

, to second

disch. for disability



Henry V. Lowe, corporal ; enl. May 29, 1861 ; disch. for disability Oct.

31, 1862.
Jacob Crater, corporal ; enl. May 29, 1861 ; died of wounds at Fredericks-
burg, Vtt., May 24, 1864.
Christopher Hoagland, corporal ; enl. May 29, 1861 ; killed at Spottsyl-

vania Court-house, Va., May 12, 1864.
William Fuller, corporal ; ent. May 29, 1861 ; died of disease Sept. 11, 1863.
George W. Himes, musician ; enl. May 29, 1861 ; must, out June 23, 1864.
John Burkmeyer, musician ; enl. May 29, 1861 ; died March 22, 1864.
Benjaniio F. Sliinn, wagoner; enl. May 25, 1861 ; must, out J\ine23, 1864.
Martin Blanchard, wagoner j enl. May 29, 1861 ; died of fever Sept. 22,

Peter S. AUeger.

Woodhull Amerman, disch. for disability Nov. 18, 1862.
Samuel Apgar, disch. from hospital Aug. 20, 1863.
Martm Bush.

Miller G. Bell, disch. for disability Sept. 12, 1S63.
Philip W. Bunn, disch. for disability May 15, 1862.

John V. Bennett, miflsing in action May 10, 1864; recorded at "War De-
partment as died at that date.
George C. Cummings, enl. June 24, 1861 : re-enlisted ; must, out June 29,

Ananias M. Oonover, disch. for disability Feb. 16, 1863.
James Doyle, paroled prisoner; must, out Jan. 19, 1865.
Daniel Dickson, disch. for disability May 15, 1862.
Abraham P. Drost, disch. for disability Oct. 24, 18G2.
John Duryea, disch. to join regular army Dec. 12, 1862,
John J. Delta, killed in action at Gaines' Farm, Va., June 27, 1862.
Joseph Dunham, died of fever Oct. 17, 1 861 ; buried at Alexandria, Ya.
William S. Forgus, disch. for disability Oct. 29, 1862.
George Fenner, tiaus. to Co. C, Fifteenth Regiment ; re-enl. Dec. 30, 1863.
William Fenuer, enl. Jan. 25, 1S64 ; missing in action May 10, 1864;

supposed dead.
Edward Gaylord, not mustered put with compauy.

Smith D. Gibbons, enl. June 20, 1861 ; not mustered out with company.
Philip Good heart.
Joachim Giilick.
Andrew Getberd, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps; disch. therefrom

March 19, 1864.
Jacob Hauck, re-eul. Dec. 30, 18G3 ; must, out June 29, 1865.
Thomas Hines.

Joseph Human, re-enl. Dec. 30, 1863; must, out June 29, 1865.
James Hymer.

Valentine Holla, disch. for disability March 29, 18G2.
Charles Hill, not mustered out with company.
Adam Job, killed in action at Gaines' Farm, Va., June 27, 1862.
Michael Kaley, died in camp March 26, 1863.

John Reiser, died of wounds Sept. 10, 1862; buried at Alexandria, Va.
Nicholas Kortzendoifer.
Frederick Kreti-hman.

Adam Knhn, Jr., enl. Jan. 25, 1864; recruit; must, out June 29, 1865.
Elias C. Kiilp, re-enl. Dec. 30, 1863 ; must, out June 29, 1865.
Lewis Kaliler, disch. for disability July 16, 1862.
John Kelley, discb. for disability April 2, 18(33.
William, Latuurette, disch. for disability Dec. 24, 1862.
Charles Leonhait, enl. Sept. 20, 18G1; disch. for disability Jan. 23, 1863.
Christopher Lynch, disch. for disability March 16, 1863.
Michael V. D. Lawrence.

Henry Ladingburg, trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps.
Augustus C. Liudsley, trans, to Signal Corps; disch. therefrom Aug. 16,

John Lederman, killed in action at Gaines' Farm, Va., June 27, 1862.
William Liltell, died of wounds May 24, 1863.
Itobert Leslie, enl. Jan. 6, 1862; not must, out with company.
Joseph McNcar, killed in action at Salem Heights, Va., May 3, 18G3.
Francis McKenna, re-enl.; must, out June 29, 18G5.
Benjamin Mabey, disch. for disability May 24, IS'rA.
Samuel Meyurs, disch. to join regular army Jan. 27, 1863.
John MeyeiB. trans, to Vet. Res. Corps; disch. therefrom May 28, 1864.
William Nurtou, disch. fur disability March 27, 18G3.
Tuni-s H. Orr, disch. on account of wounds April 14, 1863.
Steplien Oveiton.

* The privates all enlisted May 29, 18G1, and were mustered out June
23, 1864, unlesB otherwise stated.

Michael C. O'Neil, not must, out with company.

Samuel Phillips, not must, out with company.

Rudolph P. Prtshoud, disch. for disability May 16, 1862.

Thomas E. Reeder, enl. Jan. 26, 1864; must, out June 29, 1865.

Louis C. Riddle.

Henry Rockafellow.

Charles Schill.

Joseph Seal.

William Skillman.

Charles Spangler, re-enl. Dec. 30, 1863 ; must, out June 29, 1865.

Lewi? C. Scull, enl. Sept. 20, 1861 ; disch. for disability Sept. 12, 1863.

Samuel D. Solomon, eul. June 25, 18G1; disch. for disability Jan. 19, 1863.

William Southard, disch. for disability Nov. 4, 1861.

Peter Smith, enl. July 1, 1861 ; not must, out with company.

Dennis Snee, not must, out with company.

William Steinka, killed at Salem Heights, Va., May 3, 1863.

John B. Templeton.

Clark D. Todd, enl. June 20J 1861 ; disch. for disability March 2, 1863.

John Thompson, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps ; disch. therefrom May 30, 1864.

Samuel Tyler, enl. Sept. 25, 1861 ; trans, to Co. C, Fifteenth Regiment.

Joseph T. Walter, disch. for disability Aug. 11, 1862.

Andrew Watson, enl. Sept. 21, 1861 ; not must, out with company.

Frank Wheeland.

E. Augustus Wilson, must, out June 17, 1865.

John Williamson, disch. for disability May 15, 1862.

Caleb Woodruff, killed at Manassas, Va., Aug. 27, 1862.

Joseph T. Young, re-enl.; must, out June 29, 1865.

David Toung, trans, to Vet. Res. Corps ; died of fever April 27, 1864.



Hunterdon County fiirnishea a Company for each Eegiment OflQcera of
the Fifth and Sixth Infantry Leave " Camp Olden" Form a Part of
the Second New Jersey Brigade AsBigned to duty as the Third Bri-
gade, in Hoolcer's Division Movements on the Potomac Battle of
Williamsburg Fair Oaks Losses in the Peninsula Campaign En-
gaged at Bristow Station, Chantilly, etc. UuHincliing Bravery at Get-
tysburg-Superb Behavior at Spottaylvania Court-house Other en-
gagements Muster-out Kusters of Co. A, Fifth Infantry, and Co. H,
Sixth Infantry Regiments.

The Fifth and Sixth Eegiments of New Jersey in-
fantry contained each one company raised in Hunter-
don County. As these two regiments served together
in the same brigade, and as the histories of their cam-
paigns are consequently very nearly identical, they
are here given together in one narrative.

These regiments, as also the Seventh and Eighth,
were raised under a requisition made by President
Lincoln on the 24th of July, 1861, three days after the
great disaster at Bull Run. The Fifth was mustered
into the service under Col. Samuel H. Starr, the other
regimental officers being: Lieutenant-colonel, Ger-
shom Mott ; major, William S. Truex ; adjutant, Cald-
well K. Hall; surgeon, James C. Fisher; assistant
surgeon, Addison W. Woodhull; quartermaster, James
F. Eusling. The regimental officers of the Sixth
were : Colonel, James T. Hatfield ; lieutenant-colo-
nel, Simpson E. Stroud; major, John P. Van Leer;
adjutant, Leonard J. Gordon; quartermaster, Joseph
Woodward ; surgeon, John Wiley ; assistant surgeon,
Bedford Sharpe. The commissioned officers of A
company of the Fifth were: Captain, Ashbel W.
Angel; first lieutenant, Charles A. Angel; second



lieutenant, Theodore P. Large. Those of H company
of. the Sixth (also from Hunterdon) were: Captain,
James Bird ; first lieutenant, Samuel G. Stockton ;
second lieutenant, Jonas F. Hull. Both these com-
panies were raised at Lamhertville, Hunterdon Co.

The Fifth Regiment left Camp Olden on the 29th
of August, and reported for duty in Washington on
the following day. The Sixth left Camp Olden Sep-
tember 10th, and reported in Washington on the 11th.
The Seventh and Eighth Eegiments left the State on
the 19th of September and 1st of October, respect-
ively, and the four regiments were brigaded together
as the Second Brigade of New Jersey troops, under
Col. Starr, of the Fifth, as brigade commander. The
first camp was made at Meridian Hill, near Wash-

About the 1st of December the brigade was moved
to Budd's Ferry, Md., a point about forty-five miles
below Washington, and there assigned to duty as the
Third Brigade of the division of Gen. Hooker. This
division lay at that time encamped at various points
extending from Mattawoman Creek to Liverpool
Point, on the Potomac. On the south side of that
river, opposite the position of Hooker's division, were
formidable Confederate batteries at Shipping Point,
Cockpit Point, and Evansport, these having been
erected for the purpose of closing the navigation of
the river. But the evacuation of Manassas by the
rebels made it inexpedient for them to hold these
batteries, and they were accordingly abandoned about
the 8th of March. Upon this fact becoming known,
a detachment of five hundred men of the Fifth Eegi-
ment, under Lieut.-Col. Mott, crossed the river under
orders from Gen. Hooker to seize and occupy the po-
sition which the Confederates had evacuated. This
was the first important duty peirformed by the men of
this brigade. The detachment temporarily occupied
the position, capturing four pieces of artillery and a
large amount of stores, which had been abandoned ^y
the enemy in his hasty retirement.

After this expedition the brigade remained quietly
encamped until the first week in April, when, with
the division, it was transferred to the York Eiver,
Virginia, and landed near the mouth of Cheeseman's
Creek, where it was placed under command of Brig.-
Gen. F. E. Patterson, the division being incorporated
with the Army of the Potomac and destined to take
part in all the important movements of that army in
its Peninsular campaign against Eichmond. Its first
position was in front of the strong works of the enemy
at Yorktown.

Early in the morning of Sunday, May 4th, it was
found that the Confederate line stretching southward
from Yorktown to the mouth of Warwick Eiver had
been abandoned, and thereupon the Union army was
put in motion in pursuit of the enemy, who was re-
treating towards Eichmond. The Second New Jer-
sey Brigade entered Yorktown, and at about two
o'clock moved out from that place on the Williams-

burg road. Its bivouac for the night was in a swamp
about seven miles beyond Yorktown. At two o'clock
in the morning of the 5th it moved out from this
bivouac, and struggled on through darkness and mud
and pouring rain towards its first battle-field, that
of Williamsburg. At that place the Confederates lay
in heavy force and very strongly posted, their main
work, Fort Magruder, commanding the road and a
broad " slashing" on either -side of it, with a line of
about twenty strong redoubts stretching away from
the fort in both directions entirely across the Penin-
sula from river to river. Arriving in front of this ap-
parently impregnable position at about half-past seven
o'clock in the morning, the undaunted Hooker at
once moved to the attack. Two batterie,, Bramhall's
and Eakin's, were advanced on the right of the road,
with the Fifth New Jersey Eegiment to support
them. The Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Eegiments
were formed in line on the left of the road and or-
dered forward.

"Steadily adTancing through the underbrush, the gallant regiments soon came upon the enemy's forces, and at once opened a vigorous iire. Here, for three hours, the coniiict ra.sed with desperate fury. Command- ing the ground at every point, tlie fire of tile enemy was pitilessly de- structive, and did not slaclcen for a moment. But the brave men into whose faces it was poured stood firmly and unfiinchiugly, sometimep, indeed, pushed back a little space, but ob surely hurling the rebels, bleeding and shattered, baclc to their works. From the nature of the ground, there was no opportunity for tlie bayonet, buf the rapid volleys of our heroic troops were scarcely less effective. Aud thus the battle raged, the enemy, reiuforced again and .again, directing against these three regiments all the fury of their attack, but still the little column stood immovable. At last, however, the enemy, driven now to despera- tion, rushed forward in overwhelming numbers, pouring a terrific fire into our whole line. Then, at last, that line wavered. Their ammuni- tion exhausted, their muskets rusted by the drenching rain, their ranks terribly thinned, exhausted by want of food and a dilBcult march, these heroes of the day before this last overwhelming onset fell slowly hack. But they were not defeated. They had held the enemy in check, had frustrated every attempt to flank our position, and so had saved the di- vision, which but for this stubborn resistance would have been swept in disaster from the field.* "

The Fifth, which had been sent in support of the
batteries, maintained its position there under a tre-
mendous fire of musketry and artillery for six long
hours ; and at last, when the rebel infantry charged
and captured some of the pieces, the regiment made
a counter-charge, carried an advanced position, and
held it through the remainder of the day, maintain-
ing a continuous and most destructive fire on the
enemy for fully four hours. Finally, the gallant
Kearney threw his division into the fire, assaulting
the Confederate line with the most desperate impetu-
osity, and the battle became more furious than at any
time during the day. An important part of the hos-
tile works was carried, and when night closed the
Union arms were victorious all along the line. The
enemy retreated during the night, taking the road to
Eichmond aud leaving his dead and wounded on the
field. The losses of Hooker's division in this san-
guinary conflict aggregated nearly sixteen hundred

* Foster's " New Jersey and the Rebellion."



men, of which the Jersey brigade sustained more than
its proportionate share.

Three days after the battle the brigade moved with
its division towards Richmond. Marching by way of
Tunstall's Station and Bottom's Bridge, it crossed
the Chickahominy at the latter point, and halted at
Turner's Farm on the 26th. From this place it was
advanced to a position in the rear of Casey's division,
which occupied the front line, facing the enemy near
Fair Oaks Station of the York River EaOroad. At a
little after noon on the 31st of May this division
(Casey's) was suddenly attacked by an overwhelming
force of Confederates, and was forced back in disor-
der ; but reinforcements came up, the battle became
general, and raged with great fury through the after-
noon. Late in the day the Third Corps was ordered
to advance, and under this order the Fifth and Sixth*
New Jersey Regiments moved forward with their di-
vision and, reaching the front line at dark, went into
position, and so remained during the night.

The battle was renewed on the following day (Sun-
day, June 1st), and the Fifth and Sixth New Jersey
went in, leading the advance, and with Gen. Hooker
in person at their head. The enemy was soon found,
and the battle raged furiously for nearly three hours,
in which the Jersey regiments fully sustained the rep-
utation they had gained at Williamsburg. Col. Starr,
in his report of the battle, said,

" The road, and the fields on both sides of the road, were thronged with flying regiments from the battle-ground, two or three miles in front, through whose routed and disorderly masses I was compelled to force my way with bayonet and sabre. At 7 a.m. on the let instant the Fifth and Si.tth New Jersey marched forward (Gen. Patterson still being very ill), and were actively engaged from about a quarter past seven A.M. until a quartor to ten a.m. two and a half hours-with the enemy, the Fifth Regiment losing four privates killed, three ofBcers and fifty- one men wounded, and two privates missing; total, si.xty. . . . The loss of the Sixth Regiment has not yet been reported to me, but is consider- able less. Gen. Hookei- was himself witness, a part of the time, of the behavior of the two regiments under my command, and to him I leave the comments thereon.f Credit being but reluctantly accorded to this brigade for their services, its members look inwards and upwards for their reward. The Fifth aud Si.vth Regiments have been for four days and nights under anus, in battle, reconnoissance, and in holding the most advanced position on this flank of the army. They are still under arms, and see no prospect of an hour's rest for days to come. They have been exposed night and day to deluges of rain, and have suffered every species of privation incident to an army in an enemy's country. "

The loss of the Sixth Regiment in the battle of Fair

* The Seventh and Eighth had previously been detailed for other duty.

t The comments made by Gen. Hooker in his report of the battle were
as follows: "It gives me great pleasure to bear testimony to the con-
tinued good conduct of the Fifth and Sixth New Jei-sey Regiments
Their ranks have been greatly thinned by battle and sickness, and they
had been encamped in the immediate neighborhood of troops partially
demoralized from the events of the preceding day ; yet, on the fli-st in-
dication of a renewal of the conflict, I found their lines formed and
they were as ready to meet it as though our arms had been crowned with
success. Brig.-Gen. F. E. Patterson w«3 prevented from participating in
these operations on Sunday by sickness, and his command devolved on
Col. S. H. Stan-, of the Fifth New Jersey Regiment, whose energy and
courage were conspicuous on every part of the field. Especial mention
is also due to Ool. G. Mott and Lieut.-Col. George 0. Burling of the
Sixth New Jersey Regiment, for their distinguished services'on this

Oaks was twenty-one killed and wounded. The two
regiments bivouacked in their position on the night
of the 1st, and on the 2d of June advanced and occu-
pied the ground recovered from the enemy. On the
25th of June they took part in a battle fought a short
distance in front of the old battle-ground of Fair
Oaks, and here again they fought most bravely.

In the retreat to the James River, which com-
menced on the 28th of June, the brigade was ordered
to the rear, which is the post of honor and of danger
in a retreat, and was under heavy and long-continued
fire, and sustained slight losses, both at Glendale
(June 30th) and Malvern Hill (July 1st), but was not
otherwise engaged. It reached Harrison's Landing
on the 3d, and there went into camp. A few weeks
later it took part in the second battle of Malvern Hill,
which, however, was but an inconsiderable affair.
This was the last fighting done by this brigade on
the Peninsula. Its losses in the Peninsula cam-
paign were six hundred and thirty-four in killed and
wounded alone.

On the 21st of July the brigade marched, with other
commands of the army, from Harrison's Landing,
moved down the Peninsula to Yorktown, was there
embarked on transports, and proceeded to Alexan-
dria, being destined to reinforce the overmatched
army of Gen. Pope. From Alexandria it was moved
out to Warrenton Junction on the 25th, and from
there marched rapidly to the front. It found the
enemy at Bristow Station, where a severe battle was
fought on the 27th of August, the Jersey regiments
charging and driving the Confederates in gallant
style ; again at Bull Run on the 29th, and still again
at Chantilly on the 30th, keeping their bright record
on both fields. The losses of the two regiments
in this series of battles were : Fifth Regiment, killed,
wounded, and missing, fifty-one; Sixth Regiment,
one hundred and four.

From this campaign the brigade returned to Alex-
andria, where it remained (taking no part in the An-
tietam campaign) until the 1st of November. From
that time until the 20th it was employed in a series
of unimportant movements, but at the last-named
date it moved down the Rappahannock River to Fal-
mouth, where it arrived on the night of the 28th.
The march to this place had been a most severe one
on the men, as they were without rations and many
of them nearly barefooted. During this march the
brigade commander. Gen. Patterson, died very sud-
denly in his tent, and the command then fell to Col.
Joseph W. Revere, of the Seventh Regiment.

In the movement against the Confederate position
at Fredericksburg on the 13th of December the Second
New Jersey Brigade was not engaged in actual battle,
though it moved across the river and remained in
position during the conflict. It was for a time under
a very heavy fire, but sustained no loss except that of
one man killed in the Seventh Regiment. In the
night following the battle it returned to the north



l)ank of the river and reoccupied its former camps,
which, became its winter quarters.

When the new commander of the army, Gen.
Hooker, moved his forces across the Rappahannock,
in the spring of 1863, the brigade (which then com-
prised, in addition to the New Jersey regiments, a
New York and a Pennsylvania regiment) took part
in the campaign, under command of Col. Mott, of the
Fifth New Jersey. It crossed the river on the 1st of
May, but remained near, guarding the fords, until
about six o'clock p.m. on the 2d, when it was ordered
to the front to help retrieve the disaster caused by the
disgraceful flight and panic of the Eleventh Corps.
It did not; however (on account of the wild disorder on
the field), reach the position assigned to it until about
two o'clock A.M. on the 3d. At half-past four it was
advanced a short distance farther to the front, where
it occupied a breast-work, and stubbornly held it for
two hours against several desperate assaults made by
the enemy, but was at last compelled to withdraw.
It was reformed in the rear of the Chancellor House,
and soon after advanced to another charge, capturing
the assaulted work and planting the Union coloirs
upon it. It was found, however, that the stronghold
could not be held except at the probable sacrifice of
nearly the- entire command, and so it was reluctantly
withdrawn, to take position in the new line which
had been formed in the rear of the Chancellor House.
In this battle the fighting was terrific, and the beha-
vior of the New Jersey regiments splendid. The loss
of the Fifth was one hundred and sixteen killed and
wounded and nine missing ; that of the Sixth, sixty-
four killed and wounded and eight missing. After
the operations above noted the brigade was not se-
verely engaged, but remained on the field until the
6th of May, when it recrossed the Rappahannock and
occupied its former camp.

In the great battle of Gettysburg the brigade was
engaged, and in the thickest of the fight, on the 2d of
July, when it was under the heaviest artillery- and
musketry-fire for a long time, and sustained repeated
assaults of the enemy's infantry with unflinching

On the 3d it was again engaged, but less heavily.
The losses of the Fifth Regiment on this field were
seventy-eight killed and wounded and sixteen miss-
ing ; the Sixth lost thirty-three killed and wounded
and eight missing. The total loss of the brigade
was five hundred and thirteen. After the Confed-
erate army had retreated across the Potomac the
Jersey brigade, crossing that river with the army,
went into camp at Bealton, Va. It was engaged in a
fight with the enemy's cavalry and infantry at Mo-
Lean's Ford on the 15th of October, losing in all
about thirty men. After this it participated in the
movements of the army during the remainder of the
year, but was not again engaged. Its winter quarters
were taken near Brandy Station.

On the 4th of May, 1864, the Second New Jersey

Brigade* then a part of the Second Army Corps
crossed the Rapidan at Ely's Ford, and moved rap-
idly away with other commands of the army into the
Virginia Wilderness. It became engaged with the
enemy on the 5th, and again, more heavily, on the 6th.
From this time it saw little fighting until the 10th,
when it fought at Spottsylvania Court-house. The
11th was a day of comparative quiet, but on the 12th
it again moved under fire in the terrific battle of that
day at Spottsylvania.

" The behavior of the New Jersey regiments in this terrible battle was superb. For fourteen hours they stood the very brunt of the storm, never yielding an incli or losing heart in their work. All around them the slaughter was terrible, but they remained unappalled. The rebel dead were piled in heaps on their side of the works, presenting a spec- tacle of horror almost without parallel. Among the dead were many wounded writhing under the bloody heaps. On McAUister'sf immediate front, where the enemy repeatedly threw forward his massed columns to break our lines, a tree measuring twenty-six inches in diameter was (it is said) cut down by musket- and rifle-balls, a fact which shows better than any description the intensity of the fire.:): "

The result of the struggle was undecisive, but the
fighting had been so tremendous that the Union and
Confederate forces were completely exhausted ; and,
as if by mutual consent, hostilities were suspended
during the succeeding two days. The brigade fought
again on the 15th, with slight loss. It was subse-
quently engaged on the 23d and 24th at Chesterfield
Bridge, a few days later at Tolopotomy, and on June
3d in the bloody battle at Cold Harbor, where it suf-
fered very severely. On the 7th it was at Baker's
Mill, on the Chickahominy, and remained there until
the 12th. Thence it moved to the James River,
crossing that stream on the 14th, and arriving in
front of Petersburg on the following day. On the
16th it took part in a general assault on the enemy's
lines encircling that stronghold, and again in an
equally bloody assault on the 18th. For three days
afterwards the fighting was almost continuous. Still
another heavy assault was made on the 23d, and after
that there was a comparative lull in the fighting
through the remainder of the month. Up to that
time that is, during the months of May and June
the losses of the Fifth Regiment had been one hun-
dred and sixteen killed, one hundred and nineteen
wounded, and twenty-two missing ; of the Sixth, one
hundred and fifteen killed and wounded and eight

The movements of the forces investing Petersburg
from this time until its final capture were too numer-
ous and complicated to be mentioned in detail. It is
sufBcient to say that in all these movements, during
the summer and fall of' 1864 and the winter and
spring of 1865, down to the closing scene at Appo-
mattox, the regiments of the Second New Jersey
Brigade bravely and nobly performed all the duties

* The brigade then comprised the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, and
Eleventh New Jersey, the One Hundred and Fifteenth Pennsylvania, and
the First and Sixteenth Massachusetts Regiments.

f Col. McAllister, cummandiug the Jersey brigade.

J Foster's " New Jersey and the Eebellion."



assigned to them and added new lustre to their al-
ready brilliant record. The war was virtually ended
by the surrender of Lee, and on the 2d of May the
brigade left Burkeville Station for the march towards
home. Passing through Richmond on the 6th, it ar-
rived at Arlington on the 15th, and took part in the
memorable review of the Army of the Potomac at
the national capital on the 23d of May. A few days
later the men were transported to Trenton, where
they were disbanded and returned to their homes.
Following is given a list of oflicers and enlisted men
of the two Hunterdon County companies in the Fifth
and Sixth Regiments :

Ashbel W. Angel, captain ; com. Alig. 28, 1861 ; trana. to Co. I.
John W. Neal, captain ; com. Dec. 16, 1SG2, vice Angel ; res. April 14, 18G3 ;

Tiiomae G. Mon-ow, captain ; com. May 19, 1863, vice Neal ; pro. from first

lieutenant ; trans, to Co. B.
David H. Aj'ers, captain; com. April 1, 1864; trans, from Co. I; trans, to

Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
Charles A. Angel, first lieutenant ; com. Aug. 28, 1861 ; trana. to Co. I.
Jamea H. Wilson, first lieutenant ; com. Sept. 20, 1862, vice 0. A. Angel;

res. May 23, 1863 ; disaWlity.
Charles C. Dalley, first lieutenant ; com. April 1, 1864, vice Wilson ; trans.

to Co. E, Seventh Keginient.
Theodore P. Large, second lieutenant; com. Aug. 28, 1861 ; pro. to first

lieutenant Co. H May 16, 1862.
Edward P. Berry, second lieutenant; com. May 16, 1862. vice Large; pro.

to first lieutenant Co. G July 7, 1862,
George J. Lawyer, second lieutenant ; com. July 7, 1862, vice Berry ; trans.

to Co. C Dec. 12, 1862.
Henry R. Clark, second lieut. ; com. Dec. 16, 1862, vice Lawyer; killed at

Gettysburg, July 2, 1863 ; buried at Mercer Cemetery, Trenton, N. J.
Elias G. Wright, second lieutenant ; com. April 1, 1864, vice Clark ; trans

to Co. C.
James T. Odem, second lieutenant; com. Oct. 13, 1864, nice Wright; trana.

to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
Charles W. Aruett, first sergeant ; enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; pro. to second lieu-
tenant Co. C May 16, 1862.
Isaac Barnes, first sergeant; enL Aug. 28, 1862; disch. for disability Oct

24, 1863.
William H. Powera, first sergeant ; enl. Feb. 29, 1864 ; trans, to Co. F

Seventh Regiment.
Henry Seabridge, muiician ; enl. Aug. 30, 1862 ; disch. Dec. 4, 1865.
William W. Smith, musician ; enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co I Aug

11, 1862.
Andrew L. Day, sergt. ; enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; disch. for die. July 30, 1862.
Richard J. Waidell, sergeant ; enl. Aug. 28, 1862; trans, to Co E Feb

11, 1864.
Edwin Ellis, aergt. ; enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; trans, to Co. F, Seventh Regiment.
Eben N. Pieraon, sergeant; enl. Feb. 29, 1864; trana. to Uo. E, Seventh

Alexander Duffees, aergeant; enl. Nov. 1, 1862; trans, to Co. F Feb 11

1864. " ' '

Jamea 0. Bellis, sergt. ; enl. Aug. 14. 1861 ; trana. to Co. K Aug. 11, 1862.
George I. Smith, sergeant; enl. Feb. 18,1864; killed at Cold Harbor Va

May 31, 1864. ' ''

Thomas Dowling, sergeant; enl. Sept. 13, 1862 ; killed at Chancellorsville

May 23, 1863.
James Bamford, corporal; enl. Aug. 28, 1862 ; trana. to Veteran Eeaei-va

Corps Jan. 15, 1864; disch. Feb. 1, 1865.
Jacob Skillman, corporal ; enl. Aug. 28, 1862 ; trans, to Co. G, First Cav-

ali-j', Nov. 27, 1862.
James M. Van Houten, corporal; enl. March 14, 1864; trans, to Co. E,

Seventh Regiment.

* In Auguet, 1862, thia company waa diabanded and its offlcera and
men tranaferred to ditferent companiea in the regiment. A new Com-
pany A was raised, and sent into the field about the 1st of October, 1862.
Those of the original members of A company who did not re-enliat were
mustered out Sept. 7, 1804.

George W. Preston, corporal ; enl. Oct. 4, 1862 ; trans, to Co. D.
William F. Bariolett, corporal; enl. March 2, 1864; trans, to Co. E,

Seventh Regiment.
John B. Cruden, corporal; enl. March 26, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh

Marmaduke Goodyear, corporal ; enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; died of disease June

20, 1862.
Willinm Van Horn, corporal ; enl. Sept. 15, 1862; died of disease Deo.

30, 1863; buried at Trenton, N. J.
William Wortman, corporal ; enl. March 4, 1864; killed at Petersburg,

Va., June 18, 1864; buried at City Point Cemetery, Va.
Wm. C. Warden, corporal ; enl. Oct. 6, 1862 ; not must, out with company.


Elijah C. Ager, enl. July 23, 1864 ; trans, to Co. F, Seventh Regiment.

Lewis Allegar, enl. April 15, 1864 ; trana. to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.

James W. Andrews, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.

Conrad Apgar, enl. Feb. 27, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.

William Asband, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.

David Allen, enl. Dec. 24, 1862; not must, out with company.

John Allen, eul. Nov. 4, 1862 ; not must, out with company.

Edward Armatrong, enl. March 23, 1864; not muat. out with company.

Owen Bannen, enl. Sept. 30, 1862 ; trana to Co. D Feb. 11, 1864.

J.xme3 Bell, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.

Peter D. Bergen, enl. Aug. 30, 1862; trana to Co. D Feb. 11, 1864.

Corneliua A. Booze, enl. Aug. 2S, 1862 ; trans, to Co. D Feb. 11, 1864.

John Brink, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.

John Buck, enl. Aug. 14, 1861; trana. to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.

Joseph Butcher, enl. Aug. 29, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.

Jacob Beckstein, enl. Feb. 29, 1864 ; killed at Petersburg, Va., June 16,

Joseph Bower, enl. Aug. 14, 1861; died May 17, 1862, of wounds received
at Williamsburg, Va., May 5, 1862.

Bradford, Samuel W., enl. Sept. 5, 1862; killed at Gettysburg July 2,

William Brewer, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; killed at Fair Oaks June 1, 1862.

George Brown, enl. Feb. 9, 1864 ; kUled at Wilderness May 6, 1864.

Peter H. Ball, enl. Feb. 23, 1864 ; missing, and not must, out with com-

John Barrett, enl. Sept. 19, 1862 ; missing, and not must, out with com-

Philip Battman, enl. Dec. 24, 1862 ; missing, and not must, out with

Archibald Bell, enl. Sept. 3, 1862 ; missing, and not must, out with com-

Louis Blanck, enl. May 2, 1864; missing, and not must, out with com-

Charles Bradford, enl. Nov. 28, 1862; missing, and not must, out with

Lewis T. Brand, enl. Aug. 14, 1861; missing, and not must, out with

Charies Brown, enl. Nov. 23, 1663 ; missing, and not must, out with

Andrew Burns, enl. Dec. 1, 1862; missing, and not must, out with com-

John Burns, enl. March 19, 1864 ; miaaing, and not must, out with com-

Frank Caldwell, enl. Aug. 30, 1862 ; missing, and not must, out with

Edward Camp, enl, March 29, 1864 ; missing, and not must, out with

John Cirey, enl. April 22, 1864 ; missing, and not must, out with com-

Michael Convery, enl. Oct. 10, 1862 ; missing, and not must, out with

James Crawford, enl. March 26, 1864; missing, and not must, out with

Andrew J. Curren, enL March 9, 1864; missing, and not muat. out with

John Callahan, enl. March 12, 1864; trans, to Co. G, Seventh Regiment.

Horace W. Carey, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D Aug. 11, 1862

David W. Carr, enl. March 17, 1864; trans, to Co. G, Seventh Regiment.

Dunbar H. Case, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.

Edward W. Case, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D Aug. 11, 1862.

William J. Cliamberiain, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D Aug. 11, 1862.

William Chidester, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D Aug. 11, 1862.

John Clancy, enl. Oct. 31, 1862; trans, to Co. D Feb. 11, 1864.



John W. Clai-k, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. F Ang. 11, 1862.
William H. Clark, enl. March 31, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Kegiment
William Cole, enl. Feb. 2-5, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
John Colton, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.
Charles H. Compton, enl. Aug. 29, 1862; trans, to Veteran Reserve

Corps, Dec. 1, 1863 ; disch. July 24, 1865.
William Cooker, enh Ang. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B Ang. 11, 1862.
Henry Courter, enl. Feb. 18, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
Patiick M. Cox; enl. March 12,1864; trans, to Co. G, Seventh Regiment.
William Craig, enl. Sept. 11, 1862; trans, to Veteran Reserve Coi-ps,

Sept. 1 , 1863 ; disch. Aug. 9, 1865.
George W, Cain, enl. Oct. 7, 1862 ; died of fever in hospital April 14,

.Inmes Clark, enl. March 23, 1864 ; missing at Wilderness ; supposed dead.
Alexander Cornelius, enl. Sept. 16, 1862; died in hospital June 4, 1863,
buried in Military Asylum Cemetery, D. 0.

Edward Cyphers, enl. March 29, 1864 ; died of disease at Beverly, N. J.,
November, 1864.

Dennis Dalrymple, enl. Feb. 10, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E.

Patrick Daver, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. E Aug. 11, 1862.

John Benman, enl. March 10, 18G4 ; trans, to Co. B, Seventh Regiment.

David Dilts, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. E .\ug. 11, 1862.

George W. Dilts, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D Aug. 11, 1862.

John W. Dilts, enl. Ang. 30, 1864 ; trans, to Co. I, Seventh Regiment.

Louis Dubois, eul. March 22, 1864 ; trans, to Co. I, Seventh Regiment.

Joseph Dunn, enl. Aug. 30, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.

I'eter Dunn, enl. Feb. 23, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.

Walter Davidson, enl. Sept. 2, 1862 ; died of apoplexy at Trenton, N. J.,
Sept. 11, 1862.

David A. Demarest, enl. March 28, 1864 ; died in Andersonville prison
Aug. 15, 1864; buried in National Cemetery, Andersonville, grave

Alfred J. Be Mott, enl. July 20, 18G4 ; not mustered out with company.

John Denver, enl. April 22, 1864.

Andrew Diamond, enl. Sept. 30, 1862.

James Doyle, enl. Dec. 11, 1862.

Charles Dreniard, enl. March 22, 1864.

James Dunn, enl. April 22, 1864.

John Dnnnovan, enl. Dec. 10, 1862.

Christian Eberbeck, enl. Dec. 2, 1862 ; trans, to Co. F, Seventh Kegt.

John H. Emerick, enl. Aug. 30, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.

Andrew J. Emmons, enl. March 10, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regt.

William N. Emmons, enl. Feb. 26, 1864 ; trans, to Co. B, Seventh Regt.

William Etchell, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. E Aug. 11, 1862.

Charles Edwards, enl. Nov.'8, 1862; not mustered out with company.

George Edwards, enl. March 29, 1804; missing.

Thomas Ellis, enl. Feb. 9, 1864; missing.

James B. French, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; died of disease at Camp Baker, Md.,
April 4, 1862.

Thomns Flaherty {alias Andrew J. Smith), enl, Aug. 14, 1861; disch.
July 26, 1862, on account of wounds received at Williamsburg, Va.

Franklin Foster, enl. Oct. 6, 1862; disch. Nov. 6, 1862, to join regular

Joseph Gano, enl. Aug. 14, 1861; trans, to Co. E Aug. 11, 1862.

Miller H. Gary, enl. Feb. 18, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.

Asher W. Gilbert, enl. Aug. 14, 1801 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.

Edward Gorman, i^nl. Ang. 14, 1801; trans, to Co. E Aug. 11, 1862.

Benjamin F. Graves, enl. .Vug. 14, 1861; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.

George S. Gray, enl. March 22, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.

James W. Gamble, enl. March 9, 1864 ; killed at Cold Harbor, Va., May
31, 1864.

Johii Gutchol, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., June 1, 1862.

Hamilton Gary, enl. Aug. 14, 1861; not mustered out with company.

Charles Glassford, enl. March 9, 1864 ; not mustered out with company.

John Gordon, enl. March 19, 1864.

Thomas Green, enl. Nov. 26, 1862.

James Graves, enl. March 18, 1864.

(!harles Gunzer, enl. Sept. 1, 186-.

Coonrad Hockenburj', enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; disch. for disability July 22,1862.

Patrick Hopkins, enl. Sept. 29, 1862; disch. Sept. 30,1862; rejected by
medical board.

Jonathan E. Haines, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. E Aug. 11, 1862.

Samuel C. Haines, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. E Aug. 11, 1862.

Joseph G. Hall, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. F Aug. 11, 1862.

Eli Hamilton, enl. Aug. 14,1861 ; trans, to Co. E Aug. 11, 1862.

John Haney, enl. Nov. 14, 1802 ; trans, to Co. D Feb, 11, 1864.

Thomas Haunigan, enl. Sept. 16, 1802 ; trans, to Co. B Feb. 11, 1864.

Thomas Hannon, enl. March 5, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
James W. Hartpenco, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G Aug. 11, 1862.
Michael Hasson, enl. Oct, 2, 1802 ; trans, to Co. E Feb, 11, 1864.
John 0. Heath, enl, Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. 6 Aug. 11, 1862.
Charles Hennin;;er, enl. Aug. 29, 1864 ; trans, to Co, E, Seventh Regiment.
Patrick Henry, enl, Feb. 22, 1SC4 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
Albertus K. Hibbs, enl, Aug. 14, 1861; trans, to Co. E Aug. 11, 1862.
John Higgins, enl. Aug, 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. E Aug. 11, 1862.
Robert Hill, enl. Feb. 29, 1864 ; trans, to Co, E, Seventh Regiment.
Lemuel Hoagland, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. E Aug. 11, 1862.
Henry Hoehn, enl. April 1, 1804 ; trans, to Co, G, Seventh Regiment.
George Home, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. E Aug. 11, 1802.
Jacob Heulmes, enl, Aug. 30, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
Michael Humphrey, enl, Nov, 28, 1862 ; trans, to Co. E Feb. 11, 1864.
Thomas Hunt, enl. Feb. 13, 1864 ; trans, to Co. B, Seventh Regiment.
Thomas R. Hunt, enl, Aug, 14, 1S61 ; trans, to Co. G Aug. 11, 1862.
Francis Hagerty, enl. Nov. 7, 1862; not must, out with company.
William Han-ison, eul. March 23, 1864.

Charles Henry, enl. Bee. 6, 1862 ; not must, out with company.
Patrick Hubbin, eul. Nov. 8, 1802 ; not must, out with company.
Loraine Hull, enl. Marcli 10, 1864; not must, out with company.
Thomas Jackson, enl. Dec. 20, 1862.
John Johnson, enl. Dec. 31, 1862.

Thomas Jones, enl, March 19, 1864 ; not must, out with company.
George Kane, enl. Sept, 4, 1862; not must, out with company.
John Kelly, enl. Sept, 3, 1802 ; not must, out with company.
Jonathan T. Kelly, enl. Sept. 4, 1862; not must, out with company.
Richard Kemble, enl. March 31, 1804 ; not must, out with company.
Christian Koch, enl. Sept. 22, 1£^02 ; not must, out with company,
John H. Keiscl, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G Aug. 11, 1862.
William H. Ketch, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. H Aug. 11, 1802.
Hudson Kitchell, enl. Feb, 27, 1804 ; trans, to Co. B, Seventh Regiment.
Smith Kitchen, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G Ang. 11, 1802.
Frederick Kling, enl. Aug. 29, 1864; trans, to Co, E, Seventh Regiment.
Gustavua Knoll, enl. Aug. 29, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
Godfried Kolb, enl. Aug, 27, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
George Kopp, enl. April 26, 1804; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
Edward Kopper, enl. April 27, 1804; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
Thomas Kingsland, enl. March 22, 1804 ; died at Trenton, N. J., March

26, 1804.
Henry Luther, enl. Aug. 28, 1802 ; disch. for disability Feb. 11, 1864.
Joseph S. Lauer, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.
William Lees, enl. Aug. 14, 1801 ; trans, to Co, B Aug, 11, 1862.
George Leifer, enl. March 29, 1804; trans, to Co, E, Seventh Regiment.
Louis Linz, enl. May 3, 1864; trans, to Co. F, Seventh Regiment.
Jacob Long, eul. March 11, 1804; trans, to Co. B, Seventh Regiment.
James Longshore, enl, Aug. 14, 1801 ; trans, to Co, G Aug. 11, 1862.
Thomas C. Lovett, enl. Aug. 28, 1862; trans, to Co. G, First Cavalry,

March 25, 1803.
Abr. N. Lunger, enl. March 9, 1804 ; trans, to Co, E, Seventh Regiment,
aiaries Lupardus, enl. Sept. 2a, 1802; trans, to Co. I Feb. 11, 1864.
Daniel Luther, enl. Aug. 14, 1861; trans, to Co. G Aug. 11, 1862.
Henry Luther, enl. Aug. 28, 1862 ; disch. for disability Feb. 11, 1864.
William Lepp, enl. Dec, 1, 1862 ; not must, out with company.
Frank Limps, enl. March 10, 1864 ; not must, out with company.
Audrew Lynch, enl. Sept. 30, 1862; not must, out with company.
George W. McPeck, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; disch. for disability June 2, 1862.
William D. Moore, enl. Aug, 14, 1861 ; disch, for disability July 30, 1862.
Charies C. Morgan, enl. Oct. 31, 1802; disch. Nov. 6, 1802, to join regular

James Mullan, enl. Sept. 15, 1862; disch. Sept. 17, 1862; rejected by

medical boai-d.
John N. Maines, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. H Aug. 11, 1862.
Thos. Mansfield, enl, March 7, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
Geo. W. Martin, enl, Aug, 29, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
Patrick Martin, enl. March 30, 1864; trans, to Co. B, Seventh Regiment.
Dominick Mayenflsh, enl. March 31,1864; trans, to Co. G, Seventh Regt.
John McCafTerty, enl. Ang. 29, 1862 ; trans, to Co. I Feb. 11, 1864.
James McCarty, enl. March 19, 1864 ; trans, to Co. B, Seventh Regiment.
Thomas McGeaving, enl. March .23, 1864; trans to Co. E, Seventh Regt.
Peter McKenna, enl. Feb. 26, 1864 ; trans, to Co. G, Seventh Regiment.
David McPeak, enl. Feb. 23, 1804; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
John McCann, enl. Sept. 3, 1802.
Philip McCann, enl. April 27, 1804.
James McCoy, enl. March 22, 1864.
James McKale, enl. Sept. 19, 1862.
Edward McKan, enl. Oct. 14, 1862.



George McMichael, eul. Dec. 23, 1802.

Dauiel McCarthy, enl. March 25, 1864 ; missing in action at Wilderness,

Va., May 6, 1864 ; supposed dead.
John McCarthy, enl. March 15, 1864 ; missing in battle of Wilderness

May 5, 1864 ; supposed dead.
Adam Mann, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; died of wounds June 3, 1862.
James McKanna, enl. Dec. 26, 1862; died of wounds May 15, 1863.
James Murry, enl. March 19, 1864 ; missing in action May 6, 1864; sup-
posed dead.
Angel Moran, enl. Feb. 29, 1864.
John Murphy, enl. Feb. 23, 1864.
William Murphy, pnl. Sept. 8, 1862.

Samuel Meara, enl. Aug. 28, 1802; trans, to Co. G, Seventh Regiment.
James H. Melick, enl. .\uk. 14, 1861; trans, to Co. F Aug. 11, 1862.
John Mettler, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. H Aug. 11, 1862.
Eben A. Miller, enl. April 4, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
George H. Miller, enl. Feb. 25. 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
John Miller, enl. Sept. 22, 1862 ; ti-ans. to Veteran Reserve Corps ; disch.

July 26, 1866.
Louis Miller, enl. Feb. 20, 1804; trans, to Co. B, Seventh Regiment.
Joseph Minsterman, enl. March 29, 1804 ; trans, to Co. B, Seventh Eegt.
James Montgomery, enl. Sept. 17, 1 862 ; trans, to Co. I Feb. 11, 1864.
Anthony Moreen, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. 8 Aug. 11,1862.
Alexander B. Muckey, enl. Feb. 27, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regt.
Jefferson L. Muaselman, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G Aug. 1 1, 1862.
Siimuel Mustard, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. U, 1862.
John Myers, enl. Aug. 14, 1801 ; trans, to Co. F Aug. 11. 1862.
Jolin Neal, enl. March 11, 1804; trans, to Co. G, Seventh Regiment.'
Charles O'Malley, enl. Oct. II, 1862; disch. Kov. 5, 1862, to join regular

Jcineph O'Neil, enl. Sept. 6, 1862; trans, to Co. I Feb. 11, 1864.
Howard O'Daniel, enl. Aug. 14, 1861; trans, to Co. H Aug. 11, 1862.
Willijm O'Daniel. enl. Aug. 14, 1801 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.
Osnian Opdycke, enl. Aug. 14, 1861; trans, to Co. H Aug. 11, 1862.
Abraham A. Peters, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 : disch. for disab. Nov. 30, 1861.
Abram Peteraon, enl. Aug. 14, 1861; disch. for disability Nov. 30, 1861.
WilliHm Phelan (or Freeland), enl. Oct. 7, 1862 ; disch. Dec. 5, 1862, to

join regular army.
Melvin B. Parse, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. H Aug. 1], 1862.
Matthew J. A. Penn, enl. Sept. 2, 1802 ; trans, to Co. I Feb. 11, 1864.
Jesse Pettit, enl. Oct. 7, 1862; trans, to Co. F Feb. 11, 1804.
Stacy Pidcock, enl. Aug. 14, 1861; trans, to Co. H Aug. 11, 1862.
Lewis Ploeger, enl. Feb. 26, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
William P. Price, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. H Aug. 11, 1862.
John Pitt, enl. Aug. 29, 1862; not must, out with company.
James Pollard, enl. April 5, 1804.

William H. Ramsey, enl. April 20, 1804; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regt.
Frederick Rigler, enl. Aug. 30, 1804; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.
John Robbins, enl. Aug. 14, 1801 ; trans, to Co. D Ang. 11, 1802.
Hiram E. Rooks, enl. Aug. 14, 1801; trans, to Co. H Aug. 11, 1862.
Joseph Boach, enl. Feb. 27, 1864; died of wounds June 25, 1804.
Andrew Robbins, enl. Oct. 0, 1802; killed at Chancellorsville, Va., May

3, 1863.
Patrick Rogan (1), enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; not must, out with company.
Patrick Rogan (2), enl. Aug. 14, 1861; died at Washington July 7, 1862.
Chas. Ryan, enl. March 22, 1864 ; missing at Wilderness ; supposed dead.
Patrick Ryan, enl. Oct. 4, 1802 ; died July 8, 1863, of wounds received at

Robert T. Riley, enl. Oct. 17, 1802 ; not must, out with company.
Jacob Skillman, enl. Dec. 12, 1862 ; not must, out with company.
Henry Springer, enl. Sept. 9, 1802 ; not must, out with company.
John Smith, enl. Nov. 12, 1802; died of pneumonia Nov. 18, 1863 ; buried

at Richmond, Va.
Charles Smith, enl. Aug. 14, 1801; trans, to Co. H Aug. 11, 1862.
Francis E. Smith, enl. April 12, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Sevejith Regiment.
William H. Smith, enl. Aug. 14, 1801 ; trans, to Co. H Aug. 11, 1802.
Asber Smith, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; disch. for disability April 20, 1802.
Hugh Scullin, eul. Sept. 12, 1802; disch. for disability July 21, 1863.
Johu Savage, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1852.
Henry Schweis, enl. Sept. 22,1862; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps;

disch. Aug. 19, 186S.
David Schomp, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. I Aug. II, 1802.
Jacob F. Seals, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G Aug. 11, 1802.
James A. Servia, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. I Aug. 11, 1862.
Jonathan Servis, enl. Aug. 14, 1801 ; trans, to Co. I Aug. 11, 1802.
Winthrop H. Shattuck, enl. Nov. 14, 1802; trans, to Marine Battalion

Nov. 24, 1802.

Hiram Sibbett, enl. Aug. 14, 1861; trans, to Co. I Aug. 11, 1862.

Jonathan Sibbett, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. I Aug. 11, 1862.

Richard Sibbett, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. I Aug. 11, 1862.

Augustus F. S. Singleton, enl. Nov, 6, 1862; trans, to Veteran Reserve
Corps ; disch. Jan. 8, 1806.

George W. Sisco, enl. April 5, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.

Elnathan Stevenson, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Go. I Aug. 11, 1862.

Morgan Stevenson, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D Aug. 11, 1862.

John C. Stryker, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. D Aug. 11, 1862.

Peter Sutphin, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. I Aug. 11, 1802.

Job Swaim, enl. April 4, 1864; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.

Joseph V. Snook, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; killed at Williamsburg, Va., May
6, 1862.

Fritz Sponholz, enl. Aug. 28, 1862; died of wounds June 3, 1863.

John M. Swable. enl. March 5, 1804; taken prisoner at Wilderness ; died
of starvation and cruelty at Andersonville July 15, 1864.

John Thompson, enl Dec. 20, 1802.

Michael Tigh, enl. Sept. 9, 1802 ; killed at Chancellorsville May 3, 1863.

Thomas Teriell, enl. Sept. 15, 1862 ; trans, to Go. F Feb. 11, 1864.

George W. Trauger, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. B Aug. 11, 1862.

Israel Trauger, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. I Aug. 11, 1862.

Samuel Trauger, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; trans, to Co. F Aug. 11, 1862.

Charles P. Turner, enl. Feb. 10, 1804; trans, to Co. G, Seventh Regiment.

Patrick Tynan, enl. Sept. 10, 1802 ; trans, to Co. F Feb. 11, 1804.

Robert Upton, enl. March 29, 1864 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regiment.

Ferdinand Van Fleet, enl. Aug. 14, 1801 ; trans, to Co. G Aug. 11, 1862.

John Vaughn, enl. Sept. 2, 1802 ; trans, to Co. B, Fourth Regiment, Feb.
4, 1863.

John Walton, enl. Feb. 22, 1864; trans, to Co. B, Fifth Regiment.

Theodore ]Varner, enl. Aug. 22, 1862 ; trans, to Co. F Feb. 11, 1864.

William Waters, enl. Aug. 14, 1801'; trans, to Co. D'Aug. 11, 1862.

John H. Whitehead, enl. Feb. 18, 1804 ; trans, to Co. B, Seventh Regi-

Jacob E. Wortman, enl. March 10, 1804 ; trans, to Co. E, Seventh Regi-

Charles W. Watts, enl. Aug. 28, 1862 ; disch. for disability Oct. 6, 1863.

John Williams, enl. Nov. 19, 1802 ; disch. for disability June 24, 1863..

Emanuel Woolverton, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; disch. for disability May '28,

William Ware, enl. March 4, 1804 ; died at Newark, N. J., Nov. 3, 1864.

Samuel K. White, enl. Aug. 14, 1861 ; died at Washington, D. 0., May 22,

George F. Williams, enl. Aug. 14, 1801 ; died at Meridian Hill, Va.,Nov.
19, 1801.

Henry Wagner, enl. Dec. 24, 1802.

John Wagner, enl. March 5, 1864.

William Ward, enl. Dec 16, 1862; not mustered out with company.

Anton Wiger, enl. March 30, 1864.

Charles Williams, enl. March 18, 1864.

William W. Wright, enl. Sept. 3, 1802.

James Young, enl. Sept. 2, 1802.

Ellas Yauger, enl. March 4, 1804 ; trani. to Co. E.Seventh Reglipent

John W. Ziuk, enl. Sept. 24, 1802.


James Bird, captain ; com. Sept. 9, 1861 ; resigned for disability Dec. 27,

Theodore F. Field, capt. ; com. June 9, 1803 ; pro. from first lieutenant.

Samuel G. Stockton, iirst lieutenant; com. Sept. 9, 1801; resigned Feb.
12, 1862.

Samuel S. Marseilles, first lieutenant, com. Feb. 26, 1862 ; first sergeant,
Aug. 26, 1801 ; second lieutenant, Jan. 16, 1862 ; resigned for disa-
bility July 28, 1802.

Cliarles Merriam, first lieutenant ; com. Oct. 24, 1862 ; pro. from sergeant-
major to second lieutenant Feb. 26, 1862; resigned on account of
wounds Jan. 11, 1863.

William G. Thompson, first lieutenant; com. May 3, 1863; pro. from
second lieutenant.

Jonas F. Hull, second lieut. ; com. Sept. 9, 1861 ; resigned Jan. 8, 1862.

Wilson R. Marseilles, first sergeant; enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; pro. from cor-
poral to sergeant ; to first sergeant.

Daniel K. Hinsou, first sergeant; enl. Aug. 9, 1801 ; pro. to second lieu-
tenant Co. B July 22, 1862.

* Surviving members of this company who did not re-enlist were mus-
tered out Sept. 7, 1864.



Edward "W. Forker, aergeant ; enl. Aug, 9, 1861 ; pro. from corporal ;

must, out Sept. 7, 1804.
George "W. P. Fisher, sergeant; enl. Aug. 9, 1861; pro. from corporal;

must, out Sept. 7, 1864.
Alfred H. Stockton, sergeant; enl. Aug. 9, 1861; discli. for disability

Oct. 26, 1861.
Theodore Abbott, sergeant; enl. Aug. 9, 1861; disch. for disability Dec.

16, 1862.
Lewis T. Brant, sergeant ; enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; trans, to Co. E, Eighth

Begiment ; re-enl. Jan. 27, 1864.
Stephen Hull, corporal; enl. Aug. 9, 1861; must, out Sept. 18, 1864.
Simon Snyder, corporal ; enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; must, out Sept. 7, 1864.
William S. Landis, corporal ; enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Dec.

13. 1861.
George H. Pitman, corporal ; enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. paroled prisoner

May 22, 1862.
Henry Day, Corp. ; enL Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Sept. 16, 1862.
Joseph West, corp. ; enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Sept. 26, 1862.
Benjamin Abbott, corporal ; enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability June

1, 186.'i.
Kelson Christiansen, corporal; enl. Aug. 9, 1861; disch. for disability

Feb. 28, 1863.
€hr. F, Stevenson, corporal; enl. Nov. 21, 1861; trans, to Co. G, Eighth

Augustus Trimmer, corporal ; enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G, Eighth

Begiment; re-enl. Dec. 29, 1863.
Anderson W. Pidcock, corporal; enl, Aug. 9, 1861 ; killed in Wilderness,

Va., May 6, 1864.
Jolm Ely, corpoml ; enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; killed at Williamsburg, Va., May

5, 1862.
Joseph D. Rogers, musician; enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; drum-major Sept. 1, 1861;

must, out Sept. 17, 1864.
Nathaniel B. Parent, musician; enl. Aug. 9, 1861; pro. to drum-m^or

June 18, 1862.
David S. Bender, musician ; enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; missing Dec. 23, 1862.


Ferdinand H. Akers, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; must, out Sept. 7, 1864.

C. V. Anderson, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; must, out Sept. 7, 1864.

James Agin, enl. Oct. 9, 1861 ; disch. fur disability Jan. 24, 1863.

Farley F. Akers, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Sept. 3, 1862.

Kiser Ambrose, enl. Aug. 9, 1861; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Regiment; re-
enl. Feb. 22, 1864.

Neil F. Arentzen, enl. Aug. 9, 1861; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begiment;
re-enl. Dec. 27, 1863.

Joseph Ambruster, enl. Aug. 18, 1863 ; not must, out with company.

Bartholomew Anearane, enl. June 2, 1864 ; not must, out with company.

Jacob Bergen, enl. Sept. 19, 1861 ; disch. for disability Dec. 9, 1861.

Jacob W. Bishop, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability June 2, 1862.

Augustus Bodine, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Oct. 18, 1862.

John F. Bodine, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Oct. 18, 1862.

Martin Byrne, enl. Aug. 9, 1861; disch. for disability Oct. 26, 1861.

William Bragg, enl. Aug. 9, 1861; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begiment;
re-enl. Deo. 27, 1863.

John Bartley, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; died of fever Feb. 23, 1862..

Theodore Brewer, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; killed in Wilderness May 6, 1864.

John Banco, enl. June 2, 1864.

Joseph Berean, enl. June 1, 1864.

Elijah Q. Burroughs, enl. Aug. 9, 1861.

Michael Byrne, enL May 31, 1864.

Aaron C. Cornell, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; must, out Sept. 7, 1804.

Patrick Callan, enl. Aug. 9, 1801 ; disch. for disability, June 4, 1863.

Thomas ConnofiT, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Oct. 11, 1862.

Richard Cummings, enl. Aug. 9, 1861; disch. as paroled prisoner May
22, 1862.

George W. Case, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begiment;
re-enL Feb. 22, 1864.

George F. ChideHter, enl. Sept. 19, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begi-
ment ; re-enl. Nov. 29, 1863.

John Clary, enl. Sept. 19, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begiment; re-
enl. Feb. 22, 1864.

Joseph S. Cohine, enl. Oct. 19,1861; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begiment.

Charles Cleveland, eul. May 20, 1864.

William Daymond, enl. Aug. 9, 1861; must, out May 15, 186.5.

Paul C. Dilts, enl. Aug. 9, 1861; must, out Sept. 7, 1864.

Thomas Dcmpsey, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability March 16, 1863.

Henry Devert, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Sept. 12, 1862.

Jacob Davis, enl. June 2, 1864.
Charles Dumont, enl. June 1 , 1864.

Thomaa Flalievty, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; served as corporal, sergeant, and
first sergeant from Aug. 2B, 1861, to March 1, 1863 ; subsequently as
private ; must, out Sept. 7, 1864.
Cornelius Farley, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Sept. 21, 1864.
Augustus Fisher, (1), enl. Oct. 8, 1861 ; killed at Chancellorsville, Va.,

May 3, 1863.
Augustus Fisher, (2), enl. Oct. 7, 1862 ; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va.,

and died May 24, 1863.
Thomas Garvey, enl. April 4, 1862; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begiment.
James Gorden, enl. Sept. 8, 1862.
Philip Graf, enl. June 1, 1864.

Peter Halpin, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Oct. 20, 1862.
Franklin Hand, enl. Sept. 6, 1862 ; disch. for disability May 10, 1863.
Reuben V. Hewlett, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability May 20, 1862.
Patrick Hurley, eul. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Dec. 21, 1863.
Harm. S. Hammond, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; died of fever June 10, 1862.
Charles Harden, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; died of fever July 26, 1 862.
Wilson Horn, enl. Aug. 9, 1801; killed at Williamsburg May 6, 1862.
William Hulmes, eul. Feb. 26, 1864.
Charles Jones, enl. May 19, 1804.
Amos A. Krewsin, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps ;

disch. for disability Sept. 20, 1863.
Henry S. Krewsin, enl. Aug. 9, 1861; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps ;

disch. Sept. 3, 1864.
Thomas Larby, enl. June 1, 1864.

Eli H. Lawyer, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. to join regular army Oct. 26, 1862.
Lambert S. Lisk, enl. Sept. 19, 1861 ; disch. for disability Feb. 10, 1863.
Charles F. Moore, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; pro. to second lieutenant Co. I June

23, 1862.
John Mahan, enl. Aug. 9, 1801 ; disch. for disability March 1, 1803.
George W. McLoughan, enl. Aug. 9, 180 ; disch. Oct. 26, 1862, to join

regular army.
Thomas S. Monroe, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. Oct. 20, 1862, to join regular

Morris Majtwell, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; trans, to Veteran Beserve Corps May

1, 1864 ; disch. Aug. 26, 1804.
Thomas Miller, enl. Aug. 9, 1801 ; trans, to Veteran Beserve Corps Sept.

1, 1803 ; disch. Aug. 30, 1864.
Patrick Monighan, enl. Nov. 10, 1802; trans, to Co G, Eighth Regiment.
Charles Moore, enl, Aug. 9, 1861 ; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Regiment ; re-
enl. Feb. 22, 1804.
John McMnllen, enl. Sept. 28, 1861 ; died July 17, 1862.
Gotlieb Miller, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; killed at Williamsburg, Va., May 6, 1862.
Christian Miller, enl. June 1, 1864.
Michael Murphy, enl. June 1, 1864.

George W. Naylor, enl. Feb. 29, 1864 ; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Regiment.
John W. Neice, enl. Oct. 0, 1802 ; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begiment.
James O'Daniel, enl. Sept. 19, 1861 ; must, out Sept. 22, 1864.
John O'Daniel, Sr., enl. Aug. .9, 1801; disch. for disability Oct. 17, 1862.
John O'Daniel, Jr., enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; killed at Williamsburg, Va., May

5, 1802.
John O'Neil, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disability Aug. 26, 1862.
James Olwell, enl. Aug. 9, 1801 ; disch. for disability Nov. 30, 1802.
Stephen O'Grady, enl. Aug. 9, 1861; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begiment;

re-enl. Feb. 22, 1804.
John O'Brien, enl. June 1, 1864.

Henry Pettit, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; not must, out with company.
John R. Pitman, enl. Aug. 9, 1861; disch. to join regular army Oct. 26,

Lewis C. PuUen, enl. Aug. 9, 1801 ; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begiment;

re-enl. Dec. 23,1803.
Jeremiah Eeed, enl. Feb. 10, 1804 ; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begiment.
Thomas Robinson, enl. May 2:J, 1864.
Isaac W. Bounsaville, enl. Aug. 9, 1801 ; died of fever at Torktown, Va.,

May 11, 1862.
Henry T. Bowland, enl. Nov. 14, 1861 ; discharged for disability April 19,

Charles Service, enl. Sept. 19, 1861 ; must, out Sept. 7, 1864.
James Sharp, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; must, out Sept. 7, 1864.
John Stingle, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; must, out Sept. 7, 1864.
John Sharp, enl. May 19, 186^ ; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Begiment,
John Shafer, enl. May 19, 1804,
John Shean, enl. May 18, 1864,
James Smith, enl. May 20, 1864.
John Smith, enl. May 24, 1864,



Charles Snowilen, eiil. May 18, 1804.

Michael Spellman, eel. Oct 18, 1861.

John Sweeny, enl. May 20, 1804.

Samuel Tomlinson, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. for disaUlity Oct. 17, 1862.

George W. Taylor, enl. Aug. 9, 1601 ; died of fever March S, 1862.

William H. Tracy, enl. Aug. 9, 1801; killed at Petersburg, Va., June IT,

Obediah Wiley, enl. Aug. 9, 1801 ; trans, to Co. G, Eighth Regiment; re-

enl. Dec. 27,1863.
Ephraim Walker, enl. Aug. 9, 1801 ; died of fever March 1, 1862.
Peter Wean, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; died of wounds, Gettysburg, July 11,

George Walker, enl. May 23, 1864.
Charles White, enl. May 18, 1864.
Charles Williams, enl. May 18, 1864.

Oliver G. Woodward, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; must, out Sept. 7, 1864.
Michael Wright, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; disch. May 3, ISOo.
James Wrisband, enl. Aug. 9, 1861 ; must, out Sept. 7, 1864.
William A. Yard, enl. Aug. 9, 1861; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps

Sept. 1, 1863; disch. Aug. 29, 1864.


Three Companies from Hunterdon and Somerset Leave for Washington
Construct "Fort Kearney" The Tifteenth at Fredericksburg
Michael Mulvey, Co. G, the first Man killed Battle of ChaDcellorsTille
The " Wilderness" Capt. Vanderveer and Lieut. Hamilton wounded
Roster of Casualties in the vicinity of Spottsylvania Court-house
In the Charge at Cold Harbor With Sheridan's Army in the Shenau-
doah Valley Fisher's Ilill and Cedar Creek engagements Maj. Boe-
man killed List of Battles of the Fifteenth Rosters of OfBcers and
Enlisted Men of the Companies from these Counties.

Isr the composition of the Fifteenth Infantry Regi-
ment of New Jersey, two of its companies (A and G)
were made up of men from Hunterdon County, and
one (E) from Somerset.* The regiment was organized
at Flemington during the months of July and August,
1862. It was mustered into the service on the 25th
of August, under command of Col. Samuel Fowler.
The other regimental oflacers were: Lieutenant-col-
onel, Edward L. Campbell ;t major, James M. Brown ;
adjutant, William P. Seymour ; quartermaster, Lowe
Emerson; surgeon, Eedford Sharp ; assistant surgeons,
George R. Sullivan and George Trumpore. The com-
missioned officers of the Hunterdon and Somerset com-
panies were: A company: Captain, Lambert Boeman;
first lieutenant, Thomas P. Stout; second lieutenant,
John R. Emery. E company: Captain, John K.
Vanderveer; first lieutenant, Stephen H. Bogardus;
second lieutenant, Ellis Hamilton. G company : Cap-
tain, William H. Slater ; first lieutenant, Henry Suy-
dam Crater; second lieutenant, John D. Trimmer.

On the 27th of August the regiment, then number-
ing nine hundred and twenty-five men and oflicers,
left the State for Washington, and on its arrival at
the capital marched thence to Tenallytown, Md.,
where it was at once placed on fatigue duty in the

* Of the other companies, three were from Sussex, two from Warren,
and two from Morris County.

t Lieut.-Col. Campbell, who was already in the field with Ihe Army of
the Potomac, did not join the Fifteenth until the Ist of October, when
the regiment was on its march to join the Sixth Corps in Maryland.

building of roads and the erection of defenses ; among
which latter was the construction of the formidable
work named " Fort Kearney," in honor of that brave
and dashing New Jersey general who gave his life on
the field of Chantillj^ at almost the precise time when
the men of the Fifteenth commenced their work on
the fortification.

The regiment moved from Tenallytown on the 80th
of September, and, proceeding to Frederick, Md.,
marched thence, by way of the Antietam battle-field,
to Bakersville, where it was incorporated with the i
First (New Jersey) Brigade of the First Division,
Sixth Army Corps. It remained here about a month,
engaged in drill and camp duty, and on the 31st of
October moved forward with the other commands of
the Army of the Potomac,! and, crossing the river into
Virginia, marched, by way of Warrenton (where a halt
of several days was made), to Stafford Court-house,
and thence, after another considerable delay, to Staf-
ford Heights, where it arrived on the morning of the
11th of December, and where the men of the Fifteenth
had their first view of the scenes of actual battle, the
bombardment of Fredericksburg by Gen. Burnside's
batteries, posted on the left bank of the Rappahan-

In the evening of that day the army was massed on
the plain north of the river preparatory to the grand
crossing of the stream. The pontoons were placed in
position, and at daylight on the following morning
the Fifteenth, with the other regiments of the Jersey
brigade, crossed at " Franklin's Crossing" to the soutli
shore, and moved quickly through a dense fog up the
acclivity to the edge of the plateau which extends to
the foot of Marye's Heights, which were then brist-
ling with the enemy's batteries and the bayonets of
his heavily-massed infantry. At about two o'clock in
the afternoon the brigade again moved swiftly for-
ward in line of battle, and under a vigorous fire from
the Confederate artillery on the Heights. The range
of the rebel artillerists, however, was imperfect, and
the brigade advanced without serious casualties to
Deep Run, where shelter was fotind in the ravine
through which it flows. In this ravine the brigade
remained during the remainder of the day and
through the night.

The 13th of December was the day of the great
battle at Fredericksburg. Early in the morning the
entire line of the Army of the Potomac advanced to
assault the strong positions of the Confederates, and
the battle raged with fearful energy and with little
intermission until nightfall. During the greater part
of that bloody day the Fifteenth was posted along
the line of the railroad, keeping up a steady fire and
making occasional charges, but with light loss. At
about four o'clock the Jersey brigade made a more
determined attempt on the position in its immediate
front, but was forced back with a greater loss than it

1 The regiment was then under cmuiand of Lieut.-Col. Campbell,
Col. Fowler being leit behind in hospital, sick -with typhoid fever.



had before sustained, many of its men being taken
prisoners, among whom were a number from the
Fifteenth. This charge was the last of the regiment's
fighting for the day. Its total loss at Fredericksburg
was about thirty, of whom very few were killed* out-
right. It could not be regarded as a heavy loss to be
sustained in so fierce and protracted a conflict as that of
Fredericksburg, yet to the soldiers of the Fifteenth it
seemed a very serious one, because this was the first
field on which they had been tried in the fire of

In the morning of the 14th the regiment was re-
lieved at the front (and under a heavy fire) by the
One Hundred and Twenty-first New York Regiment.
The battle, however, was over ; the assault of those
grim heights was abandoned, and the army recrossed
to its old position on the north side of the Eappahan-
nock. The Fifteenth Regiment went into camp at
White Oak Church, where the men spent a most
dreary winter, during which the typhoid fever in a
malignant form appeared among them, and many died
of the disease.

On the opening of the spring campaign under the
new commander of the army, Gen. Hooker, the
Fifteenth again crossed the Rappahannock, and par-
ticipated in the great battle of Chancellorsville.f The
part taken by it in that battle is shown in the report
of Lieut.-Col. E. L. Campbell, J as follows:

"My command broke camp at Wliite Oak Church, Va., on the after- noon of Tuesday, April i8th, and taiarched to the bank of the Rappa- "
hannock, near Franklin's Crossing, where it bivouacked until towards
morning, when it was moved to the river, and crossed in boats just before
daylight on the morning of the 29th, taking up a position on the south
hank. Remained there until the morning of the 3d of May, a part of
which time was employed in doing outpost duty immediately in the
face of the enemy. On the morning of the 3d instant [May], I was or-
dered to the fi'ont at about daybreak, and was assigned a position in sup-
port of a battery on tlie extreme left which was hotly engaging the
enemy. Remained upon this duty, taking up various positions, and part
of the time exposed to a severe scattering Aauk lire from the enemy's
line of skirmishers, until the enemy was driven from his position on tiie
heights above Fredericksburg, and the line on the left was ordered to
retire towards that place, when I was left in the rear as a support to our
retiring skirmishers by order of tlie general commanding the division.
Tverythiug was brought from the field without diiiiculty, as tlie enemy
did not follow up. After procuring ambulances {to get wliich I was com-
lielled to send to the city of Fredericksburg) and moving the wounded
left upon the field during the rapid movement, I proceeded upon the
line of march of the corps. Arriviug some distance out of the city, on
the plank road, I learned that the enemy was making a stout resistance

* "Michel Mulvey, Company G, was the first man of the regiment
killed. At the time, shots were being exchanged with the reijel pickets.
He was cautioned not to expose himself, but exclaimed, ' Hush ! don't
tell a Jersey boy to keep back when the enemy is in sight.' He had
fixed his attention on a rebel sharpshooter who fired from behind a tree.
When, at length, the rebel exposed himself in firing, he took aim and
fired. Tlie rebel was seen to tumble over, evidently killed. At the
same moment Michel fell back dead, shot through tiie brain. As tlie
regiment was relieved on Sabbath morning, a plunging bullet-shot
passed through the knapsack and body of Alexander S. Sergeant, Com-
pany F, killing him. Ezekiel C. Quick, Cumpuny G, was shot through
the lungs, and lived several days, expressing his entire willingness to
Bufi'er for his country, and his strong faith in tlie Saviour." A'o(fi« bjj
AlaiiHon A. Haines, Ghnplain of tlte FlfUeidh Regiment.

f Othei'wise known as tlie battle of Salem Heights.

X Col. William H. Penrose, a lieutenant in tlie Tliird Regular Infantry,
was made colonel of the Fifteenth in the latter part of April, 18U3,

in front, and that the First Brigade was about to engage him. March-
ing as rapidly as practicable, I arrived at the front at about five o'clock
P.M., and without halting was immediately ordered by the general o.m-
niandiug the corps to engage the enemy on the right of the road, in a
thick wood in which the enemy had taken a position and effectually i e-
sisted any attempt to dislodge him. My command advanced about one
hundred yards, through a dense and in places impassable undergrowtli,
to within about tliirty yards of the enemy's position, where it engaged
at least four of his regiments, with, as I am convinced, a terrible effect,
but without driving him from his well-chosen position. Just at dai-k,
my ammunition being entirely exhausted and the enemy's fire destruc-
tive, I retired in good order, the enemy showing no disposition to follow.
I have the satisfaction of saying for my command that not a man left
the line of battle except the wounded, and when the rolls were called,
immediately upon arriving in the open field, every man was present or
properly accounted for except those who were killed, wounded, or miss-
ing in action, the latter being but five, and all probably killed or wounded.
My wounded were all brought off during or after the action, except pos-
sibly the five mentioned above, not found on account of the dense under-
growth of bushes.

" On Sunday night (May 3d) my command bivouacked upon the battle- field. During the engagement of Monday I was assigned to various positions, a part of the time in support of batteries ; when at night the artillery was ordered towards the river, I was ordered to follow it. Re- crossed the river just before daylight in the morning, and went into camp on the north bank. On Friday, the 8th instant, marched to my present place of encampment. "

After Chancellorsville a few weeks of quiet ensued,
and then it was ascertained that the Confederate com-
mander was moving his army down the Virginia val-
ley with the evident intention of invading the States
north of the Potomac. Upon this, the army of Gen,
Hooker was put in motion, and the Fifteenth Regi-
ment with its brigade, as a part of the Sixth Corps,
moved rapidly northward, by way of Fairfax, to
Edwards' Ferry, where it crossed the Potomac into
Maryland, and, thence pressing onward by forced
marches, came, in the afternoon of July 2d, to the
field of Gettysburg, where the great battle had already
commenced. At about half an hour before sunset
the brigade was moved to the front to hold a position
from which Sickles' corps had been compelled to re-
tire. But no further assault was made that evening,
and the men slept on their arms in the advanced
position. Through all the carnage of the following
day, including the tremendous charge made by the
Confederate infantry under Pickett, the Fifteenth
with its brigade stood constantly in line ready for
work, but was not ordered in. " The Fifteenth," wrote
a member of the regiment, " witnessed all from their
position, but, though ready for duty, were not sum-
moned to actual fighting."

Hostilities were suspended during the following
day, July 4th, and before the sun rose on the 5th the
Confederate legions were in full retreat towards the
Potomac. The Jersey brigade took part in the pur-
suit and in minor engagements at Fairfield, Pa., and
Funktown, Md., and crossed the river into Virginia?
with the main body of the army. During the re-
mainder of the year it participated in the various
movements of the Sixth Corps, and in December,
1863, went into winter quarters about two miles from
Brandy Station, Va.

i July lOth.



In the spring of 1864 was opened the bloody cam-
paign of "the Wilderness/' under the immediate
supervision of Lieut.-Gen. Grant. In this campaign
the Fifteenth saw its most desperate fighting and sus-
tained the severest losses experienced during its term
of service. On the 4th of May, at daylight, the regi-
ment with its brigade moved out from its winter
camp, and marched, by way of Brandy Station and
Stevensburg, to Germania Ford, where it crossed the
Rapidan, and soon entered that desolate region of
stunted woods and copses known as the Wilderness.
In the afternoon of the 5th it came up to the position
where Warren was already fighting with the Confed-
erate corps of Ewell, and later in the day it became
slightly engaged, suffering some losses, among which
was that of Capt. John H. Vanderveer, of E com-
pany, who there received the severe wounds which
soon after compelled his resignation. In the opening
of the fight on the following day Lieut. Ellis Ham-
ilton, of the same company, was desperately wounded
in both thighs. During the latter part of this day the
regiment was not heavily engaged. On the 7th the
regiment did some fighting and lost slightly.*

" On the 8th, about noon, at the head of the corps, it reached the front at Spottsylvania CJourt-house, after a long niglit-march by a circuitous route, Warren, whose corps (the Fifth) had moved by a more direct route and reached the position first, had met with a check. He sent to Sedgwick the graud old leader of the Sixth for aid, and the Jersey brigade was sent to his assistauce. After some manoeuvring, the Fif- teenth, with the Third (then little more than a detachment and used as a Bkirmish-Iiae), was selected to make an assault on the enemy and de- velop his position and strength. No charge was ever more gallantly de- livered. With two armies looking on, it advanced across an open field ; when within about three hundred yards of the front of the wood in which the enemy was posted, it fixed bayonets, and with a line of glitter- ing steel as steady as on dress-parade dashed up to the rebel position to find, them strongly intrenched and in full force. As far as rifle-shot could reach, upon each flank they opened upon the devoted little band. Notwithstanding the deadly fire, it drove the enemy out of the work in its front, captured two prisoners, and, to save annihilation, was ordered by its commander to retire. One hundred and one of its brave officers and men were left upon tlie field, killed or wounded. It may be doubted if a more perilous 'forlorn hope' was ever mure daringly executed. The Sixth Corps took position on the left of the line as it was formed, "
its lamented commander falling on the same spot at which one of the
color-bearers of the Fifteenth had but just fallen ; and on the afternoon
of the 9th the regiment was detached, with the Fiist, to turn the right
flank of the enemy and gain possession of a cross-roads. Alter wading a
deep swamp, and having a sharp brush with the rebel skirmishers, tlie
cross-roads was under their guns and they were separated some distance
from the main army. The next morning, being ordered to develop the
flank of the enemy's main line, the two regiments advanced, drove the-
rebel skirmish-line before them for about a mile, aud finally struck the
right of the rebel line, strongly intrenched on the top nf a high hill.
This was the position afterwards known as ' the bloody angle.' The two
regiments attacked vigorously, but were forced back by a heavy mus-
ketry- and artillery- fire. Two more regiments were sent to their assist-
ance, and again they attacked, but with no better success, and they were

* " It was two o'clock in the morning of May 7th when the regiment
came into the new line. It had stood its ground when others fled, and
panic prevailed on either side, and now, determined tn hold its position,
began intrenching at daylight. By ten o'clock a.m. the works were
very strong, and, though the enemy felt tho line in front, and drove in a
part of the skirmish -line, by which three men were wounded and John
Brogan, Company A, killed, no real advantage was guiiied. At dark the
regiment marched by the .Fredericksburg road to Chancellorsville, and
thence to the point where Grant waa now concentrating.*' i-'ojiier's New
Jersey and Ike RebeVion.

compelled to he content with holding the position they had gained in an
unequal contest. The characteristic orders under which they were act-
ing, issued by an able general officer, afterwards killed and sadly missed^

were *Fi"'ht! Fight! ^ it, fight I' Two days later this was found

to be the strongest field-work ever attacked by the army.

"On the afternoon of the same day (the 10th) a series of assaults was organized along the different corps lines. The Second Division of the Second Corps, which had come up by the cross-roads taken as above re- lated, was to make the charge on the extreme ^left, and the two detached regiments reported to and participated in the charge with it. Only one of these assaults was successful (that of the Sixth Corps), and the line of works and many of the prisoners captured by it had to be abandoned, owing to the failure of the attacks to the right and left. That on tlie left beingunsuccessful, and the troops retiring from the hill, left the twi> detached regiments again alone to hold the ground which had cost them a severe struggle. This they did until relieved, after dark, when, re- joining their brigade, they left the positinu to the Second Corps, all of which was concentrated there on the night of the 11th. On the 12th came one of the most stubbornly-contested struggles of "
the war. It was for the possession of ' the bloody angle' which the Fif-
teenth and First had repeatedly attacked two days previously. The first
charge was made by the Second Corps early in the morning, took the
rebels by surprise, carried a part of the line of works, captured several
thousand prisoners and a large number of guns. The Sixth Corps was
moved to the position as soon as practicable, to complete the victory, the
enemy having recovered from the shock and concentrated his fnrces.
The First Division was ordered to attack first, to the right of the Second
Corps, in echelon of brigades, the First Brigade on the right, and the
Fifteenth Kegiment on the extreme right of the front line. It wiid
placed in position in a wood of low pines, by a superior officer, in a
drizzling rain. At the order to charge it dashed gallantly forward with
bayonets fixed, and trailed to escape the low branches, into the narrow
strip of open ground upon the opposite margin of which was the rebi*l
intrenched line, covered with an abattis of slashed brush. Its line being
very oblique to that of the enemy, it was compelled to execute a half-
wheel under a most murderous fire. Again it dashed forward, carried
the work at the point of the bayonet (and with some actual bayonet-
fighting, a very unusual thing), captured a stand of colors and all the
rebels who did not fall or inn. It was the only regiment of the Sixth
Corps which got inside the enemy's fortifications that day. Its right
flank, however, being entirely ' in the air,' and a solid rebel line moving
towards it, subjected to the continued fire from a second rebel work In
front and from the numerous traverses of the line to the°left which had
not been carried, it was compelled to retire again to the wood. This
desperate charge was made at fearful cost. More than half of the rank
and file and seven of the most valued officers fell, killed or wounded, i n-
side or near the hostile works. Out of four hundred and twenty-nine
men and fourteen line-officers who crossed the Bapidan on the 4th, only
one hundred and twenty-two men and four officers remained."!

The losses in the Hunterdon and Somerset com-
panies of the Fifteenth during eleven days succeed-
ing the crossing of the Rapidan that is, up to the
close of its fighting in the vicinity of Spottsylvania
Court-house are given in the sketch of the regiment
from which the above is extracted, as follows :

Capt. C. C. Shimer, killed ; Sergt. Paul Kuhl, killed; Sergt. Lucien A.
Voorhees, killed; Lieut. George C. Justice, killed; Sergt. Willijim
B.Dungan, wounded; Corp. John F. Servis, wounded ; Corp. Jona.
P. Collis, killed ; Corp. Joseph Rankle, wounded; David Allgard,
missing, David Anthony, killed; Jacob Apgar, killed; Jacob Bryan ;.
wounded; William B. Bryan, wounded; John Butler, wounded;
John Burns, wounded; John Brogan, killed; Jacob Beam, wounded
and missing; Geo. S. Beaver, wounded ; Andrew Closson, missing;,
Isaac Dayton, missing; Joseph Dawes, missing; Jos. Everett, killed ;
John Evans, niibsing; William Gulick, wounded; George P. Hen-
derson, killed ; Lewis Higgins, missing ; Wm. L. Higgins, wouniltnl ;
Silas Hockenberry, killed; Lemuel Hockenbury, wounded; Muses
Housel, missing; John W. Henry, wounded and missing; Her-
man Helmhold, killed; Garret Hogan, missing; Henry P. Johnson,.

t From a " HisturicHl Sketch of the Fifteenth lli-jiitneut New Jersey
Volunteers." by a mi nil-er of the regiment.



wouDded; John Moser, wounded; Van Meter P. Hammet, wounded;
Cornelius I. Nevius, killed; William N. Peer, killed; James C.
Palmer, wounded ; John Eouch, wounded ; Geo. Kessler, wounded ;
Bobei-t Sorter, wounded ; Joseph SuUivan, wounded ; Henry G.
Smith, Killed ; Charles Scherer, killed ; Charles E. Smiley, wounded ;
Theodore Stammets, wounded; John Staats, missing; AUram Trau-
ger, wounded ; Peter I. Teabroeck, wounded.


Capt. John H. Tandei-veer, wounded; Sergt. Benj. 0. Scudder, killed;
Sergt. Garret I. Schenck, wounded ; Corp. Daniel Richardson, killed;
Sergt "William C. E. Gulick, killed; Abraham D. Baird, wounded;
Peter S. Bennet, wounded; Nicholas Conover, killed ; Andrew Cran-
ney, missing; Peter Dennis, killed; William K. Dow, wounded;
Francis Hughes, wounded ; John H. Jones, wounded ; James McKen-
sey, killed ; Thomas McConral, wounded ; Benjamin Moulton,
wounded ; John W. Priestley, wounded ; William H. Bose, killed ;
Jeremiah Slack, wounded ; George Thompson, wounded; John L. S.
Van Doren, wounded.

Lieut Henry M. Fowler, wounded ; Sergt. Wm. E. Trimmer, killed ; Sergt.
Jacob J. Lair, wounded ; Sergt. Wm. M. Thompson, killed ; Sergt.
Jacob F. Thatcher, wounded ; Corp. John Bocock, wounded; Corp.
John Garren, missing ; William Ashcroft, wounded; Nathan Culver,
wounded ; George Haney, missing ; Cornelius King, missing ; Simeon
G. Peddrick, missing; John Eeisinger, wounded; John M. Smith,
killed ; Levi Stull, killed ; William H. Wyckoff, wounded ; George
D. Wagoner, wounded ; James C. Myers, wounded.

Moving southward from Spottsylvania, in the flank
movement to Petersburg, the regiment again became
engaged at the North and South Anna Rivers, at
Hanover Court-house, at Tolopotomy, and at Cold
Harbor ; on which last-named field, in a charge made
on the 1st of June by the Sixth Corps, the Fifteenth
sustained a loss of twenty-five. " In the charge," says
Foster, " the Fifteenth and Tenth Regiments reached
a position on a hillock, which they held when the line
was broken on either side of them, and which they
began to intrench upon at sundown. On this little
hillock they remained for the greater part of the next
ten days, and from it many never came alive. The
firing from the enemy was almost constant, and when-
ever a man raised his head above the surface he was
almost certain to be struck. The men, in fact, were
obliged to burrow in the ground, and communication
was kept up with the rear through a long ditch, dug
to hide those passing from the sight of the enemy.
The dust, the great heat, the confined space, and the
dead bodies buried just under the surface, soon ren-
dered the place most oflensive. Day after day passed,
line after line of works were constructed, the number
of dead and wounded increased, but still the regiment
was not taken from this horrible place, till, on the
night of the 12th, it marched for the James River."
Crossing that stream, it reached the exterior defenses
of Petersburg on the 19th of June, and remained on
that line until the 9th of July, when it was embarked
on steamers and sailed for Washington, and moved
thence to join Sheridan's army in the Shenandoah

In the campaign which succeeded the arrival of the
Fifteenth in the valley the regiment took conspicuous
part and fully sustained its reputation. It fought at
Strasburg on the 15th of August and at Winchester

on the 17th, losing seventy men in the two engage-
ments. Again, at Opequan, near Winchester, on th^
19th of September, it sufiered a loss of about fifty
men killed and wounded. On the 21st it was en-
gaged in heavy skirmishing, and lost seventeen in
killed and wounded. It displayed great gallantry at
the battle of Fisher's Hill, Va., on the 22d, and took
part in the pursuit of the flying enemy to Staunton.

On the 19th of October, at Cedar Creek, the
famous battle-fleld to which Sheridan rode on hia
black charger " from Winchester, twenty miles away,"
afteu parts of the Eighth and Nineteenth Corps had
been surprised and routed, " the Sixth Corps moved
rapidly by a flank across the track of their advance,,
and the Jersey brigade occupied the most advanced
and difficult position, holding it firmly under severe
fire. Once it was ordered back to the general align-
ment, but, its former place being considered a key po-
sition, it was ordered to retake it, which it did, and
held it tenaciously and successfully until again ordered
to retire, with the whole corps, to the new line selected
for strategic reasons (the first having been assumed in
the haste and confusion of the morning)." In this,
action the color-guard were all killed except three,
the commanding oflScer, Col. Campbell, was wounded,,
and Maj. Lambert Boeman, of Flemington, previously
of the Fifteenth, but then in command of the Tenth
New Jersey, was killed.

Cedar Creek was the last field on which the Fifteenth
fought in the Shenandoah valley. On the 1st of De-
cember it moved with the Sixth Corps to rejoin the
Army of the Potomac before Petersburg, and remained
there till the following spring. It was never again
heavily engaged, though it took part in the final as-
sault on the enemy's works on the 2d of April, 1865,
sustaining trifiing loss. When the Rebellion was
ended by the surrender of Lee at Appomattox the-
Fifteenth was sent to Danville, Va., where it re-
mained five or six weeks, and in the latter part of
May was transported, by way of Washington, to-
Trenton, where it was disbanded, and the surviving
members returned to their homes.

The official list of actions of greater or less import-
ance in which the Fifteenth was engaged during the
war is recorded in the office of the adjutant-general
of the State as follows : Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13-
and 14, 1862 ; Fredericksburg, Va., May 3, 1863 ; Sa-
lem Heights, Va., May 3 and 4, 1863; Franklin's
Crossing, Va., June 6 to 14, 1863 ; Gettysburg, Pa.,
July 2 and 3, 1863; Fairfield, Pa., July 5, 1863;
Funktown, Md., July 10, 1863 ; Rappahannock Sta-
tion, Va., Oct. 12, 1863; Rappahannock Station, Va.,
Nov. 7, 1863 ; Mine Run, Va., Nov. 30, 1863 ; Wil-
derness, Va., May 5 to 7, 1864; Spottsylvania, Va.,
May 8 to 11, 1864; Spottsylvania Court-house, Va.,
May 12 to 16, 1864; North and South Anna River,
May 24, 1864; Hanover Court-house, Va., May 29,
1864; Tolopotomy Creek, Va., May 30 and 31, 1864;
Cold Harbor, Va., June 1 to 11, 1864 ; before Peters-



burg, Va., June 16 to 22, 1864; Weldon Railroad,
Ya., June 23, 1864 ; Snicker's Gap, Va., July 18, 1864;
Strasburg, Va., Aug. 15, 1864; Winchester, Va., Aug.
17, 1864; Charlestown, Va., Aug. 21, 1864; Opequan,
Va., Sept. 19, 1864 ; Fisher's Hill, Va., Sept. 21 and
22, 1864; New Market, Va., Sept. 24, 1864; Mount
Jackson, Va., Sept. 25, 1864; Cedar Creek and Mid-
dletown, Va., Oct. 19, 1864; Hatcher's Eun, Va.,-
Feb. 5, 1865 ; Fort Steedman, Va., March 25, 1865 ;
capture of Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865; Sailor's
Creek, Va., April 6, 1865 ; Farmville, Va., April 7,
1865; Lee's surrender (Appomattox, Va.), April 9,

The number of deaths which occurred in the regi-
ment during its term of service was as follows : From
disease, ninety-nine ; from wounds received in battle,
two hundred and forty-seven ; from starvation and
other causes, in rebel prisons, fifteen.

Through all its war experience the Fifteenth Regi-
ment always did its duty. " No regiment fought
with more tenacious courage or presented a more
unbroken front to the foe. Where the fire was hot-
test, the charge most impetuous, the resistance most
stubborn, the carnage most fearful, it was found. It
was never ordered to take a position that it did not
reach it; it was never required to hold a post that it
did not hold it ; it never assaulted a line of the enemy
that it did not drive it ; it never charged a rebel work
that it did not breach it. Whatever might be the
general result, the Fifteenth New Jersey Regiment
always performed the part assigned it."




Lambert Boeman, captain ; com. Aug. 15, 1862; pro. to major May 24,
1863 ; killed at Cedar Creek, Va., Oct. 19, 1864.

ComeliuB C. Shimer, captain ; com. Aug 28, 1863 ; first lieutenant Co. I
Aug. 15, 1862 ; pro. to captain Co. A ; killed in action at Spottsyl-
vania Court-houBe, Va., May 12, 1864; buried on battle-field.

Ebenezer W. Davis, captain; com. July 3, 1864; first lieutenant Co. I
Nov. 4, 1863; pro. to captain Co. A; pro. to brevet-major Oct, 19,
1864; pro. tu major Jan. 31, 1865.

Henry M. Fuwler, ca4)tain ; com. Jan. 31, 1865 ; second lieutenant Co. G
Jan. 19, 1863; pro. to captain Co. A, vUx Davis; must, out June 22,

Tbomas P. Stout, first lieutenant; com. Aug. 15, 1862; pro. to captain
Co. F April 7, 1863.

Samuel R. Connett, first lieutenant ; com. April 7, 1863 ; second lieuten-
ant Co. C Aug. 12, 1862; pro. to first lieutenant Co. A; resigned
Jnne 20, 1863.

George C. Justice, first lieutenant; com. July 27, 1863; first sergeant
July 24, 1862; pro. to second lieutenant March 18, 1863; pro. to
second lieutenant, vice Connett; killed at Spottsjlvania Court-house,
Va., May 12, 1864; buried at National Cemetery Fredericksburg, Va.

James H. Comings, first lieutenant; com. July 3, 1864; sergeant Co. I;
pro. to first lieutenant, vice Justice, killed ; pro. to captain Co. C
Dec. 31,1804.

Horace E. Lewis, first lieutenant; com. Feb. 9, 1805; private Co. A,
Second Regiment; pro. to first lieutenant, vi<x Comings; brevet-cap-
tain April 2, 1805; must, out June 22, 1805.

John R. Emei-y, second lieutenant; com. Aug. 15, 1802; disch. for dis-
aliilily Veh. 23, 1803.

James Donnelly, second lieutenant; com. July 3, 1864; sergeant Co, H;

pro. to second lieutenant, rice Emery; ninsl. out June 22, 1805.
James J. Bullock, first sergeant; enl. Aug. 4, 1802; pro. from corporal
May 29, 1804; pro. to first lieutenant Co. I July 3, 1864.

Manuel Kline, first sergeant; enl. July 29,1862; pro. from sergeant July

28, 1804; pro. to second lieutenant Co. H Sept. 10, 1864, B. Dungan, first sergeant ; enl. July 25, 1802 ; pro. from sergeant

Feb. 1,1865; must out June 22, 1865.
Paul Kuhl, first sergeant; enl. Aug. 5, 1862; pro. to first sergeant April
22, 1863; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house, Va,, May 12, 1804;
buried at National Cemetery, Fredericksburg,

Wilson H, Snyder, sergeant; enl, Aug. 9,1862; pro. from corporal to
sergeant Feb, 1, 1805 ; must, out June 22, 1865.

John F. Servis, sergeant; enl. ,Tuly 30, 1802; pro, to sergeant Feb. 4,
1805 ; must, out June 22, 1865.

Levi Runyon, sergeant; enl, Aug. 7, 1862; pro. from corporal April 22,
1863 ; disch. by order from War Department May 3, 1805,

William H, Sloan, sergeant ; enl. July 23, 1862 ; disch. for disability Jan.
3,1863: appointed second lieutenant Co, K, Thirty-first Regiment,
United States Colored Troops, Feb, 18, 1865,

Andrew F. Henry, sergeant; enl. Aug. 2, 1862; pro. from corporal March
1, 1806; trans, to Co, G, Second Regiment, June 21, 1865,

David E, Hicks, color-sergeant; enl, Aug. 5, 1802; killed at Salem
Heights, Va., May 3, 1863,

Lncien A, Yooi hees, sergeant ; enl. July 29, 1862 ; killed at Spottsylva-
nia Court-house May 8, 1864.

Charles R. Jackson, sergeant; enl, April 19,1861; trans, from Co, A,
Third Regiment; died July 31, 1804, of wounds received at Spottsyl-
vania Court-house May 8, 1864 ; buried at Philadelphia, Pa.

William T. Barber, corporal ; enl. Aug, 6, 1862 ; pro, from private Sept,
22, 1862 ; disch, for disability May 3, 1865.

Garret Hogan,- corporal ; enl. July 29, 1862 ; pro. from private Feb, 1,
1805 ; must, out June 22, 1 866,

Joseph E, Sullivan, corporal; enl, July 24, 1862; pro. from private
March 1, 1866 : must, out June 22, 1S65.

George S. Beavers, coi-poral ; enl. Aug, 8, 1802 ; pro. from private March
1, 1666; must, out June 22, 1806.

Abraham Tranger, corporal ; enl. Aug. 9, 1862 ; pro. from private March
1, 1805 ; must, out June 22, 1866,

James C, Palmer, corporal ; enl. Aug. 9, 1862 ; pro, from private April 1,
1806 ; must, out June 22, 1866.

John A. Kutter, corporal ; enl, Aug, 7, 1862; disch. Sept, 28, 1863, on ac-
count of wounds received Ma3' 3, 1863.

John P, Collins, corporal; enl. Aug, 11, 1862; pro. from private May 30,
1863; disch, for disability May 30, 1865.

Albert G, Reading, corporal; enl, Aug. 9, 1862; trans, to Veteran Re-
serve Corps March 27, 1804; disch. for disability June 1, 1804.

William P. Bryan, corporal ; enl. Feb, 29, 1804; pro, from private Feb. 1,
1866 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment, June 21, 1806.

Warren N. Dunham, corporal; enl. Aug. 4, 1862; killed at Salem
Heights, Va., May 3,1863.

Joseph G. Ruukle, corporal ; enl, Aug, 1, 1862 ; died in hospital at W.ish-
ington, D. C, Jnne 7, 1804, of wounds received at Spottsylvania
Court-house, Va., May 12, 1864.

Thomas R. Gregory, musician, enl. Aug, 1, 1862 ; must, out June 22,1865.

John W, Parrish, musician, enl, Aug, 9, 1862; must, out June 22, 1866.

Wm. B, Clayton, musician, enl, July 26, 1862 ; disch, S, 0. War Dept,
Feb, 7, 1864,


Jacob D. Abrams, enl, March 24, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment.

David Algard, enl, Aug, 4, 1862; killed at Spottsylvania Va,, May 8,

David Anthony, enl. Aug. 9, 1802; died in hospital May 13, 1804, of
wounds received at Spottsylvania Court-house, May 12, 1804.

Jacob D. Apgar, enl. July 31, 1862 ; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house,
Va,, May 12, 1864.

James H, Apgar, enl. July 22,1862; died in hospital, Washington, D, C,
May 20, 1803, of wounds received at Salem Heights, Va., May 3,
1863; buried in the Military Asylom Cemetei-y, District of Columbia.

William H. Agin, enl. July 22, 1802,

John Baker, enl. Sept. 16, 1804 ; trans, to Co. I, Fifteenth Regiment.

Thomas Banfield, enl. March 23, 1866 ; trans, to Co, G, Second Begiment,
June 21, 1868.

Charies Banks, enl, March 21, 1866; trans, to Company G, Second Regi-
ment, June 21, 1806.

George W. Barton, enl, July 26,1802; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps,
Feb, 2, 1865; disch, July 24, 1865.

Charles Baxter, enl. March 23, 1805; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment,
June 21, 1866,

Theodore B, Bellis, enl. July 28, 1802; must, out June 22, 1805.



Jacob Beam, enl. Jan. 20, 1864 ; killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 8, 1804.
Christian Bischoff, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Regi-
ment, June 21, 1866.
Louis Blanc, enl. March 25, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment, June

21, 1865.
Benjamin Booth, enl. Dec. 31, 1863 ; trans, to Co. C, Fifteenth Regiment.
Jonathan B. Bowman, enl. Jan. 4, 1864; ; trans, to Co. D, Fifteenth Regt.
William Broadwater, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regi-
ment, June 21, 1865.
William Brown, enl. April 12, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
Charles Brown, enL Jan. 27, 1865 ; discb. from hospital, Washington,

r. C, May 3, 1865, for disability.
William Brown, enl. Sept 30, 1864 ; trans, from Co. K ; must, out June

22, 1865.
John Brogan, enl. Aug. 10, 1862 ; killed in action at Wilderness, Va.,

May 7, 1864.
William W. Briggs, enl. Aug. 7, 1 862 ; disoh. for disability Jan. 3, 1863. I
John Bums, enl. July 28, 1862 ; discb. on account of wounds June 16,

Jacob F. Bryan, enl. Aug. 9, 1862 ; died in hospital, Winchester, Ya.,

Sept. 19, 1864, of wounds received in action.
John Bulmer, enl. Aug. 8, 1862; disoh. at Trenton, N. J., May 3, 1865.
John Butler, Jr., enl. Aug. 8, 1862 ; must, out June 22, 1865.
John Butler, Sr., enl. Jnly 26, 1862 ; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps

Sept. 3, 1863 ; discb. June 30, 1865.
WQliam Butt, enl. Mar. 24, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Regiment, June

21, 1865.
David Cantrell. enl. Dec. 15, 1863 ; trans, to Co. I, Fifteenth Regiment.
Hugh Carey, enl. March 25, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
Samuel Case, enl. July 30, 1862 ; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps, July

31, 1864; discb. June 27, 1865.
Michael Cash, enl. March 25, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
Adam Campbell, enl. March 26, 1865 ; died in hospital near Fortress

Monroe, Va., June 18, 1866.
Isaac Cathrell, enl. July 28, 1862 ; died in hospital, Philadelphia, Pa.,

July 13, 1863, of wounds received at Gettysburg July 3, 1863.
Robert Chester, enl. March 21, 1866 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1866.
William D. Clark, enl. Aug. 6, 1862; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps

Nov. 15, 1863 ; discb. July 6, 1865.
Andrew C. Olawson, enl. July 30, 1862 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1866.
Alfred Collins, enl. Feb. 24,1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Regiment, June

21, 1865.
John Corcoran, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
Nabnm Cregur, enl. Aug. 9, 1862; disch. from hospital, Philadelphia,

Pa., May 3, 1865.
Joseph S. Daws, enl. Sept. 3,1862; died at Spottsylvania, Va., May 19,

Daniel G. Dayton, enl. Aug. 8, 1862 ; died of fever at White Oak Church,

Va.,Jan. 17, 1863.
Isaac Dayton, enl. July 27, 1862 ; missing in action at Spottsylvania May

8, 1864 ; recorded at War Department as died that date.
James Dayton, enl. July 27, 1862 ; died of fever in Virginia Feb. 27, 1863.
J.ihn J. Dewitt, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1866.
John Dobleman, enl. March 25, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
Joseph Droll, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment,

June 2i; 1865.
Henry Dybert, enl. March 21, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
Isaac N. Danbury, enl. Aug. 8, 1862 ; disch. for disability April 20, 1865.
James Edwards, enl. March 22, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
Herman Ebrismann, enl. March 25, 1866 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regi-
ment, June 21, 1866.
John Evans, enl. Feb. 24, 1864; missing in action May 12, 1864; sup-
posed dead.
James Everett, enl. July 28, 1862 ; died of fever at White Oak Church,

Va., Feb. 10, 1863.
Joseph C. Eveiett, enl. Jan. 5, 1804 ; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house,
Va., May 12, 1864.

Peter B. Frey, enl. July 28, 1862 ; wounded, and missing at Salem Heights

May 3, 1863 ; supposed dead.
Thomas Force, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
John S. Green, enl. Aug. 6, 1862 ; must, out June 22, 1866.
Mahlon Green, enl. Sept. 5, 1864 ; trans, to Co. K, Fifteenth Regiment.
Henry Goodwin, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
William Gnlick, enl. Feb. 26, 1864; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
Martin V. Grasaman, enl. Aug. 11, 1862 ; died of disease at hospital in

Virginia May 4, 1803.
Evin J. Green, enl. Aug. 6, 1862 ; died of disease in hospital at Ports-
month Grove, R. I., May 14, 1864; buried at Sergeantsville, N. J.
Charles Garmo, enl. Aug. 11, 1862.
Isaiah Hassell, enl. July 28, 1862 ; died at Tennallytown, D. C, Oct. 28,

Van Meter P. Hammitt, enl. Nov. 12, 1863 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Regi-
ment. June 21, 1865.
Peter Harman, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Begimentr

June 21, 1865.
Michael Harrington, enl. Sept, 13, 1864 ; trans, to Co. B, Fifteenth Regt.
John Harris, enl. Aug. 26, 1864; trans, to Co. F, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
Abraham Hendershot, enl. Dec. 17, 1863 ; trans, to Co. D, Fifteenth Regt.
Charles Henzerling, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Regi-
ment, June 21, 1865.
Herman Heimbold, enl. Aug. 6, 1862; killed at Spottsylvania Court-
house, Va., May 12, 1864.
Philip I. Hendershot, enl. Aug. 8, 1862 ; died of fever in Virginia Feb.

9, 1863.
George B. Henderson, enl. Aug. 9. 1862; died in rebel prison Richmond,

Aug. 29, 1864.
John W. Henry, enl. Aug. 5, 1862; missing in action May 8, 1864; sup-
posed dead.
Lewis Higgins, enl. Aug. 6, 1862; missing in action May 12, 1864; re-
corded in War Department as having died that date.
Charles A. Heath, enl. Aug. 9, 1862 ; disch. for disability March 23, 186S.
David D. Hendershot, enl. July 23,1862; disch. for disability Jan. 18,

William L. Higgins, enl. Aug. 9, 1862; must, out June 22, 1865.
Moses G. Housel, enl. Aug. 9, 1862 ; disch. at Annapolis, Md., May 4,

James Hoffman, enl. Aug. 8, 1862 ; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps ;

disch. June 4, 1866.
John Hopkins, enl. Nov. 19, 1863; trans, to Co. D, Fifteenth Regiment.
Elijah W. Horn, enl. Aug. 7, 1862 ; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps ;

disch. July 10, 1865.
Eli Howarth, enl. Sept. 27, 1864 ; trans, to Co. K, Fifteenth Regiment.
Lemuel Hockenbury, enl. Aug. 6, 1862 ; died in hospital May 20, 18&1,

of wounds received at Spottsylvania May 12, 1864.
Silas N. Hockenbury, enl. Aug. 9, 1862 ; killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May

12, 1864.
James Hurley, enL July 26, 1862 ; died of fever at Washington Jan. 4,

1863 ; burled in Military As.ylum Cemetery, D. 0.
David P. Ingle, enl. Jan. 4, 1864 ; trans, to Co. C, Fifteenth Regiment.
Alfred B. Jackson, enl. Jan. 2, 1804 ; trans, to Co. D, Fifteenth Regiment.
Abraham Johnson, Jr., enl. Nov. 19, 1863 ; trans, to Co. D, Fifteenth

Bernard Johnson, enl. Dec. 31, 1863 ; trans, to Co. D, Fifteenth Regiment.
Joseph Johnson, enl. Sept. 5, 1864 ; trans, to Co. K, Fifteenth Regiment.
Henry P. Johnson, enl. Aug. 7, 1862; disch. at Trenton, N. J., May 3,

William B. Jackson, enl. Aug. 2, 1862; was never mustered in with

Solomon Rise, enl. Aug. 7, 1862 ; disch. for disability Dec. 19, 1863.
Simon N. R. Keesler, enl. April 20, 1864; trans, to Veteran Reserve

Corps ; discb. June 17, 1866.
Joseph M. Krewaon , enl. Sept. 6, 1864 ; trans, to Co. B, Fifteenth Regt.
Ferdinand Kuhn, enl. March 23, 1866 ; trans, fcj Co. F, Second Regiment,

June 21, 1865.
Joseph Langdon, enl. Dec. 14, 1863 ; trans, to Co. I, Fifteenth Regiment.
Abraham Latourette, enl. Aug. 8, 1862 ; traus. to First Cavalry Regiment

Sept. 4, 1862.
Ferdinand Margraff, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Regi-
ment, June 21, 1866.
Thomas McGarvey, enl. Dec. 19, 1863 ; trans, to Co. D, Fifteenth Regt.



Philip McNulty, enl. Mirch 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. T, Second Eegiment,

June 21, 1865.
Patricll Mullen, enl. Nov. 19, 1863 ; trans, to Co. B, Fifteenth Eegiment.
Jauiea Madison, enl. Aug. 6, 1862 ; disch. for disability July 28, 1863.
John Moser, enl. Feb. 24, 1864 ; disch. on account of wounds June 7, 1865.
John Miller, enl. Sept. 27, 1864.

Cornelius J. Nevius, enl. Aug. 1 1, 1862 ; killed at Spottsylvania Court-
house May 12, 1864.
Peter J. Nevius, enl. Aug. 11, 1862; died of fever at White Oak Church,

Va., Jan. 2, 1863.
William Olbon, enl. Sept. 27, 1864; trans, to Co. K, Fifteenth Eegiment.
William N. Peer, enl. Aug. 1, 1862 ; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house

May 12, 1864.
Henry Quartz, enl. March 23, 1865; trans, to Co. F, Second Eegiment,

June 21, 1865.
Michafil Eay, enl. Jan. 26, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Eegiment.
John Beading, enl. July 24, 1862 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 15, 1864.
John Bedding, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Eegiment,

June 21, 1865.
Peter M. Kyberg, enl. March 23, 1865; trans, to Co. G, Second Eegiment,

June 21, 1865.
John Eouch, enl. Feb. 24, 1864.
Charles Scheerer, enl. Dec. 21, 1863 ; killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 8,

Samuel Servis, enl. July 24, 1862 ; must, out June 22, 1866.
John Slater, enl. July 25, 1862 ; died suddenly in his tent, near Brandy

Station, Va., March 30, 1864.
Henry 0. Smith, enl. Aug. 5, 1862 ; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house,

May 12, 1864.
Charles B. Smiley, enl. Feb. 24, 1864 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Begiment.
Lewis Snyder, enl. Aug. 9, 1862 ; disch. from hospital at Philadelphia,

May 3, 1866.
Eobert S. Sorter, enl. Aug. 15, 1862 ; died in hospital at Winchester, Va.,

Oct. 9, 1864, of wounds received at Opequan, Va., Sept. 19, 1864.
Alfred Somers, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Eegiment,

June 21, 1865.
Joseph Storey, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Eegiment,

June 21, 1865.
Frederick Strasburger, enl. March 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Eeg-
iment, June 21, 1865.
Theodore Stryker, enl. Aug 11, 1862 ; trans, to Veteran Eeserve Corps ;

disch. for disability Nov. 26, 1864.
Charles Stewart, enl. Dec. 16, 1863 ; trans, to Co. I, Fifteenth Eegiment.
August Stuter, enl. March 23, 1866 ; disch, from hospital by order of the

War Department May 3, 1865.
John C. Staats, enl. Jan. 4, 1864 ; died at AndersonvUle Prison Sept. 17,

1864; buried in National Cemetery, Andersonville, Ga.
Tbeodore Stamets, enl. Feb. 24, 1864 ; missing at battle of Wilderness ;

supposed dead.
Andrew 0. Starker, enl. Aug. 9, 1862; died from fever at Washington,

D. C, Nov. 29, 1863.
Stephen Starker, enl. Aug. 9, 1862 ; died at Andersonville prison Sept. 13,

1864; buried in National Cemetery, Andersonville, Ga.
Charles H. Stanley, enl. May 12, 1864.

George Sutton, enl. Sept. 6, 1864 ; trans, to Co. D, Fifteenth Eegiment.
Peter J. Ten Broeck, enl. Aug. 9, 1862 ; must, out June 30, 1865.
George C. Van Camp, enl. July 30, 1862 ; must, out June 22, 1865.
John Van Btten, enl. Jan. 2, 1864 ; trans, to Co. C, Fifteenth Eegiment.
AbramVan Fleet, enl. Aug. 1,1862; trans, to Veteran Eeserve Corps

Sept. 7, 1863; re-enl. Aug. 24, 1864; disch. Nov. 20, 1865.
Eufus West, enl. March 21, 1865; trans, to Co. G, Second Eegiment,

June 21, 1866.
Benjamin F. Wean, enl. July 22, 1862 ; must, out Juue 22, 1865.
Micbael Welch, enl. Aug. 9, 1862 ; must, out June 22, 1865.
John M. White, enl. Feb. 24, 1864; must, out June 20, 1865.
Charles White, enl. March 20, 1866 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Eegiment,

June 21, 1865.
Alex. Whitford, enl. Feb. 23, 1865 ; trans, to Co. F, Second Eegiment,

June 21, 1866.
Frank Winkler, enl. March 22, 1866 ; trana. to Co. F, Second Eegiment,

June 21, 1865.
Watson Wintermute, enl. Feb. 29, 1864; trans, to Co. D, Fifteenth Eegi-
Augustus Whitney, enl. Jan. 2, 1864; died of wounds June 14, 1864.
Daniel Woodruff, enl. July 28, 1862 ; missing in action Sept. 19, 1864 ;

recorded at War Department as died that date.
Benjamin S. Wolverton, enl. July 22, 1862 j must, out June 22, 1865.

John H. Wyckoff, enl. Aug. 9, 1862; died of fever in Virginia March 9,

John York, enl. Aug. 11 , 1862 ; disch. for disability March 23, 1863.
William Young, enl. March 22, 1865 ; trans, to Co. G, Second Regiment,

Juue 21, 1865.
Wm. H. Young, enl. Aug. 5, 1862 ; missing at White Oak Cburch, Va.
Frederick Zwiokey, enl. March 21, 1865 ; must, out June 19, 1865.


.John H. Vanderveer, captain ; com. Aug. 15, 1862 ; res. July 19, 1864,

by reason of wounds received in action.
Charles R. Paul, captain; com. Aug. 19, 1864; trans, to Co. C, Second
Begiment, June 22, 1865; brevet-major Oct. 19, 1864 ; brevet-lienten-
aot-colonel April 2, 1866.
Stephen H. Bogardus, first lieutenant ; com. Aug. 16, 1862 ; res. Feb. 5,

Ellis Hamilton, first lieutenant ; com. Feb. 5, 1863 ; pro. captain Co. F

Not. 4, 1863.
Elias B. Nichols, first lieutenant; com. July 3, 1864; res. Jan. 21, 1865.
James W. MuUery, first lieutenant ; com. Feb. 9, 1865 ; trans, to Co. D,

Second Eegiment.
Ebenezer W. Davis, second lieutenant ; com. March 18, 1863 ; pro. to first

lieutenant Co. I.
Jacob J. Lair, second lieutenant; com. Sept. 10, 1864; pro. from first

sergeant Co. G ; must, out June 22, 1865.
James Van Antwerp, first sergeant; enl. Aug. 6, 1862; pro. to second

lieutenant Co. F.
William H. DoUiver, first sergeant ; enl. Aug, 11, 1862 ; must, out June

22, 1865.
Joseph Vanderveer, first sergeant ; enl. Aug. 4, 1862 ; died of fever March

12, 1863.
Tunis D. Johnson, first sergeant ; enl. Aug. 6, 1862 ; died of wounds Nov.

19, 1864.
Simon W. Nevius, sergeant ; enl. Aug. 2, 1862 ; died of wounds May 19,

Benjamin Scudder, sergeant ; enl. Aug. 7, 1862 ; killed at Spottsylvania

May 8,